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juvenile institution acquits itself very creditably, Ragged schools have done great things for this In the school-room is a harmonium, usually pre- destitute class, but to the Boys' Home we look for sided over by the teacher, whose performances really and permanently raising a lad out of the naturally excite the delight of these civilised British slough of depravity, and landing him safely and Bedouins.”
firmly on the rock of honest industry. As we have intimated above, various trades are. It may be stated here that the boys admitted taught, and, when fit, the boys are put out into real to the Home are chosen by joint vote of the life as may suit each. With all these young men Committee on account of their extreme destitution a constant intercourse is kept up after they have and want. Those who have neither parent alive left the Home by letters and visits, and a register stand the first chance of admission, those who of all cases is kept at the Home by which the have lost their father stand next, and those who history of every one from his admittance can be have lost their mother are last on the roll of traced. To show the class of boys rescued, the candidates. Many of them, however, never knew particulars of one or two cases will suffice : that they ever had either father or mother, or a
G. L., aged ten years, but looking much younger, home of any kind whatsoever. was received on the 22nd of August, 1862. This The latest report of Her Majesty's inspector poor boy was described in the paper sent to the states :—“My inspection of the school this day Home from the office of the Reformatory and has given me much satisfaction. I have found all Resuge Union, as “awfully filthy and neglected,” | in good order. The boys look healthy and cheerful. and was stated to have been in the casual-ward | They appear to be managed with good sense and of several workhouses for single nights. He was good judgment. They have passed a very creditin a sad condition when he entered the Home- able examination. The dictation and arithmetic shoeless, dirty and tattered, footsore and hungry of the upper classes were above the average. The The boy's father was a clown in some itinerant school appears to be doing its work well, with show, and had deserted his mother. The mother, most encouraging results.” who was of anything but good character, wan- It is not intended that the Boys' Home should dered to London, where the child was found be dependent upon alms; the object of the prodestitute in the streets. The case coming strictly moters is to make it self-supporting. But whilst within the operation of the “Industrial Schools' the grass is growing, we all know the steed may Act,” the boy was sent to the Home by the pre- starve. Yet such need not be the case if the siding magistrate of the Thames Police Court. public would buy the brushes, book-stands, work
J. P., aged fourteen, was a message-boy at the tables, &c., made by the boys' hands, and employ barracks, Liverpool. Believing him to be an the little fellows themselves in carpenters' jobs, orphan, the soldiers persuaded him to conceal and in cleaning boots and shoes in the neighbourhimself on board a ship bound with troops to hood. Gibraltar, from which place, by similar means, he Passing from the Boys' Home by the Gloucester contrived to find his way to China. When at Road, a short walk brings us to the “York and Hong Kong he was allowed to ship as second-class Albany Hotel,” which is pleasantly situated, overboy on board H.M. line-of-battle ship Calcutta, in looking the north-eastern corner of the Regent's which, a few days after, he met with so severe an Park. The house, which has at the back some accident by scalding, that he was removed to the extensive tea-gardens, forms the starting-point of a hospital-ship stationed at Hong Kong. His life line of omnibuses to the west and south of London. was despaired of, and for nearly a year he suffered It may be mentioned here that the bridge over the from the effects of this disaster. Recovering in Regent's Canal, between the “ York and Albany ” some degree from this accident, he was shipped in and Gloucester Gate, having been long considered a man-of-war for England, and landed at Ports too narrow and ill-constructed to suit the requiremouth, discharged from the navy only half-cured ments of the present day, the Metropolitan Board and destitute. He was indebted to the active of Works in the end decided upon rebuilding it benevolence of a chaplain of the navy for his upon a much larger scale, at a cost of about admission into the Boys' Home, where, by the £20,000. It is surmounted by groups of statuary, assistance of good living, a comfortable and cheer- and now forms a very handsome approach and ful home, and good medical help, he soon became entrance to the Regent's Park on the eastern side. a healthy boy again. He recently re-visited the In Regen:'s Park Terrace, close by Gloucester Home as an able-bodied seaman, with a good Gate, Louis Kossuth, the Hungarian patriot, was character.
| living in 1859.
SIR GOLDSWORTHY GURNEY.
Start it has nesquare, as at ground the infe
Albany Street, like the hotel above mentioned, father was in practice as a medical man, at the takes its name from royalty—the late Duke of same time making experiments of all sorts; and York having been Duke of Albany as well; it his steam-carriage was begun at that house, but extends from this point to the Marylebone Road, a manufactory was soon taken, and he found it near the top of Portland Place, and close to the necessary to be there and to have his family with south-east entrance of the Regent's Park. At the him. We occupied rooms which were probably top of this street, almost facing the east window of intended for Sir William Adams, a celebrated the chapel of St. Katherine's Hospital, are spacious oculist, for whom this building was erected as an barracks, which are constantly used, in turn with eye infirmary, in Albany Street..... From a others, by a regiment of the Guards. Together window of my room I looked into the yard where with the drill-ground and the various outbuildings, my father was constructing his steam-carriage. they occupy no less than seven or eight acres. To The intense combustion caused by the steam-blast, the north of this lies Park Village East, a collection and the consequent increase of high-pressure steam of detached villas, built in a rustic style ; and close force acting on the jet, created such a tremendous by is the basin of an arm of the Regent's Canal. current or draught of air up the chimney that it
At the end of the canal basin is Cumberland was something terrific to see or to hear. The Market, or, as it is sometimes called, Regent's workmen would sometimes throw things into the Park Market. It was established for the sale of fire as the carriage passed round the yard-large hay, straw, and other articles, removed, in the reign pieces of slate or sheet-iron—which would dart up of George IV., from the Haymarket, as already the chimney like a shot, falling occasionally nearer stated by us,* between Piccadilly and Pall Mall; to the men than was safe, and my father would but it has never been very largely attended. have to check their enthusiasm. The roaring
Munster Square, as a poor group of houses built sound, too, sometimes was astounding. Many round a plot of market ground close by is called, difficulties had to be overcome, which occupied derives its name from one of the inferior titles years before 1827. The noise had to be got rid inherent in the Crown; and the reader will remem- of, or it would have frightened horses, and the ber that William IV. created his eldest natural son, heat had to be insulated, or it might have burnt up Colonel Fitzclarence, a peer, by the title of the the whole vehicle. The steam machinery was at Earl of Munster.
first contrived to be in the passenger-carriage itself, In Osnaburgh Street—which, by the way, is like as the turnpike tolls would have been double for wise named after a member of the royal family, two vehicles. My father was forcibly reminded of the late Duke of York having also been “Bishop this fact, for there was then a turnpike-gate immeof Osnaburgh," in the kingdom of Hanover-is diately outside the manufactory. This gate was the St. Saviour's Hospital. Here tumours and first on the south side of the doors, and the steamcancerous growths are treated in such a manner as carriage was often exercised in the Regent's Park to dispense with the use of the knife. In this barrack-yard ; then the gate was moved just a few street, too, is another institution for the exercise yards to the north, between the doors and the of charity and benevolence; it is called the St. barracks. But perhaps the greatest difficultySaviour's Home and Hospital for the Sisters of next to that of prejudice, which was strong against Charity.
all machinery in those days—was to control the In Albany Street the late Sir Goldsworthy immense power of the steam and to guide the Gurney was practising as a medical man about the carriage. It would go round the factory yard more year 1825, employing his spare time in making like a thing flying than running, and my father was practical experiments, more especially in manufac- often in imminent peril while making his experituring a steam-carriage, which, under many diffi- ments. He, however, at last brought the carriage culties, he perfected sufficiently to make a journey completely under control, and it was perfected. along the high road to Bath, in July, 1829, two One was built to carry the machinery, the driver, months before the successful efforts of George and stoker only, and to draw another carriage after Stephenson in the North to solve the question of it. My father could guide it, turn it, or back it steam conveyance. Miss Gurney thus describes easily; he could set it going or stop it instantly, the difficulties under which her father laboured up hill or down; it frequently went to Hampstead, before carrying out his invention :-“Our house Highgate, Edgware, Barnet, Stanmore, and its rate was in Argyle Street, Regent Street, where my could be maintained at twenty miles an hour,
though this speed could only be indulged in where • See Vol. IV., p. 219.
the road was straight and wide, and the way clearly
to be seen. I never heard of any accident or for the purpose of ventilating the vaults or catainjury to any one with it, except in the fray at combs. The flank of the church has a central proMelksham, on the noted journey to Bath, when the jection, occupied by antæ, and six insulated Ionic fair people set upon it, burnt their fingers, threw columns; the windows in the inter-columns are in stones, and wounded poor Martyn, the stoker. the same style as those in front; the whole is The steam-carriage returned from Bath to the surmounted by a balustrade. The tower' is in two Hounslow Barracks-eighty-four miles—stoppages heights ; the lower part has eight columns of the for fire and water included, in nine hours and Corinthian order, after the temple of Vesta at twenty minutes, or at the rate, when running, of | Tivoli. These columns, with their stylobatæ and
GROUND PLAN OF NEW ROAD FROM ISLINGTON TO EDGWARE ROAD (1755).
fourteen miles an hour. This journey from London entablature, project, and give a very extraordinary to Bath, the first ever maintained with speed by relief in the perspective view of the building. The any steam locomotive, was made in July, 1829, upper part consists of a circular peristyle of six on the common turnpike road, in the face of columns, the example apparently taken from the the public, and two months before the trial at portico of the octagon tower of Andronicus Rainhill."
Cyrrhestes, or tower of the winds, from the summit At the south end of this street, with Osnaburgh of which rises a conical dome, surmounted by the Street on its east side, is Trinity Church, which vane. The more minute detail may be seen by was built from the designs of Sir John Soane. The the engraving (page 294). The prevailing ornaprincipal front consists of a portico of four columns ment is the Grecian fret. The Rev. Dr. Chandler, of the Ionic order, approached by a small flight of late Dean of Chichester, was for many years rector steps ; on each side is a long window, divided into of this church, in which he was succeeded by two heights by a stone transum (panelled). Each | Dean Elliot, and he again by the Rev. William of the windows is filled with ornamental iron-work, Cadman.
CAMDEN TOWN, FROM THE HAMPSTEID ROAD. MARYLEBONE, 1780. (See page 305.)
“Not many weeks ago it was not so,
But Pleasures had their passage to and fro,
For Cakes and Cream had then no small resort."-Britain's Remembrancer.
and its Cakes and Creams-A “Strange and Wonderful Fruit"-Hogarth's Picture of the "March of the Guards to Finchley”—The “Paddington Drag"-A Miniature Menagerie-A Spring-water Bath-Eden Street-Hampstead Road-The “Sol's Arms” TavernDavid Wilkie's Residence-Granby Street-Mornington Crescent-Charles Dickens' School-days-Clarkson Stanfield-George CruikshankThe "Old King's Head" Tavern–Tolmer's Square-Drummond Street-St. James's Church-St. Pancras Female Charity School - The Original Distillery of “Old Tom "-Bedford New Town-Ampthill Square—The " Infant Roscius "—Harrington Square.
THERE was, till the reign of William IV., a rustic worse” in his “ Book of Days :"_“Readers of our character which invested the outskirts of London old dramatic literature may be amused with the rustic between King's Cross and St. John's Wood. But, character which invests the (then) residents of the thanks to the progress of the demon of bricks and outskirts of Old London comprehended between mortar, the once rural tea-gardens have been made King's Cross and St. John's Wood, as they are in every suburb of London to give way to the modern depicted by Swift in the Tale of a Tub. The gin-palace with its flaring gas and its other attrac- action of the drama takes place in St. Pancras tions. Chambers draws out this “change for the Fields, the country near Kentish Town, Tottenham
.~, . not being very way eastward along the team
Court, and Marylebone. The dramatis persona,” palaces round about you—Southampton House continues Mr. Chambers, “seem as innocent of and Montagu House.' "Where you wretches go London as if they were inhabitants of Berkshire, and fight duels,' cries Mrs. Steele." and talk a broad country dialect. This northern But it is time for us to be again on our peramside of London preserved its pastoral character bulation. Leaving Trinity Church, we now make our until a comparatively recent time, it not being very way eastward along the Euston Road, as far as the long since some of the marks used by the Finsbury junction of the Tottenham Court and the Hamparchers of the days of Charles II. remained in the stead Roads. The Euston Road-formerly called Shepherd and Shepherdess Fields between the the New Road-was at the time of its formation, Regent's Canal and Islington. ... The pre- about the middle of the last century, the boundarytorium of a Roman camp was visible where now line for limiting the “ruinous rage for building” on stands Barnsbury Terrace ; the remains of another, the north side of the town. It was made by virtue as described by Stukely, were situated opposite old of an Act of Parliament passed in the reign of St. Pancras Church, and herds of cows grazed near George II. (1756), after a most violent contest with where now stands the Euston Square Terminus of the Duke of Bedford, who opposed its construction our North-Western Railway, but which then was on the ground of its approaching too near to Rhode's Farm. At the commencement of the Bedford House, the duke's town mansion. The present century the country was open from the Duke of Grafton, on the other hand, strenuously back of the British Museum to Kentish Town ; supported it, and after a fierce legal battle it was the New Road from Battle Bridge to Tottenham ultimately decided that the road should be formed. (Court Road) was considered unsafe after dark; In the Gentleman's Magazine for 1755 there is a and parties used to collect at stated points to take “ground plan” of the New Road, from Islington the chance of the escort of the watchman in his to Edgware Road, showing the then state of the half-hourly round.” In 1707 there were no streets ground (and the names of the proprietors thereof) west of Tottenham Court Road; and one cluster between Oxford Street and the New Road. The of houses only, besides the “Spring Water House" Act of Parliament for the formation of this great nearly half a century later, at which time what is thoroughfare, as we have already had occasion to now the Euston Road was part of an expanse of observe, directs that no building should be erected verdant fields.
“ within fifty feet of the New Road.” In Gwynn's In the reign of George IV., as Mr. Samuel “ London Improved," published about the beginPalmer writes in his “ History of St. Pancras,” ning of this century, it is stated that “the present “the rural lanes, hedgeside roads, and lovely fields mean appearance of the backs of the houses and made Camden Town the constant resort of those hovels have rendered this approach to the capital who, busily engaged during the day in the bustle a scene of confusion and deformity, extremely unof . . . London, sought its quietude and fresh becoming the character of a great and opulent air to re-invigorate their spirits. Then the old city.” Down to a comparatively recent date, Mr. 'Mother Red Cap' was the evening resort of Gwynn's remarks would have applied very aptly to worn-out Londoners, and many a happy evening that quarter of a mile of the New Road which was spent in the green fields round about the old lies between Gower Street North, where the old wayside house by the children of the poorer classes. Westgate Turnpike formerly stood, and the eastern At that time the Dairy, at the junction of the entrance to the Regent's Park. Here the road was Hampstead and Kentish Town Roads, was a rural narrow, and perpetually obstructed by wagons, &c., cottage, furnished with forms and benches for the that might be unloading at the various timber and pedestrians to rest upon the road-side, whilst its stone yards, which occupied the ground that an Act master and mistress served out milk fresh from the of Parliament had ordered should be “used only cow to all who came.” In fact, as we have for gardens.” “The intention of this judicious already noticed in our account of Bloomsbury clause,” says the author of a work on London Square and other places, down to the close of the about half a century ago, “was, no doubt, to last or even the beginning of the present century, preserve light, air, and cheerfulness, so highly all this neighbourhood was open country; so that, necessary to a great leading thoroughfare. Such after all, Thackeray was not far wide of the mark it has hitherto been, and with increasing respecwhen he put these words into the mouth of Mr. tability, excepting at the point I am about to St. John in “ Esmond : "_"Why, Bloomsbury is mention-many great improvements have taken the very height of the mode! 'Tis rus in urbe; place, such as the Regent's Park and Crescent, you have gardens all the way to Hampstead, and the new Pancras Church and Euston Square, &c.
s and benches for the
one yards, which occupied should be “u