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Št. John's Wcod.]



already passed, and the third would expire in some other persons of property; and so determined 1842, in which year he held it to be as certain were many of her followers to be deceived, that that the prophetess would arise from her grave, neither death nor dissection could convince them and give birth to Shiloh,' as that he was then of their error. Her remains were first removed a living man !” More than thirty years have to an undertaker's in Oxford Street, whence they passed away since these words were written, and were taken secretly for interment in this cemetery. the grave of Joanna Southcott has never yet given A tablet to her memory contains these lines : up the dead bones which rest in it.

“While through all thy wondrous days, Some passages in Joanna's “prophecies” are of

Heaven and earth enraptured gazed ;

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rather a practical character, if the following may be

While vain sages think they know taken as a specimen :—“I am the Lord thy God

Secrets thou alone canst show ;

Time alone will tell what hour and Master. Tell I- to pay thee five pounds

Thou 'lt appear to 'greater' power." for expenses of thy coming up to London ; and

SABINEUS. he must give thee twenty pounds to relieve the About three years after the death of Joanna Southperplexity of thy handmaid and thee, that your cott, a party of her disciples, conceiving themthoughts may be free to serve me, the Lord, in selves directed by God to proclaim the coming the care of my Shiloh.” The Lord is made to in- of the Shiloh on earth, marched in procession form his people somewhere, anxious to go to meet through Temple Bar, and the leader sounded the Shiloh at Manchester, that travelling by the a brazen trumpet, and proclaimed the coming new cut is not expensive. On her death-bed, of Shiloh, the Prince of Peace; while his wife poor Joanna is reported to have said :-“If I have shouted, “Wo! wo! to the inhabitants of the been misled, it has been by some spirit, good or earth, because of the coming of Shiloh !” The evil.” In her last hours, Joanna was attended by crowds pelted the fanatics with mud, some disAnn Underwood, her secretary ; Mr. Tozer, who turbance ensued, and some of the disciples had was called her high-priest; Colonel Harwood, and I to answer for their conduct before a magistrate.


“ Suburban villas, highway-side retreats,

That dread th' encroachment of our growing streets,
Tight boxes, neatly sash'd, and in a blaze
With all a July sun's collected rays,
Delight the citizen, who, gasping there,
Breathes clouds of dust, and calls it country air.”—Cowper.

North Bank and South Bank-Rural Aspect of the Neighbourhood Half a century Ago-Marylebone Park-Taverns and Tea-gardens - The

Queen's Head and Artichoke"- The “Harp"--The “Farthing Pie House"- The “Yorkshire Stingo"-The Introduction of London Omnibuses by Mr. Shillibeer-Marylebone Baths and Washhouses-Queen Charlotte's Lying-in Hospital-The New Road-The Paddington Stage-Coach-A Proposed Boulevard round the Outskirts of London-Dangers of the Road-Lisson Grove-The Philological School-A Favourite Locality for Artists-John Martin, R.A.-Chapel Street-Leigh Hunt-Church Street, The Royal Alfred TheatreMetropolitan Music-Hall-Portman Market-Blandford Square-The Convent of the Sisters of Mercy--Michael Faraday as a BookbinderHarewood Square-Dorset Square-The Original “Lord's ” Cricket Ground-Upper Baker Street-Mrs. Siddons' Residence- The

Notorious Richard Brothers – Invention of the “Tilbury." The district through which we are now about to | besides nearly the whole of what is now Regent's pass lies between Edgware Road and Regent's Park, was at one time known as Marylebone Park, Park, and the St. John's Wood Road and Maryle- and was of course attached to the old Manor bone Road. At the beginning of the century, House, which we have already described.† A Cowper's lines quoted above might, perhaps, have reminiscence of the Manor House, with its garden, been more applicable to it than now; but even to park, and environs, as they stood in the time of this day they are not altogether out of place when Queen Elizabeth, when her Majesty here enterapplied to those parts lying to the north of Lisson tained the Russian ambassadors with a stag hunt Grove, more especially towards the Park Road, in the said park, is preserved in a drawing made and to the villas known respectively as North by Gasselin in 1700, and re-published by Mr. J. T. Bank and South Bank, the gardens of which slope Smith in 1800. Marylebone Park Farm and its down towards the Regent's Canal, which passes cow-sheds, which covered the rising ground almost between them. Here we have “trim gardens," as far northward as Le Notre's Canal, has now lawns, and shrubs; towering spires, banks clothed become metamorphosed into a rural city. From with flowers ; indeed, all the elegances of the 1786 to 1792, the additions and improvements in town and all the beauties of the country are at this neighbourhood were carried into effect in quick this spot happily commingled.

succession. Almost all of the Duke of Portland's Of the early history of Marylebone, and of that property in Marylebone, except one farm, was let portion of the parish lying on the south side of at that period on building leases, and the new the Marylebone Road, we have already spoken ;* buildings in the north-west part of the parish inbut we may add here that at the beginning of the creased with equal rapidity. The large estates eighteenth century the place was a small village, at Lisson Grove, in process of time, all became quite surrounded by fields, and nearly a mile dis- extensively and, in many instances, tastefully built tant from any part of the great metropolis. Indeed, upon. down to a much later date-namely, about 1820-1 A correspondent of “Hone's Year-Book” writes, we have seen an oil-painting, by John Glover, of in 1832, with an almost touching tenderness about Primrose Hill and the ornamental water in the “ Marylebone Park," the memory of which name Regent's Park, taken from near the top of Upper has long since passed away, confessing that it Baker Street or Clarence Gate, in the front of “holds in his affections a far dearer place than its which are a party of haymakers, sketched from more splendid but less rural successor "-referring, life, and there are only three houses dotted about of course, to the Regent's Park. This, too, is near the then new parish church of Marylebone. the romantic district through which Mr. Charles Indeed, at the commencement of the present | Dickens, in the person of his “Uncommercial century Marylebone was a suburban retreat, amid Traveller," must have descried at a distance in “green fields and babbling brooks." A consider the course of his “various solitary rambles," which able extent of ground on the north side of what is he professes to have " taken northward for his now called the Marylebone Road, and comprising retirement,” the West-end out of season, " along

• See Vol. IV., p. 428 et seg.

op Sce Vol. IV., p. 429.

Marylebone, North.]



the awful perspectives of Wimpole Street, Harley i.e., toy-trumpet. There was another tavern, with Street, and similar frowning districts.”

tea-gardens, bearing the same sign at Islington, But the district in former times was made attrac- down to the end of last century. tive for the pent-up Londoner by its public tea- Mr. J. T. Smith, in his “ Book for a Rainy Day," gardens and bowered taverns. Of the last-named under date of 1772, gives us the following graphic we may mention the “ Queen's Head and Arti- sketch of this locality at that period :—“My dear choke," which stood near what is now the southern mother's declining state of health," he writes, end of Albany Street, not far from Trinity Church. "urged my father to consult Dr. Armstrong, who “At the beginning of this century," says Mr. Jacob recommended her to rise early and take milk at Larwood, in his “ History of Sign-boards," " when the cow-house. I was her companion then ; and Marylebone consisted of 'green fields, babbling I well remember that, after we had passed Portbrooks,' and pleasant suburban retreats, there was land Chapel, there were fields all the way on either a small but picturesque house of public entertain- side. The highway was irregular, with here and ment, yclept the Queen's Head and Artichoke,' there a bank of separation; and that when we had situated in a lane nearly opposite Portland Road, crossed the New Road, there was a turnstile * at and about 500 yards from the road that leads from the entrance of a meadow, leading to a little old Paddington to Finsbury'--now Albany Street. public-house, the sign of the Queen's Head and Its attractions chiefly consisted in a long skittle Artichoke;' it was much weather-beaten, though, and ‘bumble-puppy' ground, shadowy bowers, and perhaps, once a tolerably good portrait of Queen abundance of cream, tea, cakes, and other creature Elizabeth. . . . A little beyond a nest of small comforts. The only memorial now remaining of houses contiguous was another turnstile, opening the original house is an engraving in the Gentleman's also into fields, over which we walked to the ‘Jew's Magazine for November, 1819. The queen was Harp House Tavern and Tea-Gardens.' It conQueen Elizabeth, and the house was reported to sisted of a large upper room, ascended by an outhave been built by one of her gardeners: whence side staircase, for the accommodation of the comthe strange combination on the sign."

pany on ball nights; and in this room large parties Mr. Larwood tells us an anecdote about some dined. At the south front of these premises was a other public gardens in this neighbourhood, which large semi-circular enclosure with boxes for tea and is equally new to most readers, and interesting ale-drinkers, guarded by deal-board soldiers between to the topographer and the biographer. “There every box, painted in proper colours. In the centre was," he remarks, “in former times, a house of of this opening were tables and seats placed for amusement called the 'Jew's Harp,' with bowery the smokers. On the eastern side of the house tea-gardens and thickly-foliaged snuggéries, near there was a trapball-ground; the western side what now is the top of Portland Place. Mr. served for a tennis-hall; there were also public and Onslow, the Speaker of the House of Commons private skittle-grounds. Behind this tavern were in the reign of George II., used to resort thither several small tenements, with a pretty good portion in plain attire when able to escape from his chair of ground to each. On the south of the teaof office, and, sitting in the chimney-corner, to gardens a number of summer-houses and gardens, join in the humours of the other guests and fitted up in the truest cockney taste ; for on many customers. This he continued to do for some of these castellated edifices wooden cannons were time, until one day he unfortunately happened placed ; and at the entrance of each domain, of to be recognised by the landlord, as he was about the twentieth part of an acre, the old inriding, or rather driving, in his carriage of state scription of 'Steel-traps and spring-guns all over down to the Houses of Parliament; and, in con- these grounds,' with an ‘N.B.- Dogs trespassing, sequence, he found, on the occasion of his next will be shot. In these rural retreats the tenant visit, that his incognito had been betrayed. This was usually seen on Sunday evening in a bright broke the charm-for him, at least; and, like the scarlet waistcoat, ruffled shirt, and silver shoefairies in the legend, he 'never returned there any buckles, comfortably taking his tea with his family, more again from that day.'” From Ben Jonson's honouring a Seven-Dial friend with a nod on his play, The Devil's an Ass, act i., scene 1, it appears peregrination to the famed Wells of Kilburn. that it was formerly the custom to keep in taverns William's Farm, the extent of my mother's walk, a fool, who, for the edification of customers, used stood at about a quarter of a mile south ; and I to sit on a stool and play the Jew's harp, or some remember that the room in which she sat to take other humble instrument. The Jew's harp, we may add, was an instrument formerly called jeu trompe, House.”

1 . Called, in an early plan which I have since seen, “The White

the milk was called 'Queen Elizabeth's Kitchen,' I which it was anticipated would be erected, when it and that there was some stained glass in the had been proved that the receipts, at the very low windows."

rate of charge contemplated, would be sufficient At the top of Portland Road, close to the station to cover the expenses, and gradually to repay the on the Metropolitan Railway, stands the “Green capital invested. The committee then appointed Man” tavern. It occupies the site of the old partially completed the model establishment in “ Farthing Pie House "--a sign not uncommon in Goulston Square, Whitechapel, in 1847, and opened the suburbs in the early part of the eighteenth forty baths to the public, the demand for which by century-of which we have already given an the working classes has established beyond doubt illustration.*

the soundness of the principles which actuated the Farther westward along the Marylebone Road, committee; and such was the attention attracted nearly opposite Chapel Street and the entrance to to the subject by its proceedings, that the GovernLisson Grove, is a house bearing the well-known ment, at the suggestion and instigation of the late sign of the “ Yorkshire Stingo.” This tavern is Rev. Sir Henry Dukinfield, Bart., the then Rector memorable as the house from which the first pair of St. Martin's-in-the-Fields, induced Parliament to of London omnibuses were started, July 4th, 1829, pass an Act to enable boroughs and parishes to by the introducer of that conveyance into London, raise money on the security of the rates, for the Mr. John Shillibeer, having already, for several purpose of building baths and washhouses in all months, been adopted in the streets of Paris. parts of the country.

They were drawn by three horses abreast, and Near the “ Yorkshire Stingo" is Queen Charlotte's were such a novelty, that the neighbours used to Lying-in Hospital, originally established at Bayscome out from their houses in order to see them water, as we have already stated. start. They ran to the Bank and back, and were The New Road, connecting the corner of Lisson constructed to carry twenty-two passengers, all Grove with the village of Islington, was formed in inside ; the fare was a shilling, or sixpence for 1757, not without great opposition from the Duke half the distance, a sum which included the luxury of Bedford, who succeeded in obtaining the inserof the use of a newspaper. It is said that the first tion of a clause in the Act forbidding any buildconductors were the two sons of a British naval ings being erected within fifty feet of either side of officer. It was not till several years afterwards the roadway. This accounts for the long gardens that the outside of omnibuses was made available which extend in front of the rows of houses on for passengers, and the “knife-board” along the either side, many of which have been converted roof is quite a modern invention. Mr. Shillibeer into stonemasons' yards, though some few have is widely known in connection with the funeral been built upon. This thoroughfare was called the carriages which bear his name ; but the benefits New Road, a name which it retained for a century, which he conferred on living inside passengers as when the eastern portion was named the Euston well ought not to be forgotten. There is “nothing Road, and the western part the Marylebone Road. new, however, under the sun,” and the omnibus is This road, at the commencement of the present little more than a modification or improvement of century, was the route taken by the Paddington the old Greenwich stage of the time of George IV. stage-coach, which travelled twice a day to the City

Nearly adjoining the “ Yorkshire Stingo” on the and back. Hone, in his “Year-Book," tells us that east are the Baths and Washhouses for the parish “it was driven by the proprietor, or rather, dragged of Marylebone, to which we have already had tediously along the clayey road from Paddington to occasion to allude, in our account of Paddington.t the City in the morning, performing its journey in These baths and washhouses were among the first about two hours and a half, .quick time!' It reof the kind erected in the metropolis; the build-turned to Paddington in the evening within three ing, which is a fine structure, was erected from the hours from its leaving the City; and this was deemed designs of Mr. Eales. As we learn from Weale's fair time,' considering the necessity for precaution work on “London,” these institutions, which have against the accidents of night travelling." In within the last twenty years rapidly increased in order to explain the length of time occupied by London as well as in the country, originated in the “Paddington stage” on its way into the City, it a public meeting held at the Mansion House, in should be stated that, after winding its way slowly 1844, when a large subscription was raised to build through the miry ruts of the Marylebone Road, an establishment to serve as a model for others New Road, and Gray's Inn Road, it waited an

hour or so at the “ Blue Posts,” Holborn Bars. The * See Vol. IV., p. 432. Sec ante, p. 218.

route to the Bank by way of the City Road was as

Marylebone, North.)



yet a thing unthought of; and the driver of the will prove. We have already mentioned some inHampstead or Paddington stage who first achieved stances in our account of Marylebone Gardens ; * that daring feat was regarded with admiration and we may add that we read in the papers of somewhat akin to that bestowed on the man who the time that “on the 23rd of July, 1763, one first “doubled the Cape" on his way to India. Richard Watson, tollman of Marylebone Turnpike,

This allusion to the Paddington stages is curious, was found barbarously murdered in his toll-house; in the preface to the Penny Magazine, in 1832 :- upon which, and some attempts made on other “In a book upon the poor, published in 1673, called toll-houses, the trustees of the turnpikes have come

The Grand Concern of England Explained,' we to a resolution to increase the number of the tollfind the following singular proposal :-'That the gatherers, and furnish them with arms, enjoining multitude of stage-coaches and caravans, now them not to keep any money at the toll-bars after travelling upon the roads, may all, or most of them, eight o'clock at night." be suppressed, especially those within forty, fifty, Lisson - or, more properly, Lileston-Grove, or sixty miles of London. The evil of the stage occupying the site of what was once Lisson Green, coaches is somewhat difficult to be perceived at is thus mentioned by Lysons, in his “ Environs of the present day; but this ingenious author had no London :"_" The manor of Lilestone, containing doubt whatever on the matter, ‘for,' says he, will five hides (now Lisson Green, in the parish of any man keep a horse for himself, and another Marylebone), is mentioned in Doomsday-book for his man, all the year, for to ride one or two among the lands of Ossulston Hundred, given in journeys, that at pleasure, when he hath occasion, alms..... This manor became the property can step to any place where his business lies, for of the priory of St. John of Jerusalem ; on the two, three, or four shillings, if within twenty miles suppression of which it was granted, anno 1548, of London, and so proportionably into any part of to Thomas Heneage and Lord Willoughby, vho England ?' We laugh at the lamentation over the conveyed it in the same year to Edward, Duke of evil of stage-coachs, because we daily see or ex- Somerset. On his attainder it reverted to the Crown, perience the benefits of the thousands of public and was granted, anno 1564, to Edward Downing, conveyances carrying forward the personal inter- who conveyed it the same year to John Milner, Esq., course of a busy population, and equally useful then lessee under the Crown. After the death of whether they run from Paddington to the Bank, his descendant, John Milner, Esq., anno 1753, it or from the General Post Office to Edinburgh.” passed under his will to William Lloyd, Esq. The

Mr. Loudoun, as far back as the reign of manor of Lisson Green (being then the property George IV., proposed the formation of a promenade of Captain Lloyd, of the Guards) was sold in lots, or boulevard round what were then the outskirts anno 1792. The largest lot, containing the site of London, by combining the New Road west of the manor, was purchased by John Harcourt, wards along this course to Hyde Park, thence Esq., M.P.” crossing the Serpentine, and coming out opposite In Marylebone Road, at the corner of Lisson Sloane Street; then along this road and part of Grove, is the Philological School, a handsome the King's Road to Vauxhall Bridge, and thence Gothic building, of red brick, with stone dressings. across Lambeth and Southwark to Blackheath, and It was founded in 1792, and is now in union with through Greenwich Park, and on a high viaduct King's College. Education is here afforded, almost across the Thames; so by the City Road back to free of cost, to a certain number of boys, the sons the New Road. The “northern boulevard," which of professional gentlemen, who have suffered under it was intended to have planted with trees, was to the blows of fortune. have been extended westwards from the “York-! At a lonely public-house at the corner of this shire Stingo" down the centre of Oxford and Cam- street, the tradition is that foot-travellers, at the bridge Terraces; but difficulties intervened, and end of the last century, used to collect their forces the road was never carried out according to the and examine their fire-arms before attempting the original design. Had this great work been carried dangerous crossing of “ Lisson Fields." out in its entirety, it is possible that the outlying As the streets about were few, and the space to districts of London might have been better protected the north was an open field, Lisson Grove was a from the depredations of footpads and highwaymen, favourite neighbourhood for artists, especially on which at one time would seem to have been the rule account of the excellence of the light. Not far rather than the exception. That Marylebone, in the off, along the New Road, lived John Martin, R. A., middle of the last century, was one of the worst neighbourhoods in this respect, numerous records

* See Vol. IV., p. 435.

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