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to illustrating periodicals and other works of got over the difficulty by running their tunnel popular literature. The son of a water-colour under the house, which their engineer supported draughtsman and caricaturist, he had an hereditary on huge posts of timber during the process, thus claim to some artistic gifts, the humorous turn of dispensing with its removal. To the north of this which he began to develop at a very early age. tavern much of the land facing Eden Street was Among Mr. Cruikshank's best-known etchings are not built upon down to about the year 1860. those in “Sketches by Boz,” “Oliver Twist," Here were large waterworks and a reservoir, “ Jack Sheppard,” “The Tower of London," sheltered by a grove of trees. The site is now “ Windsor Castle,” &c. In 1842 appeared the covered by Tolmer's Square, a small square, the first number of “Cruikshank's Omnibus,” the letter- centre of which is occupied by a handsome Gothic press of which was edited by Leman Blanchard. Nonconformist chapel, with a tall spire. From the first this artist had shown a strong vein Drummond Street, the next turning northward, of virtuous reproof in his treatment of intoxica- extends along by the principal front of Euston tion and its accompanying vices : some instances Square Railway Terminus. This street crosses of this tendency are to be found in his “Sunday George Street, which forms a direct line of comin London," “ The Gin Juggernaut,” “The Gin munication from Gower Street to the Hampstead Trap," and more especially in his series of eight Road. Between George Street and Cardington prints entitled “The Bottle.” These also brought Street is St. James's Church, formerly a chapel of the artist into direct personal connection with the ease to the mother church of St. James's, Piccaleaders of the temperance movement. He more- dilly. It is a large brick building, and has a over, himself became a convert to their doctrines, large, dreary, and ill-kept burial-ground attached to and was for many years one of the ablest advo- it. Here lie George Morland, the painter, who cates of the temperance cause. Late in life Mr. died in 1804; John Hoppner, the portrait-painter, Cruikshank turned his attention to oil-painting, who died in 1810; Admiral Lord Gardner, the and contributed to the exhibitions of the Royal hero of Port l'Orient, and the friend of Howe, Academy and the British Institution; among his Bridport, and Nelson ; and, without a memorial, latest productions in oil is a large picture called Lord George Gordon, the mad leader of the Anti“ The Worship of Bacchus," which was exhibited Catholic Riots in 1780, who died a prisoner in to the Queen at Windsor Castle in 1863. The Newgate in 1793, having become a Jew before whole of Mr. Cruikshank's etchings, extending his death! One of the best-known vicars of this over a period of more than seventy years, and church was the Rev. Henry Stebbing, author of the illustrating the fashions, tastes, follies, and frivolities “History of the Reformation,” “History of the of four reigns, including the Regency, were pur- Christian Church,” “History of Chivalry and the chased, in 1876, by the managers of the Royal Crusades,” and “ Lives of the Italian Poets." He Aquarium, at Westminster, and were placed in died in 1883. Close by are the St. Pancras Female their picture-gallery. Mr. Cruikshank's talents Charity School and the Temperance Hospital. were not confined merely to painting or etching, It may interest some of our readers who do not but he possessed no little dramatic taste, and often advocate strict temperance principles to hear that took part in amateur performances at the public the celebrated article now called “Old Tom " or theatres for benevolent purposes. He died in 1878. “Jackey” was originally distilled at Carre's Brewery

We must now retrace our steps to the Euston (formerly Deady and Hanley's distillery), in the Road, in order to deal with the east side of the Hampstead Road. Hampstead Road. The "Old King's Head," at the We are now once more upon Russell property, corner opposite to the “ Adam and Eve," has long as is testified by the names of several of the streets presented an awkward break in the uniform width and squares round about ; indeed, a considerable of the Euston Road, by projecting some feet part of the district is called Bedford New Town. beyond its neighbours, and so narrowing the Ampthill Square, which we have now reached, thoroughfare. At the time of the formation of and which is in reality not a square, but a triangle, the “ Underground Railway" it was considered is so named after Ampthill Park, in Bedfordshire, that there was at last a chance of its removal. formerly the seat of the Earls of Upper Ossory, but Such, however, was not the case ; for the owner afterwards the property of the ducal house of Bednot being satisfied with the amount of compen- ford, to whom the land about this part belongs. sation which was offered by the railway company, The south-west corner of the square is crossed by who, by the way, offered to rebuild the house, but a deep cutting, through which passes the Northsetting it at the same time farther back, the latter Western Railway, spanned by a level bridge. At

Camden Town.]

STATUE OF RICHARD COBDEN.

309

his residence in this square, died, in September, Clarence, it is said, used to show his partiality for 1874, at a good old age, Henry West Betty, better the boy, by driving him home from the theatre in known as the “ infant Roscius," more than seventy his own private royal carriage-a thing in itself years after he had first appeared on the boards, enough to turn a boy's head. The mania for the under Rich, at Covent Garden, and had “taken “young Roscius" is one of the earlier “Remithe town by storm." He was born on the 13th niscences” of the veteran Mr. Planché; and an of September, 1791, and having made his début account of him will be found in Timbs' “ English before a provincial audience at Belfast, he first Eccentrics." appeared as a “star" at Covent Garden, December Harrington Square—which, however, is a square 1, 1803, as “Selim," in Barbarossa. He is said to in name alone, seeing that it faces only two sides have cleared in his first season upwards of £17,000. of a triangular plot of ground, facing Mornington When quite young he retired and left the stage, Crescent-adjoins Ampthill Square on the north, but afterwards, being induced to come back, he and ends close to the corner of the High Street, was unsuccessful, and found that the public taste Camden Town. It is so called after the Earl of is a fickle jade. He was a great favourite with Harrington, one of whose daughters married the many ladies of fashion and title, and the Duke of seventh Duke of Bedford.

CHAPTER XXIV.
CAMDEN TOWN AND KENTISH TOWN.

“Vix rure urbem dignoscere possis." Camden Town-Statue of Richard Cobden-Oakley Square-The "Bedford Arms"- The Royal Park Theatre-The "Mother Red Cap"-The

“Mother Shipton "—The Alderney Dairy-The Grand Junction Canal-Bayham Street, and its Former Inhabitants-Camden RoadCamden Town Railway Station - The Tailors' Almshouses-St. Pancras Almshouses-Maitland Park-The Orphan Working SchoolThe Dominican Monastery-Gospel Oak-St. Martin's Church-Kentish Town: its Buildings and its Residents-Great College Street - The Royal Veterinary College-Pratt Street-St. Stephen's Church-Sir Henry Bishop-Agar Town.

Junction Canal–Bayham Stree, and its Former Inhabitanter Red. Cap

ritannia

Charlehe reign vendors lets in the si

CAMDEN Town, says Mr. Peter Cunningham, , on a par with the other business parts of London ; “was so called (but indirectly) after William Cam- and on Saturday evenings the upper part of the den, author of the Britannia. Charles Pratt, street, thronged as it is with stalls of itinerant Attorney-General and Lord Chancellor in the reign vendors of the necessaries of daily life, and with of George III., created, in 1765, Baron Camden of the dwellers in the surrounding districts, presents Camden Place, in Kent, derived his title from his to an ordinary spectator all the attributes of a seat at Chislehurst, in Kent, formerly the resi- market place. dence of William Camden, the historian. His At the lower end of High Street, facing Eversholt lordship, who died in 1794, married the daughter Street, is a marble statue of Richard Cobden, and co-heir of Nicholas Jeffreys, Esq., son and heir which was erected by subscription in the year of Sir Geoffery Jeffreys, of Brecknock; and his 1863. The statue, which stands in a conspicuous lordship's eldest son was created, in 1812, Earl of position, is rather above life-size, and is placed Brecknock and Marquis Camden. Lord Camden's upon a granite pedestal of two stages, about twelve second title was Viscount Bayham; and all these feet high, the plinth of which is simply inscribed names, Pratt, Jeffreys, Brecknock, and Bayham, “Cobden. The Corn-Laws Repealed, June, 1846." may be found in Camden Town.”

The great politician is represented in a standing Camden Town, we may here remark, was com attitude, as if delivering an address in the House menced towards the close of the last century, Lord of Commons. He is attired in the ordinary dress Camden having, in the year 1791, let out the ground of a gentleman of the present day, and holds in on leases for building 1,400 houses. The houses one hand a Parliamentary roll. The sculptor's in Camden Road and Square have perhaps the name was Wills. Born at Dunford, in Sussex, most aristocratic appearance of any in the district. in the year 1804, Cobden was brought up as a The High Street, which originally consisted of a lad to business, and served behind a counter in a row of small shops with one floor above, and trim large establishment at Manchester. About the gardens in their fronts, separated by hedges of year 1840 he helped to found the Anti-Corn Law privet, have within the last few years been for the League, whose efforts in less than ten years' time most part either rebuilt or enlarged, and are now set aside the restrictions imposed by the old Corn

of 1,200 Bedford High Street

Laws on the importation of foreign grain, and Street. The “Mother Black Cap" stands within eventually secured to the country the advantages | a few doors of the corner of Park Street. of free trade. He was offered, but refused, all The “Mother Red Cap," observes Mr. J. T. honours and offices; but he represented Stockport, Smith, in his “Book for a Rainy Day,” was in the West Riding, and Rochdale from 1841 down former times a house of no small terror to travellers. to his death, in 1865.

“It has been stated,” he adds, “ that. Mother Red Oakley Square, which lies on the east side of Cap' was the Mother Damnable' of Kentish Eversholt Street and Harrington Square, is so Town in early days, and that it was at her house called after Oakley House, one of the seats of the that the notorious ‘Moll Cut-purse,' the highway ducal owner, near Bedford. In this square is St. woman of Oliver Cromwell's days, dismounted, Matthew's Church, a large and handsome Gothic and frequently lodged.” The old house was taken building, with a lofty tower and spire. It was down, and another rebuilt on its site, with the erected in 1854, from the designs of Mr. J. former sign, about the year 1850. This, again, in Johnson, F.R.S., and is capable of seating upwards its turn, was removed; and a third house, in the

modern style, and of still greater pretensions, was The “ Bedford Arms,” in Grove Street, on the built on the same site some quarter of a century west side of the High Street, has been a tavern of afterwards. some note in its day. Formerly, the tea-gardens Great doubts have been entertained as to the attached to the house were occasionally the scene real history of the semi-mythic personage whose of balloon ascents. The Morning Chronicle of name stands on the sign-board of this inn. It has July 5, 1824, contains an account of an aërial been stated that the original Mother Red Cap was voyage made from these gardens by a Mr. Ros- a follower of the army under Marlborough, in the siter and another gentleman. The ascent took reign of Queen Anne; but this idea is negatived place shortly after five o'clock, and the balloon by the existence of a rude copper coin, or token, alighted safely in Havering Park, two miles from dated 1667, and mentioning in its inscription, Romford, in Essex. The two aëronauts, having “Mother Read Cap's (sic) in Holl(o)way.” Further been provided with a post-coach, returned at once arguments in refutation of this idea will be found to Camden Town, and arrived at the “ Bedford in the Monthly Magazine for 1812. Again, some Arms" about half-past ten o'clock. On the 14th writers have attempted to identify her with the of June, 1825, as we learn from the Morning renowned Eleanor Rumming, of Leatherhead, in Herald, Mr. Graham took a trip into the aërial Surrey, who lived under Henry VIII. This noted regions from these grounds, accompanied by two alewife is mentioned by Skelton, the poet laureate ladies. Their ascent was witnessed by a large of Henry VIII., as having lived concourse of spectators; and after a pleasant

“ In a certain stead, voyage of nearly an hour, they alighted at Feltham,

Beside Leatherhead.” near Hounslow. Of late years the “Bedford She was, he assures us, one of the most frightful of Arms" has added the attractions of a music-hall, her sex, being called “ The Bedford.”

"- ugly of cheer, In Park Street, which connects Camden Town

Her face all bowsy, with the north-east corner of Regent's Park, stood

Wondrously wrinkled, the Park Theatre, a place of dramatic entertain

Her een bleared, ment, originally opened in 1873, under the name

And she grey-haired.” of the Alexandra Theatre. The theatre was burnt The portrait of Eleanor on the frontispiece of down in 1881, and its site is now occupied as an original edition of the “Tunning of Eleanor stabling by an omnibus company.

Rumming,” by Skelton, will satisfy the reader that From a manuscript list of inns in this neigh- her description is no exaggeration. bourhood about the year 1830, we find that in Perhaps there may be more of truth in the Camden Town at that time there were the “Mother following “biographical sketch ” of the original Red Cap," the “Mother Black Cap," the “ Laurel Mother Red Cap, which we now quote from Mr. Tree," the “ Britannia," the “Camden Arms," Palmer's work on “St. Pancras, and its History," the “ Bedford Arms,” the “Southampton Arms," above referred to :-“This singular character, the “Wheatsheaf," the “ Hope and Anchor,” and known as “Mother Damnable,' is also called the “ Elephant and Castle.” The two first-named 'Mother Red Cap,' and sometimes · The Shrew of of these houses were, and are still, rival establish- | Kentish Town. Her father's name was Jacob ments at the northern, or upper, end of the High / Bingham, by trade a brickmaker in the neigh

Rummi

Camden Town.]

THE "MOTHER RED CAP.”

31)

brickmaking army, took Jinney.

bourhood of Kentish Town. He enlisted in the reputed a practiser of the black art-a very witch. army, and went with it to Scotland, where he She was resorted to by numbers as a fortune-teller married a Scotch pedlar's daughter. They had and healer of strange diseases; and when any one daughter, this "Mother Damnable. This mishap occurred, then the old crone was set upon daughter they named Jinney. Her father, on by the mob and hooted without mercy. The old, leaving the army, took again to his old trade of ill-favoured creature would at such times lean out brickmaking, occasionally travelling with his wife of her hatch-door, with a grotesque red cap on her and child as a pedlar. When the girl had reached head. She had a large broad nose, heavy shaggy her sixteenth year, she had a child by one Coulter, eyebrows, sunken eyes, and lank and leathern who was better known as Gipsey George. This cheeks ; her forehead wrinkled, her mouth wide, man lived no one knew how; but he was a great and her looks sullen and unmoved. On her trouble to the magistrates. Jinney and Coulter shoulders was thrown a dark grey striped frieze, after this lived together ; but being brought into with black patches, which looked at a distance like trouble for stealing a sheep from some lands near flying bats. Suddenly she would let her huge Holloway, Coulter was sent to Newgate, tried at black cat jump upon the hatch by her side, when the Old Bailey, and hung at Tyburn. Jinney then the mob instantly retreated from a superstitious associated with one Darby ; but this union pro- dread of the double foe. duced a cat-and-dog life, for Darby was constantly “The extraordinary death of this singular chadrunk; so Jinney and her mother consulted racter is given in an old pamphlet :- Hundreds of together, Darby was suddenly missed, and no one men, women, and children were witnesses of the knew whither he went About this time her devil entering her house in his very appearance parents were carried before the justices for prac- and state, and that, although his return was nartising the black art, and therewith causing the rowly watched for, he was not seen again ; and death of a maiden, for which they were both hung. that Mother Damnable was found dead on the Jinney then associated herself with one Pitcher, following morning, sitting before the fire-place, though who or what he was, never was known; holding a crutch over it, with a tea-pot full of but after a time his body was found crouched up herbs, drugs, and liquid, part of which being given in the oven, burnt to a cinder. Jinney was tried to the cat, the hair fell off in two hours, and the for the murder, but acquitted, because one of her cat soon after died ; that the body was stiff when associates proved he had often got into the oven found, and that the undertaker was obliged to to hide himself from her tongue.' Jinney was now break her limbs before he could place them in the a ‘lone woman,' for her former companions were coffin, and that the justices have put men in posafraid of her. She was scarcely ever seen, or if session of the house to examine its contents. Les she were, it was at nightfall, under the hedges or “Such is the history of this strange being, whose in the lanes; but how she subsisted was a miracle name will ever be associated with Camden Town, to her neighbours. It happened during the and whose reminiscence will ever be revived by troubles of the Commonwealth, that a man, sorely the old wayside house which, built on the site of pressed by his pursuers, got into her house by the the old beldame's cottage, wears her head as the back door, and begged on his knees for a night's sign of the tavern." lodging. He was haggard in his countenance, and The figure of Mother Red Cap, as it was reprefull of trouble. He offered Jinney money, of sented on the sign, exhibited that venerable ladywhich he had plenty, and she gave him a lodging. whether she was ale-wife or witch—with a tall This man, it is said, lived with her many years, extinguisher-shaped hat, not unlike that ascribed during which time she wanted for nothing, though to Mother Shipton; and it is not a little remarkable hard words and sometimes blows were heard from that two inns bearing the names of these semiher cottage. The man at length died, and an mythical ladies exist within half a mile of each inquest was held on the body; but though every other. one thought him poisoned, no proof could be Although the tavern bearing the sign of “Mother found, and so she again escaped harmless. After Shipton” is thus far off, at the corner of Malden this Jinney never wanted money, as the cottage Road, near Chalk Farm, some account of the other she lived in was her own, built on waste land by weird woman may not be altogether out of place her father. Years thus passed, Jinney using her here. “The prophecies of Mother Shipton,” foul tongue against every one, and the rabble in writes Dr. C. Mackay, in his “Memoirs of Extrareturn baiting her as if she were a wild beast. The ordinary Popular Delusions," "are still believed occasion of this arose principally from Jinney being in many of the rural districts of England. In cottages and in servants' halls her reputation is still doubts concerning things to come ; and all returned great ; and she rules, the most popular of British wonderfully satisfied in the explanations that she prophets, among all the uneducated or half edu- gave to their questions." Among the rest, Dr. cated portion of the community. She is generally Mackay tells us, who went to her was the Abbot supposed to have been born at Knaresborough, in of Beverley, to whom she foretold the suppression the reign of Henry VII., and to have sold her of the monasteries by Henry VIII., his marriage soul to the devil' for the power of foretelling future with Anne Boleyn, the fires for heretics in Smithevents. Though during her lifetime she was field, the death of Cardinal Wolsey, and the looked upon as a witch, yet she escaped the execution of Mary Queen of Scots. She also fore

[graphic][subsumed][merged small]

usual witches' fate, and died peaceably in her bed | told the accession of James I. to the English at an extreme old age, near Clifton, in Yorkshire. throne, adding that with himA stone is said to have been erected to her

“ From the cold north memory in the churchyard of the place, with the

Every evil shall come forth. following epitaph :

On a subsequent visit, she is said to have uttered "" Here lies she who never lied,

another prophecy, which, perhaps, may be realised Whose skill often has been tried;

during the present century :-
Her prophecies shall still survive,
And ever keep her name alive.'”

"The time shall come when seas of blood

Shall mingle with a greater flood : “Never a day passed," says her traditionary

Great noise shall there be heard ; great shouts and cries, biography, “wherein she did not relate something And seas shall thunder louder than the skies; remarkable, and that required the most serious Then shall three lions fight with three, and bring consideration. People flocked to her from far and

Joy to a people, honour to a king. near, her fame was so great. They went to her

That fiery year as soon as o'er

Peace shall then be as before ; of all sorts, both old and young, rich and poor,

Plenty shall everywhere be found, especially young maidens, to be resolved of their | And men with swords shall plough the ground.'»

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