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the painter of the “Deluge,” the “Destruction of an evening with him, pleasant, informing, and varied Babylon," and other sacred subjects, so familiar to by conversation on subjects that chance brought most persons by the aid of the engraver's art. | up, or association introduced stealthily." “ Martin's pictures," says Dr. Waagen, “unite in In the Post Boy of January 1, 1711-12, mention a high degree the three qualities which the English | is made of the “Two White Balls,” as the sign of require above all in works of art-effect; a fanciful a school at Marylebone, in which “ Latin, French, invention, inclining to melancholy; and topogra Mathematics, &c., were taught.” The notice adds phical historic truth.” And at the hospitable table | that “in the same house there lives a clergyman, of a great lover of art, in Chapel Street, would who teaches to write well in three days !” The

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assemble a goodly bard of members of the Royal | locality at one time had about it an air of quietude Academy. The site of this house is now covered and seclusion ; but of late years a number of small by Hyde Park Mansions and Oxford and Cam- streets have sprung up in the neighbourhood of bridge Mansions.

the Edgware Road and Lisson Grove, and altoAt one time this street contained a chapel of gether it has now become, for the most part, poor ease, which gave its name to the street, and of which and squalid ; yet it is certain that this parish is by the late Rev. Basil Woodd was the minister. The no means the poorest in London, and by no means street connects the Edgware Road and Paddington the worst in general sanitary arrangements of the with the New Road. In it are the Metropolitan houses of the poor. Yet even here there were till Railway Company's Stores, and also the Locomotive lately, and it is to be feared there still are, many Carriage and Permanent Way Departments. houses which are not " fit for human habitation."

Leigh Hunt, the gossiping chronicler of the Dr. Whitmore, the medical officer of the Board of “Old Court Suburb," was for some time a resident Health for the parish, in his report in 1874, draws in this neighbourhood. “When Leigh Hunt re- a terrible picture of the existing dwellings of the sided in the New Road,” says Cyrus Redding, in poor in that locality, showing the necessity of still his “Fifty Years' Recollections," "I spent many more stringent powers than are possessed by the

Marylebone, North.)

DWELLINGS OF THE POOR.

259

Artisans and Labourers' Dwellings Act, in order In Church Street, which connects the Grove to compel the owners of such disgraceful property and Edgware Roads, is the Royal Alfred Theatre. to do their duty by their tenants. Dr. Whitmore This place of amusement is celebrated for its sendraws attention more especially to several tene- sational dramas and cheap prices. It was first ments in Marylebone. “One of these," he then opened in 1842, as a "penny theatre," under the remarks,"contains nineteen rooms, which would name of the “Marylebone." It was enlarged in appear to have been originally constructed with 1854 to hold 2,000 persons; and more recently especial disregard to order in arrangement, uni- the name has been altered to the “Royal Alfred.” formity, and convenience. Every part of this Many of Shakespeare's plays have been performed

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miserable abode is in a ruinous and dilapidated here. Close by, on the west side of the Edgware condition: the flooring of the rooms and stair- Road, another large establishment, where entertaincases is worn into holes, and broken away; the ment is nightly provided, is the Metropolitan Music plaster is crumbling from the walls; the roofs let in Hall. In Church Street, between Carlisle and the wind and rain; the drains are very defective ; Salisbury Streets, is Portman Market, which was and the general aspect of the place is one of extreme established many years ago for the sale of hay wretchedness. The number of persons living in and straw, and also for butter, poultry, butchers' this house is forty-seven.” He adds that his first meat, and other provisions. It is largely frequented impulse was to condemn the house as unfit for by the inhabitants of the surrounding streets of human habitation, but that he hesitated to do so, the artisan class. fearing to drive the poor inhabitants into rooms On the east side of Lisson Grove we find ourmore foul and squalid still. It will scarcely, we selves once more among the “squares,” but they imagine, be believed by our grandchildren that are of modern growth, and consist, for the most such things could have happened in the thirty- part, of middle-class residences. They are named eighth year of Queen Victoria's reign in so wealthy respectively Blandford Square, Harewood Square, a district as this.

and Dorset Square. In Blandford Square is the Convent of the Sisters of Mercy, dedicated to St. “Ned Magrath, formerly secretary to the Edward. This foundation owes its existence to Athenæum, happening, many years ago, to enter the exertions of the late Rev. John Hearne, of the shop of Ribeau, observed one of the bucks of the Sardinian Chapel, in Lincoln's Inn Fields, and the paper bonnet zealously studying a book he his brother, the Rev. Edward Hearne, of Warwick ought to have been binding. He approached; it Street Chapel. The community was established in was a volume of the old Britannica, open at 'Elec1844, and for a few years carried on their works tricity. He entered into talk with the journey. of charity in the neighbourhood of Queen Square, man, and was astonished to find in him a self-taught Bloomsbury, where the convent was first founded. chemist, of no slender pretensions. He presented Their chief duties while there, as we learn from him with a set of tickets for Davy's lectures at the the “Catholic Hand-book,” were the visitation of Royal Institution : and daily thereafter might the the sick poor and the instruction of adults. But nondescript be seen perched, pen in hand, and his possessing no means of carrying out the other eyes starting out of his head, just over the clock objects of the institute--namely, the “education of opposite the chair. At last the course terminated; poor children," and the “protection of distressed but Faraday's spirit had received a new impulse, women of good character,” they became desirous which nothing but dire necessity could have reof building a convent, with schools and a House strained ; and from that he was saved by the of Mercy attached to it. In 1849, the ground on promptitude with which, on his forwarding a modest which the present Convent of St. Edward stands outline of his history, with the notes he had made was selected as an eligible site for the building of these lectures, to Davy, that great and good rcquired; and the sisters having opened a subscrip- man rushed to the assistance of kindred genius. tion-list and obtained sufficient funds to begin with, Sir Humphry inimediately appointed him an assisthe erection was commenced early in the following tant in the laboratory; and after two or three year, from the designs of Mr. Gilbert Blount. In years had passed, he found Faraday qualified to 1851, the community removed from Queen Square act as his secretary." His career in after life we to their present home. School-rooms have since have already narrated. been erected in connection with the convent; and In Harewood Square lived, for the last thirty or in 1853 the “House of Mercy,” dedicated to forty years, the self-taught sculptor, John Graham “Our Blessed Lady and St. Joseph,” was erected, Lough, and here he died in 1876. Sir George at the expense of Mr. Pagliano. This house is Hayter, many years serjeant-painter to the Queen, for the admission and protection of young women and “painter of miniatures and portraits ” to the of good character, who are intended for service, or i Princess Charlotte and to the King of the Belgians, who may be for a time out of employment. Girls was for many years a resident in this square, and of fourteen or fifteen usually remain here for two subsequently in Blandford Square. Sir George years, till trained for service ; and those who have Hayter is perhaps best known as the author of the already been in service till they are provided by appendix to the “Hortus Ericæus Woburnensis," the sisters with suitable situations. While in the on the classification of colours. He subsequently house, they are employed in needlework, house removed into the Marylebone Road, and there work, washing, ironing, &c. There is an extensive died, at an advanced age, in January, 1871. laundry attached to the House of Mercy, and the Dorset Square, as we have shown in the previous profits arising therefrom are the principal support chapter, covers the site of what, in former times, was of this institution.

a noted cricket-field; and its present name is said In Blandford Street, Dorset Square, Michael to have been given to it "after the great patron of Faraday, as we have already stated in our notice cricket, the Duke of Dorset." In our account of of the Royal Institution in Albemarle Street,* Lord's Cricket-ground* we have entered at some was apprenticed to a bookbinder, named Ribeau, length into the history of the game of cricket; but in a small way of business. Faraday was placed as this spot was the original “Lord's," it may not here by his friends when only nine years of age,' be out of place to make here a few additional and continued in the occupation till he was twenty- ' remarks. Cricket made a great start about the one. The circumstances that occasioned Faraday year 1774; and Sir Horace Mann, who had proto exchange the work-room of the binder for the moted the game in Kent, and the Duke of Dorset laboratory of the chemist have been thus forcibly and Lord Tankerville, who seem to have been the related :

leaders of the Surrey and Hants Elevens, conjointly

• Şee Vol. IV., p. 297.

* See p. 249, ante.

Marylebone, North.]

MRS. SIDDONS.

261

with other noblemen and gentlemen, formed a Rome were there, not their representations. Another committee, under the presidency of Sir William moment, and there was no object seen but that Draper. They met at the “Star and Garter," in wonderful woman, because even the clever adjuncts Pall Mall, and laid down the first rules of cricket, vanished as if of too little moment to engross which very rules form the basis of the laws of attention. If her acting were not genius, it was cricket of this day. The Marylebone Club first the nearest thing to it upon record. In ‘Lady played their matches at “Lord's," when it occu- Macbeth' she made the beholders shiver; a thrill pied this site. It would be superfluous to say of horror seemed to run through the house; the anything about the Marylebone Club, as the rules audience—thousands in number, for every seat was of this club are the only rules recognised as filled, even the galleries—the audience was fearauthentic throughout the world, wherever cricket stricken. A sorcerer seemed to have hushed the is played

breathing of the spectators into the inactivity of Eastward of this square, and connecting the fear, as if it were the real fact that all were on the Park Road with Marylebone Road, is Upper Baker verge of some terrible catastrophe.” Some one Street. In the last house on the eastern side of remarked once to Mrs. Siddons that applause was this street lived the tragic muse, Mrs. Siddons, necessary to actors, as it gave them confidence. as we are informed by a medallion lately placed “More,” replied the actress; "it gives us breath. on its front. The house contains a few memorials It is that we live on.” of the great actress; and among them, on the We learn from “ Musical and Theatrical Anecstaircase, is a small side window of painted glass, dotes," that Mrs. Siddons, in the meridian of her designed and put up by her : it contains medallion glory, received £ 1,000 for eighty nights (i.e., about portraits of Shakespeare, Milton, Spenser, Cowley, £12 per night). Mrs. Jordan's salary, in her and Dryden. The dining and drawing-rooms, and meridian, amounted to thirty guineas per week. also what was the music-room, have bow windows John Kemble, when actor and manager at Covent looking north, and commanding a view across the Garden, was paid £36 per week; Miss O'Neill, park to Hampstead. It is worthy of remark that, £25 per week; George Cook, £20; Lewis, £20, when the houses of Cornwall Terrace were about as actor and manager. Edwin, the best buffo and to be brought close up to the gate of the park, Mrs. burletta singer that ever trod the English stage, Siddons appealed to the Prince Regent, who kindly only £14 per week. gave orders that her country view should be spared. Mrs. Siddons' father, we are told, had always The house, which is still unchanged in its internal forbidden her to marry an actor, but, of course arrangements, is now used as the estate office of like a true woman-she chose a member of the old the Portman property.

gentleman's company, whom she secretly wedded. Of her acting when in her prime, Cyrus Redding When Roger Kemble heard of it, he was furious. thus writes, in his “Fifty Years' Recollections”: “Have I not,” he exclaimed, “ dared you to marry -"My very first sight of Mrs. Siddons was in a player ?” The lady replied, with downcast eyes, "Queen Catherine.” Never did I behold anything that she had not disobeyed. “What! madam, more striking than the acting of that wonderful have you not allied yourself to about the worst woman ; for, no heroine off the boards, she was the performer in my company?” “Exactly so," murideal of heroic majesty in her personations. I have mured the timid bride ; “nobody can call him an seen real kings and queens, for the most part actor." ordinary people, and some not very dignified, but “I remember Mrs. Siddons," says Campbell, in in Siddons there was the poetry of royalty, all his life of that lady, “describing to me the scene that hedges round the ideal of majesty--the ideal of her probation on the Edinburgh boards with no of those wonderful creations of genius, which rise small humour. The grave attention of my Scottish far beyond the common images exhibited in the countrymen, and their canny reservation of praise world's dim spot. It was difficult to credit that till they are sure it is deserved,' she said, had wellher acting was an illusion. She placed the spec- | nigh worn out her patience. She had been used to tator in the presence of the original ; she identified speak to animated clay, but she now felt as if she herself with heroic life; she transferred every sense had been speaking to stones. Successive flashes of of the spectator into the scenic reality, and made her elocution, that had always been sure to electrify him cast all extraneous things aside. At such the south, fell in vain on those northern flints. Ať times, the crowded and dense audience scarcely last, as I well remember, she told me she coiled up breathed; the painted scenery seemed to become her powers to the most emphatic possible utterance one, and live with the character before it. Venice, of one passage, having previously vowed in her heart that, if this could not touch the Scotch, she In this same street lived for some years Richard would never again cross the Tweed. When it was Brothers, who, during the years 1792–4, had much finished, she paused, and looked to the audience. disturbed the minds of the credulous by his The deep silence was broken only by a single voice "prophecies." He had been a lieutenant in the exclaiming, “That's no bad !! This ludicrous par- navy. Among other extravagances promulgated by simony of praise convulsed the Edinburgh audience this man, he styled himself the “Nephew of God;" with laughter. But the laugh was followed by such he predicted the destruction of all sovereigns, the thunders of applause, that, amidst her stunned and downfall of the naval power of Great Britain, and nervous agitation, she was not without fears of the the restoration of the Jews, who, under him as their galleries coming down.”

prince and deliverer, were to be re-seated at JerusaMrs. Siddons retired from the stage in the zenith lem; all these things were to be accomplished by of her fame, in June, 1812, after appearing for the the year 1798. In the meantime, however, as last time in her favourite character of “ Lady Mac- might be expected, Mr. Brothers was removed to a beth.” She appeared, however, again on two or private madhouse, where he remained till 1806, three particular occasions between that time and when he was discharged by the authority of the 1817, and also gave, about the same time, a course Lord Chancellor, Lord Erskine. He died at his of public readings from Shakespeare at the Argyll residence in this street in 1824, and was buried at Rooms.

St. John's Wood Cemetery, as already stated. By her will, which was made in 1815, Mrs. ! A little beyond the top of Upper Baker Street, Siddons left her “leasehold house in Upper Baker on the way to St. John's Wood, is the warehouse Street” to her daughter Cecilia, together with her of Messrs. Tilbury for storing furniture, &c. The “ carriages, horses, plate, pictures, books, wine, and name of Tilbury is and will long be known in furniture, and all the money in the house and at London on account of the fashionable carriage the banker's.” She also left to her, and to her son invented by the Messrs. Tilburys' grandfather in the George, the inkstand made from a portion of the days of the Regency, and called a Tilbury, which mulberry-tree planted by Shakespeare, and the pair of gloves worn by the bard himself, which were and both have been largely superseded by the given to her by Mrs. Garrick. Mrs. Siddons her modern cabriolet, though every now and then the self, as stated above, lies buried in Paddington light and airy Tilbury re-asserts its existence in the Churchyard.

London parks.

Mrs. Garrick. himself, which were and shoeeded by the Stanhope. Eacilbury, which

CHAPTER XXI.
THE REGENT'S PARK: THE ZOOLOGICAL GARDENS, &c.

“What a dainty life the milkmaid leads,

When o'er these flowery meads
She dabbles in the dew,
And sings to her cow,
And feels not the pain
Of love or disdain.
She sleeps in the night, though she toils all the day,

And merrily passeth her time away."-Old Play.
Rural Character of the Site in Former Times--A Royal Hunting-ground-The Original Estate Disparked - Purchased from the Property of the

Duke of Portland-Commencement of the Present Park-The Park thrown open to the Public - Proposed Palace for the Prince RegentDescription of the Grounds and Ornamental Waters-The Broad Walk-Italian Gardens and Lady Burdett-Coutts' Drinking-Fountain-The Sunday Afternoon Band-Terraces and Villas-Lord Hertford and the Giants from St. Dunstan's Church-Mr. Bishop's Observatory-Explosion on the Regent's Canal - The Baptist College-Mr. James Silk Buckingham-Ugo Foscolo-Park Square-Sir Peter Laurie a Resident here-The Diorama-The Building turned into a Baptist Chapel - The Colosseum-The Great Panorama of London--The “Glaciarium"The Cyclorama of Lisbon-St. Katharine's College-The Adult Orphan Institution-Chester Terrace and Chester Place-Mrs. Fitzherbert's

Villa- The Grounds of the Toxophilite Society, The Royal Botanical Society-The Zoological Gardens. AMONG the magnificent ornaments of our metro- | sures of those who reside in the north-west quarter polis commenced under the auspices of his present of London. It is no small praise to the ComMajesty, while Regent,” we read in “Time's Tele | missioners of Woods and Forests to say that this scope" for March, 1825, “the Regent's Park ranks park is under their especial direction ; and although, high in point of utility as well as beauty, and is an from the various difficulties they have necessarily invaluable addition to the comforts and the plea- encountered, they have not been enabled to carry

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