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lections,” states that one of its residents at the Thomas Lord in 1780, of which we shall have more beginning of the present century was a lady of to say presently. some means, the owner of a villa here, who used to According to Mr. Wood's “Ecclesiastical Anentertain George Brummell too hospitably when he tiquities of London,” it was originally called “Great was a boy at school; and that one day the future St. John's Wood,” near Marylebone Park, to distin“ Beau," having stuffed himself almost to bursting, guish it from Little St. John's Wood, at Highbury. broke out into a flood of tears, regretting that his Here, as tradition says, Babington and his comstomach would not stretch any further so as to hold rades in his conspiracy to murder Lord Burghley, more plum-cake. In 1826, “Brondesbury House, in the reign of Elizabeth, sought refuge. Many near Kilburn,” figures in the Blue Book as the of the houses in the neighbourhood are detached country seat of Sir Coutts Trotter, whose town or semi-detached, and in most of the principal house was in Grosvenor Square.

thoroughfares they are shut in from the roadway by Within the last few years, the growth of London brick walls and gardens; and altogether the place in this direction has been rapid and continuous : has an air of quietude and seclusion, and, as might long rows of terraces, streets, and villas having almost be expected, has long been a favourite sprung up in all directions. Two or three railway-abode of the members of the literary and artistic stations have been built within the limits of Kil professions. burn and Brondesbury, and churches, chapels, In St. John's Wood Road—which connects Maida schools, a town hall, and other public buildings Hill with the Regent's Park—was the residence have been erected. Of the churches, the only one of the late Sir Edwin Landseer, and here the calling for special mention is St. Augustine's, a renowned painter spent much of his life. He large red-brick Gothic structure, which has become arranged the construction of the house so as to noted for its ritualistic or “high church” services. suit his own tastes, and to afford him the most

As to the rest of Kilburn, there is little to be favourable facilities for pursuing the art to which said beyond mentioning the tradition, long fondly he was so devoted. In his studio here many of cherished in the neighbourhood, that Oliver Gold- his most celebrated works were executed. The smith wrote his comedy, She Stoops to Conquer, house is situated on the south side of the main and his Deserted Village, whilst lodging in a house road, between Grove Road and Cunningham Place, which stood on the spot now occupied by “Gold-and, with the grounds belonging to it, occupies an smith's Place.” The tradition, however, may have area of about two acres. Sir Edwin Landseer was no other foundation than the fact that Boswell the youngest son of John Landseer, A.R.A., some in his “Life of Johnson” tells us that Goldsmith time Associate Engraver to the Royal Academy, and had “taken lodgings at a farmer's house.... was born in 1802. He excelled in the painting of on the Edgware Road,” adding that “ He said he animals while still a boy, and became a student of believed the farmer's family thought him an odd the Academy in 1816. Among the best known of character, similar to that in which the Spectator his numerous pictures are the following :-"A appeared to his landlady and her children-he Highland Breakfast,” “The Twa Dogs," " There's was The Gentleman.” The house here referred no Place like Home," “Comical Dogs," “War” to, however, is in Hyde Lane, “near the village of and “Peace,” “Bolton Abbey in the Olden Time," Hyde, looking towards Hendon.”

“ The Duke of Wellington, accompanied by his Opposite to the entrance of Willesden Lane Daughter-in-law, visiting the Field of Waterloo," formerly stood a quaint-looking old building, mainly “Deer-stalking,” “Windsor Park,” and “Man of wood, with high-pointed roofs, now known as Proposes, but God Disposes.” One of his latest Lausanne Cottage, but which was said to have designs was that for the lions at the base of the been used as a hunting-box, or as a kennel for his Nelson Monument, Trafalgar Square. In 1866 he favourite spaniels, by King Charles II. In one of the was elected President of the Royal Academy, but rooms there was to be seen a fine old carved mantel. he declined to serve. He died here in 1873, and piece, probably as old as the reign of James I, his remains were interred in St. Paul's Cathedral.

St. John's Wood, to which we now pass, was so At No. 30, South Bank, lived Thomas Landseer, called after its former possessors, the Priors of St. the elder brother of Sir Edwin. He occupied for John of Jerusalem. It is now a thickly-peopled many years a distinguished place as an engraver, suburban district, which has gradually grown up and constantly exhibited his engravings at the around the western boundaries of the Regent's Royal Academy. In 1860-61 he added to his Park, enclosing the then rural and retired cricket- previous reputation by his finely-executed plate of ground which had been formed there by Mr. | Rosa Bonheur's “Horse Fair."

on the spot Tition, however, n Boswell the y Associate E

St. John's Wood.)



action was triel, ooo a side. This advertised for

Cyrus Redding lived in Hill Road; Mr. J. A. / “ stands"-after the fashion of those on raceSt. John, too, was a resident in St. John's Wood; courses—where visitors can sit and witness the as also was Douglas Jerrold, who lived close to matches that are here played. The present ground Kilburn Priory. Charles Knight (for a short time) superseded the space now covered by Dorset resided in Maida Vale; and a certain Lord de Square, which had served for some years as the Ros, who closed his inglorious career in 1839, “ old Marylebone” ground. lived at No. 4, Grove Road. In the Grove Road, At the end of the last century men played too, in 1866, died Mr. George Osbaldiston, the cricket in summer at the old Artillery Ground, in sporting squire. He was born at Hutton Bushell, Finsbury, in the days when they skated on Moorin Yorkshire, but losing his father when only six fields in the winter, and shot snipes in Belgravia. years of age, he went to reside with his mother, At the old Artillery Ground, so large was the atat Bath, where he received his first lessons in tendance, and so heavy were the stakes, that a riding, from Dash, the celebrated teacher of the writer in an old newspaper complains of the idlelast century. He subsequently entered at Brase- ness of the City apprentices in consequence, and nose College, Oxford, and, while still an under of the unblushing way in which the laws against graduate here, commenced his career as master gaming were broken, matches being advertised for of hounds, with a pack which he purchased from £500, or even £1,000 a side. Indeed, in 1750, the Earl of Jersey. The entire career of Mr. an action was tried in the King's Bench for the Osbaldiston, as a master of hounds, lasted during sum of £50, being a bet laid and won on a game a period of thirty-five years. He further became of cricket-Kent v. England. famous as a most bold and daring rider of steeple- But at this time cricket was deemed a vulgar chases, in which he had no superior, and is said to game. Robert Southey states the fact, and quotes have never been beaten. His celebrated 200-mile No. 132 of the Connoisseur, dated 1756, where we match took place at Newmarket, in November, are introduced to one Mr. Tony Bumper “drink1831. “Squire Osbaldiston,” as he was familiarly ing purl in the morning, eating black-puddings at called, was creditably known upon the turf, and, in Bartholomew Fair, boxing with Buckhorse (the fact, in every branch of field sports.

most celebrated of the old pugilists), and also as Another noted resident in St. John's Wood was frequently engaged at the Artillery Ground with M. Soyer, with whose name, in connection with Faukner and Dingate at cricket, and considered as the culinary art, we have already made our readers good a bat as either of the Bennets." acquainted, in our accounts of the Reform Club and | One who reads with all the curiosity and interest Kensington Gore.* He died in August, 1858, of a cricketer will pick up little notices, which, when after a short illness, at 15, Marlborough Road. M. put together, throw light on the early history of the Soyer, who was of French extraction, had been for game, and show its spread, and how early it had many years known as a culinary benefactor to the taken root in the land; for instance, in Smith's public, and more particularly during the war with Life of Nollekens," we are told that Alderman Russia, a few years before his death; his success in Boydell, the etcher and printseller, had many shops, ameliorating the condition, in a culinary view, of but that the best was the sign of “ The Cricket the army in the Crimea, was well known to all. Bat," in Duke's Court, St. Martin's Lane. This Subsequent to his return to England he prepared a was in 1750. Again, in one of the caricatures of new dietary for military hospitals, as well as for 1770, in Mr. Wright's collection, Lord Sandwich is Government emigrants, both of which were adopted represented with a bat in his hand, in allusion to by the authorities. He was also the author of his fondness for cricket; but it is a curved piece of “The Gastronomic Regenerator," a cookery-book wood, more like a modern golf club. A bat also for the upper classes; “Pantropheon, or History of is placed satirically in the hand of a cricket-loving Food;” “Shilling Cookery,” and “A Culinary lady, in a print of 1778—“Miss Wicket,” with her Campaign,” which gives a vivid description of the friend, “Miss Trigger"—fast ladies both, no doubt, Crimean war.

in their day. In 1706, William Goldwin, an “old On the north side of St. John's Wood Road is king's man," published in Musæ Juveniles a poem Lord's Cricket Ground, a spot that has become called “ Certamen Pilæ," or "The Cricket Match.” famous in the annals of the manly and invigorating “A ram and bat, 9d.,” figures as one of the ten game of cricket. The ground is some six or seven extras in an Eton boy's school-bill, as far back as acres in extent, and on it are erected permanent | 1688.

When the game grew “genteel,” men of position • See Vol. IV., p. 149, and p. 122, ante.

aspired to better company than the City apprentices,

1859, ine Aadies' Hon

niversities of between board, 1o.din

their perhaps 1700, Widow Corppas established in

and founded a club in White Conduit Fields. But Finchley Road, called the “Eyre Arms.” The hard indeed it were in these days to pitch good grounds belonging to this house were occasionally wickets within view of the Foundling Hospital. the scene of balloon ascents in the early days of So Thomas Lord then came upon the stage-a aëronautics. One of the latest was the ascent of canny lad from the north country—who, after wait- Mr. Hampton here on the 7th of June, 1839. ing on Lords Darnley and Winchilsea, Sir Horace In the rear of the inn is a large concert-room, Mann, the Duke of Dorset, and others of their which is often used for balls, bazaars, public contemporaries in the White Conduit Fields Club, lectures, &c.; and on the opposite side of the speculated in a ground of his own, where now, way is the St. John's Wood Athenæum, which as we have stated above, is Dorset Square, the serves as a club for the residents of the neighoriginal “Lord's." This was in 1780. It was on bourhood. this ground that the club, taking the name of the Close by, in Circus Road, the Emperor Napoleon Marylebone Cricket Club, brought the game to lived for some time during his sojourn in England; perfection.

and in Ordnance Road, between St. John's Wood In a map of London published in 1802, the site and the west side of Primrose Hill, are some of Dorset Square is marked as “The Cricket barracks, generally occupied by a regiment of the Ground,” probably implying that it was the only Line or of the Guards. public ground then devoted to that sport in the Among the various charitable and provident neighbourhood of London.

institutions here is the Ladies' Home, which was On the present ground is annually fought the founded in 1859, in Abbey Road. It affords “great batting match," as it is called, between board, lodging, and medical attendance to ladies Harrow and Eton. The two Universities of Oxford of limited income, each paying from 16s. to 14s. and Cambridge, likewise, here enter into friendly per week. In the St. John's Wood Road are the rivalry, some months after their perhaps more girls' schools belonging to the Clergy Orphan and exciting contest on the River Thames. Here, too, Widow Corporation. The objects of this institunearly all the great cricket matches of the metro- tion, which was established in 1749, are to clothe, politan clubs and southern counties of England are educate, and maintain the poor orphans of clergyplayed.

men. This charity is one of the most extensive in Apropos of Lord's Cricket Ground, we may add the kingdom, and has greatly assisted the orphans that there is nothing in which a more visible im- of a large number of clergymen in beginning life. provement has taken place than in our sports. The The boys' school in connection with the institution prize-ring and bear-garden, dog-fighting and rat- is at Canterbury. killing, are things of the past ; but our glorious boat- Another old and useful institution is the School races, in which we are the first in the world ; of Industry for Female Orphans, which was estabcricket, in which we have no rivals; and athletic lished in 1786, in Grove Road. The school will sports-running, jumping the hurdles-in which we accommodate about eighty girls, but it has rarely, if have reached to the highest perfection. The Duke ever, mustered above fifty at one time, the number of Wellington attributed a great deal of his success being restricted by the funds. Board, clothing, and in war to the athletic exercises which Englishmen education is here given to girls who have lost both had practised in peace. The steady nerve, quick parents. eye, and command of every muscle, exercised con- At the top of the Avenue Road, close to the siderable power in the battle-field. On the Con- Swiss Cottage, is the School for the Blind, founded tinent these games are almost unknown, and the in 1838, and erected from the designs of a Mr. biggest Frenchman or Prussian is the veriest baby Kendal. It will accommodate about too inmates, in the hands of an Englishman in any physical male and female. The school was established for display. We attribute a good deal of the temper- the purpose of imparting secular knowledge and ance which characterises this age of ours to the the fundamental doctrines of Christianity, and growth of those sports ; for the intemperate man, teaching the blind to read by means of embossed shattered in nerves and dim of eye, has no chance or raised print. A portion of the pupils are rein such noble pastimes.

ceived free; others pay a small sum half-yearly. Much of the land in and about St. John's Wood The course of instruction given in the school, it belongs to the family of Eyre, whose estate adjoins may be added, is as complete as it well could be, those of Lord Portman and the Duke of Port- and is fitted, in so far as that is possible, to enable land; their name is kept fresh in remembrance by the pupils, despite their sorrowful deprivation, to the sign given to a tavern of some note in the earn their own livelihood, and to take their place St. John's Wood.]



of usefulness and honour in the work of life, side wings on each side have been converted into by side with those who possess all the inestimable dwelling-houses, one of them serving as a residence advantages of sight. In the industrial department, for the clergy. The windows of the chapel are the work among the boys consists chiefly of basket- “lancets,” after the fashion of the twelfth or early making and chair-caning; amongst the girls, of part of the thirteenth century, and are filled with chair-caning, knitting, and bead-work. Of the stained glass, principally as memorial windows. progress made by the pupils generally, Mr. Charles Hamilton Terrace and the surrounding streets Richards, the literary examiner, made the following commemorate, by their names, the governors and encouraging remarks in his annual report to the other authorities of Harrow School in the last committee of the institution, in May, 1876 :- generation. Aberdeen Place, Abercorn Place, Speaking of the boys, he says, “ The difficulty in Cunningham Place, Northwick Terrace, &c., at all learning to write to one who is unable to see a events, serve to show that the foundation of the copy is evident; but by means of embossed letters, honest yeoman of Preston, John Lyon, is not in &c., the difficulty has been so far overcome that danger of being forgotten or useless. many of the boys are able to write very creditably. In Hamilton Terrace is the large Church of St. I was somewhat surprised to find that those who Mark's. It was built in 1847, in the Gothic style of had been at the school a few months only were architecture, from the designs of Messrs. Cundy. able to read very fairly. The reading of the others. At the junction of the Finchley and St. John's would compare favourably with that of boys of Wood Roads, close by the station on the Undertheir age who have the advantage of sight. ... ground Railway, is the 'St. John's Wood Chapel, Arithmetic is worked on boards with movable type, with its burial-ground, in which a few individuals and necessarily takes more time than if worked of note have been buried; and among them the with slate and pencil. Some have advanced as far impostors, Richard Brothers and Joanna Southcott. as the extraction of square and cube roots. All of the former of these two characters we have the examples were correctly worked, and I. con- spoken in our account of Paddington* Joanna sider this part of the examination to have been Southcott was a native of Devonshire, and was very satisfactory. ... In history, geography, born about the middle of the last century. In her grammar, and religious knowledge, I was altogether youth she lived as a domestic servant, chiefly in satisfied. The answers were given readily, and Exeter, and having joined the Methodists, became showed an intelligent knowledge of the subjects." acquainted with a man named Sanderson, who Of the instruction of the girls in this department laid claim to the spirit of prophecy, a pretenMr. Richards' report is equally satisfactory, and he sion in which she herself ultimately indulged. In concludes by saying that he “cannot speak too 1792, she declared herself to be the woman driven highly of the excellent discipline in both schools, into the wilderness, the subject of the prophecy the principle of government being love rather than in the 12th chapter of the Book of Revelation. severity.”

She gave forth predictions in prose and doggerel The Roman Catholic Chapel in Grove Road rhyme, in which she related the denunciation of is a large Gothic structure, built about the year judgments on the surrounding nations, and pro1836, through the munificence of two maiden mised a speedy approach of the Millennium. In ladies of the name of Gallini, whose father, the course of her “mission,” as she called it, she an Italian refugee, had settled in London, and employed a boy, who pretended to see visions, having taught dancing to sundry members of the and attempted, instead of writing, to adjust them royal family, became Sir John Gallini.* So noble on the walls of her chapel, “the House of God.” and generous was their gift esteemed that they were A schism took place among her followers, one of rewarded with a magnificent testimonial from the whom, named Carpenter, took possession of the Roman Catholic ladies of England, presented by place, and wrote against her: not denying her the hands of the Princess Donna Isabella Maria mission, but asserting that she had exceeded it. of Portugal. The chapel was one of the early Although very illiterate, she wrote numerous letters works of Mr. J. J. Scoles, and is a rather poor repro- and pamphlets, which were published, and found duction of some of the features of the Lady Chapel many purchasers. One of her productions was in St. Saviour's Church, Southwark. It is a cruci- called “The Book of Wonders.” She also issued form structure, in the “Early English" style, and to her followers sealed papers, which she termed it consists of a nave, chancel, and side aisles; the her “seals,” and which, she assured them, would

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protect them from the judgments of God, both in however, were not to be undeceived, and for some this and the other world, assuring them final time continued to believe that she would rise again salvation. Strange as it may seem, thousands of from her "trance," and appear as the mother of the persons received these with implicit confidence, promised Shiloh. and among them were a few men and women of Mr. James Grant writes thus, in his “ Travels in good education and a respectable position in Town,” published in 1839 :"Many persons will society. In course of time Joanna is said to have be surprised when they are informed that Joanna imagined herself to have the usual symptoms of Southcott has still her followers in London. I pregnancy, and announced that she was to give cannot state with certainty what their number is,

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birth, at midnight, on the 19th of October, 1814, but I have reason to believe it is 200 or 300 at to a second “Shiloh,” or Prince of Peace, miracu- least. They meet together on Sundays, but I have lously conceived, she being then more than sixty not been able to discover the exact place; but I years of age. The infatuation of her followers was know they are most numerous in the parishes of such that they received this announcement with St. Luke and Shoreditch. I lately met one of devout reverence, prepared an expensive cradle, their preachers, or 'prophets,' and had some conand spent considerable sums, in order that all might versation with him. He was evidently a man of be suitable for so great and interesting an occasion. education, and strenuously maintained the Divine The expected birth did not take place ; but on mission of Joanna. When I asked him how he the 27th of December, 1814, the woman died, at got over the non-fulfilment of the promise, or her house in Manchester Street.* On a post rather the assurance, which she made to her mortem examination, it was found that the appear 50,000 followers that she would rise from the ance of pregnancy which had deceived others, and dead on the third day, his answer was that the perhaps herself, was due to dropsy. Her followers, expression three days' was not to be taken in a

literal sense, but as denoting three certain periods * Sec Vol. IV., p. 435.

I of time. Two of these periods, he said, had

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