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Regent's Park.)

THE MENAGERIE.

283

mencement of 1876 they were removed to more unfortunately struck her foot against the top of the spacious and comfortable quarters in a new “lion railing, and was precipitated backwards; the fall house,” which is situated a little farther to the proved fatal, for, upon examination, it was found south, not far from

she had broken her the ponds set apart

spine. The grief of for the seals and sea

her partner was exlions. The noble

cessive, and, although beasts made the jour

it did not show itself ney, not in a sort of

with the same vioquiet and sober pro

lence as in a previous cession, and as they

instance, it proved are seen in pictures

equally fatal: a deep of Bacchus and his

melancholy took posattendant train, but

session of him, and in closed boxes, with

he pined to death in slipped sides, into

a few weeks." The which they were

writer tells us that tempted by the sight

these lions, during the of some extra slices

voyage, behaved with of meat. This done, THE MONKEY-HOUSE,

so much suavity and they were transported

good humour, that on trucks, in a most unroyal and ignoble manner, they were allowed the freedom of the ship, coming to the new abode, where the closed box was placed and going whithersoever it pleased them, and against the front bars of the new den, into which being on terms of friendship with all on board. they were only too glad to make their way. The When the vessel reached port, numerous visitors new “lion house” is excellently constructed and I arrived, and, as these were confined to the male well warmed;

sex, the lions and far more

continued persons are

the same now able to

genteel bewatch its in

haviour; but mates dine at

no sooner four o'clock

had several on Sunday

ladies set foot afternoons in

on the deck "the season"

of the vessel than was the

than they case before

took to flight, this change

and, hiding was made.

themselves in A writer in

some corner a work called

of the ship, "Colburn's HOUSES FOR THE CARNIVORA.

showed the Calendar of

most extraAmusements,” published in the year 1840, tells ordinary symptoms of fear and antipathy at the sight the following story, which shows the king of beasts of the new comers. in an amiable light :-“The lion in the collection Occasionally the menagerie has been fortunate of the Zoological Gardens was brought, with his enough to obtain a specimen of the African chimlioness, from Tunis, and, as the keeper informed panzee—the nearest approach of the monkey tribe us, they lived most lovingly together. Their dens to humanity—but in each case it has been only were separated only by an iron railing, sufficiently for a short time, the climate of England proving low to allow of their jumping over. One day, as too cold for their lungs. The first specimen, the lioness was amusing herself with leaping from which was brought to England in 1836, caused one den to the other, whilst her lord looked on, quite as great a furore as did the arrival of the first apparently highly delighted with her gaiety, she hippopotamus, and all London society rushed to

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"leave its cards” on the “little stranger;" so that For if the King—God bless his heartthere was hardly an exaggeration in the words of

Resolve to play a patriot's part,

And seek to mend his Ministry, a poem, by Theodore Hook, in Blackwood :

No doubt he'll send for the chimpanzee." " The folks in town are nearly wild To go and see the monkey-child,

Three other specimens of the chimpanzee have In Gardens of Zoology,

been exhibited here since then, but they have Whose proper name is Chimpanzee.

never suceeeded in obtaining the attention which To keep this baby free from hurt,

was bestowed on their predecessor; the last died He's dressed in a cap and a Guernsey shirt; They've got him a nurse, and he sits on her knee,

in 1875. And she calls him her Tommy Chimpanzee.”

The most important block of buildings in the

gardens are those which contain the collection of The Tory poet then describes, in graphic colours,

S; the larger animals, such as the hippopotamus, the imaginary visits paid to the chimpanzee by Lord

giraffe, and the elephants, &c. The fact of hippoMelbourne, Lord John Russell, Lord Palmerston,

potami having been on many occasions exhibited Lord Glenelg, the Speaker, and the other ministers

by the Emperors of Rome in the great displays of of State

wild beasts which were presented to the people in “ Lord John came up the other day,

the circus, was a sufficient proof that the animal Attended by a lady gay, *Oh, dear !' he cried, 'how like Lord T.!

could be transported from its haunts in the Nile I can't bear to look at this chimpanzee.'

with success. And, therefore, although 1,500 years The lady said, with a tender smile

had elapsed since the last recorded instance of this Fit all his sorrows to beguile,

kind, the Council of the Zoological Society, in the Oh, never mind, Lord John : to me

year 1849, undertook, with considerable confiYou are not in the least like a chimpanzee !'

dence, the operation of carrying one from Upper “ Glenelg mooned up to see the brute,

Egypt, all attempts to obtain it on the west coast Of distant climes the rarest fruit,

having proved futile. By the influence of the And said to the keeper, 'Stir him up for me :

Hon. C. A. Murray, then Agent and ConsulHe seems but an indolent chimpanzee.' Says the keeper, ‘My lord, his is a snug berth

General at Cairo, his Highness the Viceroy, Abbas He never does nothing whatever on earth;

Pasha, was induced to give orders that this object But his brother Bob, who is over the sea,

should be effected; and in the month of July in Is a much more sprightly chimpanzee.'

that year a party of hunters, specially organised for “ The Speaker next, to make him stare,

the purpose, succeeded in capturing a calf of some Proceeded, dressed as he is in the chair ;

three days' old on the island of Obaysch, in the When Tommy saw him, such a scream raised he White Nile. When found in the reedy covert to As had never been heard from a chimpanzee.

which the mother had confided him, the hippopo• What's the matter, Mr. Keeper?' the Speaker cried. Why, really, Mr. Speaker,' the man replied,

tamus, who now weighs at least four tons, was of I hope no offence, but I think that he

such small dimensions that the chief huntsman Takes you for the late Mrs. Chimpanzee.'

took him up in his arms to carry him to the boat “ Lord Palmerston, just turning grey,

from which his men had landed. Covered, howCame up to gaze, and turned away,

ever, with a coat of slime, more slippery than that And said, “There's nothing here to see ;

of any fish, the calf glided from his grasp, and He's but a baby chimpanzee !'

struggled to regain the safe recesses of the river. No,' said the keeper, 'my lord,' and smiled,

Quicker than he, the hunter used the gaff-hook “Our Tom is but a tender child; But if he live to be fifty-three,

fastened to his spear, of the same model as that He'll make a most Cupid-like chimpanzee.'

used for a like purpose at the mouth of the Nile

3,000 years before, and struck him on the side, “ Lord Melbourne cantered on his hack To get a peep at Tommy's back;

and safely held him. From Obaysch, many He said to the keeper, he wanted to see

hundred miles above Cairo, the hippopotamus The tail of this wonderful chimpanzee.

travelled down in charge of the hunters and a He's got no tail,' said the keeper, ‘my lord.' company of infantry, who finally landed him at the "You don't mean that ! upon my word,

British Agency in the month of November, 1849,
If he does without a tail he's superior to me,'
Said Melbourne, and bowed to the chimpanzee."

and in May of the following year he was landed

on English soil. A special train conveyed him to The poet ends by a suggestion that perhaps the London, every station yielding up its wondering Ministry itself might do well to give place to so I crowd to look upon the monster as he passed clever a creature :

fruitlessly, for they only saw the Arab keeper, who

Regent's Park.)

THE ZOOLOGICAL COLLECTION.

285

then attended him night and day, and who, for largest ever made; and the bear-pit has always want of air, was constrained to put his head out been a centre of attraction, especially for juveniles, through the roof. The excitement created by the in order to see the grizzly monsters climb the arrival of the hippopotamus was immense; the "ragged staff” and catch the biscuits and other number of visitors to the gardens suddenly rose edibles that are thrown to them ; but the most from 168,895 in 1849 to 360,402 in 1850; and attractive feature of the gardens, however, in the the population of London thus attracted to the eyes of children, is the monkey-house, in which establishment as suddenly discovered that it con- there are three large cages full of spider-monkeys, tained an unrivalled collection of the most interest- ring-tailed, black-fronted, and white-handed lemurs, ing and instructive character, in which, if, as often dog-faced baboons, apes, the sacred monkey of happened, they failed to see the hippopotamus, the Hindoos, and other species. Their frolics in they still had the rhinoceros and a vast number of summer, and on a fine warm sunny day in winter, other objects to occupy them, which were scarcely, cause the pathways round the cages to be crowded if at all, less attractive.

with visitors, watching their ever-varying antics, The hippopotamus, which thus became a house and occasionally mischievous tricks. It would be hold word, for many years continued to be a prime well for many a lady's bonnet if its wearer had favourite with the public; and the arrival of his never approached too near to the bars of the cage mate, the more juvenile “Adhela," in 1853, did of these light-fingered gentry. But every winter not diminish his attraction.

makes sad havoc in their numbers, as few of the Professor Owen published a report on the new specimens survive more than a couple of years ; acquisition, which formed so great an attraction. dying mostly of consumption or from lung disease, Macaulay writes thus of him in 1849:-“I have in spite of the admirable arrangements for warming seen the hippopotamus, both asleep and awake; their house. The orang-utan, named “Darby,” and I can assure you that, asleep or awake, he is brought from Borneo in 1851, was the finest specithe ugliest of the works of God.”

men of his class that had, up to that time, been It may be added that two hippopotami have seen in Europe ; he is stated to have been “very been born in the gardens : the first died, and is to intelligent, and as docile as a child." be seen stuffed, in the rear of the giraffe house; the Then, again, the elephants are never forgotten, second, who is called “Guy Fawkes," was born and a ride on the back of one of these monsters, on the 5th of November, 1874.

as he paces slowly round his paddock, is a sight The first living giraffe which appeared in this as pleasing to adults as it is enjoyable for the country was transmitted to George IV., in 1827, young. Usually there are three or four elephants by Mohammed Ali, Viceroy of Egypt. It lived, here, either Asiatic or African. With these animals however, only a few months in the menagerie at the Council of the Society has been somewhat Windsor. Seven years afterwards, the Council of unfortunate: in 1847, died here the great Indian the Zoological Society succeeded in obtaining four elephant, “ Jack," after having been in the gardens specimens from Khordofan, where they were sixteen years; one died in 1875, and another, about captured by M. Thibaut. This acquisition cost the same time, broke the end off the proboscis of the society upwards of £2,300, including £1,000 its trunk. In 1881–2 no little excitement was for steamboat passage ; and the female produced aroused by the sale of one of the elephants, six fawns here between 1840 and 1851.

“Jumbo," to Mr. Barnum, the American showThe reptile-house was fitted up in 1849. The man. creatures are placed in large plate-glass cases; Adjoining the stable is a tank of water, of a here are pythons and rattlesnakes, and a variety depth nearly equal to the height of a full-grown of other species, some of which have produced elephant, in which they bathe on warm summer their young in the gardens. Several years ago afternoons. Although every means has been tried some serpents were exhibited which were taught to induce the breeding of elephants here, it has, so to dance. This, however, was nothing new, as the far, met with no success whatever. same thing was exhibited in 1778 by a foreigner at Another great attraction of the gardens is the “Bartlemy Fair.” On one occasion a keeper in seal-pond, in which three or four of these “monsters the gardens was killed by the bite of a cobra di of the deep" may be seen daily playing their Capello, a large Indian serpent; and some years gambols, just as on the shores of South Wales or ago a large boa-constrictor swallowed a blanket, of Brittany. They are most attached and obedient and disgorged it about a month afterwards.

to the keeper-a rough-hewn French coast-guardThe collection of bears is said to be one of the man, who, when he feeds them publicly, makes them perform all sorts of amusing feats-climbing and crested paroquets, at 155. and 10s., and a chairs, &c.

common heron at ios. The books kept daily at The parrot-house, in the northern section of the the office of the society contain not only the list gardens, is well worthy of a visit, containing, as it of "arrivals" and "departures,” but also a record does, every variety of the painted inhabitants of of the temperature in the various "houses” in the the woods of South America and Australia. The gardens, and what would be called an “æger list" screaming and screeching of these not very tuneful -namely, a list of such birds, beasts, and fishes as songsters, when they are heard in chorus, may require medical attendance. In one corner of the reconcile us to the dull plumage of our native birds, gardens, not easily found by chance visitors, is a and teach us that there is a law of compensation small and unobtrusive dissecting-room, where the not only for human beings, but for the beasts of the carcases of such animals as die from natural causes field and the fowls of the air.

are made subservient to the purposes of anatomical The obituary of the gardens for the year 1873, science. which we make as a sample for that of most In 1875 an extensive addition was made to the years, included not only a rhinoceros and the little gardens, by inclosing about four acres of land on hippopotamus already mentioned, but a seal, an the north side of the canal, which is crossed by a ostrich, and the old and venerable lion “Nero," bridge, thus enabling the society to open an addiwho died peacefully and quietly, not of any disease, tional entrance in the Outer Circle of the Park, but of sheer age. We might add that, if inquests nearly opposite the foot of Primrose Hill. were held on the bodies of beasts, it would have In these gardens were lodged, in a temporary been the duty of a jury to bring in a verdict of building, the collection of beasts and birds brought "Wilful murder" against the British public in the back by the Prince of Wales from India, in 1876, case of the seal and the ostrich, the former of including several tiger cubs, goats, sheep, dwarf which was killed by swallowing a bag of nuts oxen, and dwarf elephants, as well as several thrown to it by some schoolboys, without cracking varieties of the pheasant tribe. the shells; while the latter was shown, upon dis- We may add, in conclusion, that Regent's Park section, to have met its end by twenty-one penny is, and must be, at a disadvantage when compared pieces which it could not digest, although it was with the other places of fashionable resort in an ostrich.

London; and although crowds of the bon ton flock The climate, it is true, has something to do, at to the fêtes at the Botanical Gardens, and lounge times, with the longevity of the animals : for in- away their Sunday afternoons at “the Zoo" in the stance, some fine white oxen from Italy, the gift of season, yet it never will or can become really "the Count Cavour, are now all dead, reminding the fashion," as the tide sets steadily in a south-west classical reader of the well-known line of Virgil— direction. “ Hinc albi, Clitumne, greges, et maxima taurus

“The Regent's Park, above all," writes the Vis

comte d'Arlingcourt, in his account of a visit to Some huge white oxen from India, however, now England in 1844, “is a scene of enchantment, in the gardens, thrive well and multiply.

where we might fancy ourselves surrounded by the During the year above mentioned (1873) the list quiet charms of a smiling landscape, or in the deof new arrivals comprised upwards of 1,000 entries, lightful garden of a magnificent country house, if including births, purchases, donations, exchanges, we did not see on every side a countless number and “deposits." Among these was a handsome of mansions, adorned with colonnades, porticoes, lioness, which was purchased in Dublin, and which, pediments, and statues, which transport us back to shortly after reaching Regent's Park, presented her London; but London is not here, as it is on the new masters with a litter of four cubs.

banks of the Thames, the gloomy commercial city. It should be added that at intervals a “dupli-Its appearance has entirely changed. Purified cate list” of animals is issued and circulated by from its smoke and dirt, and decked with costly the secretary of the society; one of such lists splendour, it has become the perfumed abode of now before us (dated September, 1872) includes a the aristocracy. No artisans' dwellings are to be large variety of specimens, ranging from the Indian seen here : nothing less than the habitations of elephant (offered at £450) down to ring-necked princes.”

Victima."

Primrose Hill.]

THE MANOR OF CHALCOT.

287

CHAPTER XXII.
PRIMROSE HILL AND CHALK FARM.

“— templa serena,
Despicere unde queas alios."-Lucretius, ii.

Situation of Primrose Hill, and its Appearance in Bygone Times— Barrow Hill and the West Middlesex Waterworks—The Manor of Chalcot

Murder of Sir Edmund Berry Godfrey-Duel between Ugo Foscolo and Graham-Primrose Hill purchased by the Crown, and made a Park for the People The Tunnel through the Hill— Fireworks in Celebration of the Peace in 1856–The Shakespeare Oak-Lady Byron's Residence-Chalk Farm-Duels fought there—The Wrestling Club of Cumberland and Westmoreland—The Eccentric Lord Coleraine-The Old Chalk Farm Tavern—The Railway Station-Pickford's Goods Depôt-The Boys' Home-The "York and Albany" Tavern-Gloucester Gate-Albany Street - The Guards' Barracks—Park Village East-Cumberland Market-Munster Square-Osnaburgh Street-Sir Goldsworthy Gurney—The “Queen's Head and Artichoke"— Trinity Church.

As the Green Park forms a sort of supplement and is now occupied by the reservoir of the West appendage to St. James's Park, so does Primrose Middlesex Waterworks. The name survives in Hill to the Regents Park: it has the character of | Barrow Hill Place and Road.

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side of the park, and ità situation, when its rowth hides of land in

custody of the

a “park for the people," and its associations are the “The definite history of the place," says a writer reverse of aristocratic. The hill lies on the north in the Builder, “dates from the time when 'sundry side of the park, and its name still bears testimony devout men of London' gave to the Leper Hospital to its rural and retired situation, when its sides' of St. James (afterwards St. James's Palace) four were covered with brushwood and an undergrowth | hides of land in the field of Westminster, and of early spring flowers. Going back to the time eighty acres of land and wood in Hendon, Chalcot, of the Roman settlers, we find that when they and Hampstead. Edward I. confirmed these gifts, planted their colony on the banks of the Thames but in course of time dissensions arose between and founded London, most part of the northern the convent and the Abbey of Westminster, which district consisted of a large forest filled with wolves Henry VI. brought to an end by giving the and other wild animals. Early in the thirteenth custody of the hospital into the hands of the century the forest of Middlesex was disafforested, provost and fellows of his newly-founded college but although portions were cleared, St. John's of Eton, and with it the before-mentioned acres. Wood, as we have already seen, remained suffi- In the twenty-third year of Henry VIII.'s reign the ciently dense in Queen Elizabeth's reign to afford hospital was surrendered to the king, who turned shelter and concealment to Babington, the con- it into a manor-house. The property of Chalcot spirator, and his associates. At that time, however, and its neighbourhood was probably of little the slopes of Primrose Hill were used as meadow value, and no doubt the Eton authorities had not land, and were probably in the mind of writers who much difficulty in getting it into their own hands allude to the many “haicockes in July at Pan- again.” credge” (St. Pancras), as a thing known to every- | More than two centuries pass away, farmhouses body. This district dates back to very early times, are built, and the manor of Chalcot is divided into if we may accept the name of Barrow Hill—for Upper and Lower, which are described as the merly Greenberry Hill—which lies on its western Chalcots. Towards the close of the year 1678 side, as evidence that it was once the scene of a the eyes of all England were directed towards this battle and place of sepulture for the slain. There retired and lonely spot, for there had been diswas formerly a Barrow Farm, and Barrow Hill itself covered the dead body of Sir Edmund Berry

Wood, though portions were ex was disafforested

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