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for years after other suburbs had been built upon; wed, if she would escape the unhappiness which and it was not until comparatively a recent date had darkened the married life of her parents. The that the tea-gardens, and other similar low haunts of fortunate individual who pleased her taste was debauchery, gave way to the elegant and stately not long in appearing; and her marriage with buildings with which it is now covered.” It is Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg was solemnised, ere impossible not to recognise these places of amuse- long, with her father's consent, and with the hearty ment in the portrait which Charles Dickens gives good wishes of the people. The Prince himself, us, in his “Sketches by Boz," of the typical then a humble cadet of a petty German house, London tea-gardens, with their snug boxes and was travelling in England; he met the Princess alcoves; the men and women, boys and girls, Charlotte at one of the many mansions of the sweethearts and married folk, babies in arms and aristocracy, and he soon obtained an interest in children in chaises, the pipes and the shrimps, the her affections, and also the consent of the Prince cigars and the periwinkles, the tea and tobacco, Regent, who was probably glad enough to get his are each and all described with a skill almost equal intractable daughter off his hands at any price. to that of a photographer. To the particular Leopold at that time was one of the noblest. "Sketch” entitled “London Recreations" we must looking young princes in Europe. Tall and refer our readers for all further details. As we princely in his bearing, and fascinating in his have shown in the preceding chapter, the last of manners, a brave soldier, and an accomplished the tea-gardens—covering what is now Lancaster courtier, he was worthy to win such a prize. They Gate-did not disappear until about 1855. were married on May 2nd, 1816. Alas! within a

At Connaught House, Connaught Place, close little more than a year the great bell of St. Paul's by the Edgware Road, the unfortunate Caroline, was tolled to announce to a sorrowing people the Princess of Wales, took up her residence when death of the princess in giving birth to a dead banished from the Palace; and hither came the infant ! Princess Charlotte in a hackney-coach, when she The sale of the effects of the Princess of Wales, quarrelled with her father and left Warwick House, at Connaught House, took place in October, 1814. as we have stated in our account of that place.* The name of the mansion was at a later date The young princess, as she advanced towards changed to Arklow House; the latter, like the womanhood, became more and more intractable former, being one of the titles inherent in the and wilful. In the end, the Regent and his royal family. The late Duke of Sussex was also Ministers thought the best step would be to find Baron of Arklow. Sir Augustus D'Este, son of her a husband; and the youthful Prince of Orange the Duke of Sussex, lived here for some time was suggested as the most eligible. He was by subsequently. It is now the town residence of birth a Protestant; he had been educated at Mr. A. Beresford-Hope. Oxford, and had served in Spain with credit; but At No. 13 in Hyde Park Square, lived that the self-willed young lady refused him—in a word, specimen of a fine old English gentleman, Mr. T. "turned up her nose” at him. Every opportunity Assheton-Smith, whose name is so well known was given to him to make himself agreeable to the among Masters of Hounds. A glass apartment future heiress of the English throne; but either his on the roof of this house, after his death, was capacities and acquirements were of a low order, magnified, by the fears of the servant-girls in the or the princess had proposed to herself quite neighbourhood, into the abode of a ghost; and another standard of excellence as her beau ideal. the ghost-or, at all events, the alarm—was only She simply said “she did not like Oranges in any suppressed by editors “writing it down” in the shape ;” and though her royal papa stormed, and London newspapers. bishops reasoned with her, her resolution remained In concluding this chapter, we may remark that unshaken. The public admired her pluck and the whole neighbourhood is of too recent a growth firmness, and her refusal to be sold into matrimony to have many historical reminiscences. Haydon, like a common chattel. She was a princess, but the painter, it is true, lived for some time in she was also a true-hearted woman, and she felt Burwood Place, close by Connaught Square, and that she must really love the man whom she should there he died by his own hand in 1846. We shall

have more to say about him when we come to • See Vol. IV., p. 8a.


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“And the Bishop's lands, too, what of them? I'll warrant you'll not find better acres anywhere than those which once belonged

to his lordship."-Boz. Rustic Appearance of Paddington at the Commencement of this Century-Intellectual Condition of the Inhabitants-Gradual Increase of the

Population- The Manor of Paddington-The Feast of Abbot Walter, of Westminster-The Prior of St. Bartholomew's and his Brethren Dr. Sheldon's Claim of the Manor-The Old Parish Church-Hogarth's Marriage-Building of the New Parish Church -A Curious Custom - Poorness of the Living-The Burial-ground - Noted Persons buried here-Life of Haydon, the Painter-Dr. Geddes - The New Church of St. James-Holy Trinity Church-All Saints' Church - The House of the Notorious Richard Brothers-Old Public-houses-Old Paddington Green - The Vestry Hall-The Residences of Thomas Uwins, R.A., and Wyatt, the Sculptor-Eminent Residents-The Princess Charlotte and her Governess-Paddington House—" Jack-in-the-Green "-Westbourne Place-Westbourne Green-Desborough Place-Westbourne Farm, the Residence of Mrs. Siddons—The Lock Hospital and Asylum-St. Mary's Hospital-Paddington Provident Dispensary—The Dudley. Stuart Home-"The Boatman's Chapel "-Queen's Park-Old Almshouses-Grand Junction Canal--The Western Water-Works-Imperial

Gas Company-Kensal Green Cemetery-Eminent Persons buried here-- Great Western Railway Terminus. PADDINGTON, or Padynton, as the name of the Edgware Road, about a mile from London. In place is often spelled in old documents, down to our way thither we passed the Lying-in Hospital at the end of the last century was a pleasant little Bayswater, patronised by the queen.” The place rural spot, scarcely a mile to the north-west of the is described by Lambert, in his “History and

Tyburn turnpike, upon the Harrow Road. In- Survey of London and its Environs," at the comdeed, it would seem to have preserved its rustic . mencement of the present century, as “a village character even to a later date ; for it is amusing to situated upon the Edgware Road, about a mile read without a smile the grave expressions in which from London”-a description which, perhaps, was Priscilla Wakefield describes, in 1814, a visit to this not wholly untrue even at the accession of Queen then remote and rustic village—a journey which Victoria ; in fact, until its selection as the terminus now occupies about three minutes by the Under- of the Great Western Railway caused it to be fairly ground Railway :-"From Kensington we journeyed absorbed into the great metropolis. northward to Paddington, a village situated on the The parish, being so rural, and so very thinly




populated, was, doubtless, far behind its “courtly" schoolmaster” was not “abroad,” and if the educa sister suburb of Kensington in mental and intel- tion given in the parish church and other public lectual progress; so that, perhaps, there may be buildings was deficient, it is a consolation to learn, little or no exaggeration in the remarks of Mr. from the same authority, that the defect was supRobins, in his “ History of Paddington," when he plied, in some measure, at least, by the ale-houses remarks :" Although the people of Paddington in which debating clubs were established. A

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lived at so short a distance from the two rich, correspondent of Hone's “Year-Book,” in 1832, cathedral marts of London and Westminster, they remarks of Paddington as well as Bayswater, that made apparently no greater advances in civilisation they were both quite rural spots within his own for many centuries than did those who lived in the remembrance, little as they then deserved the name. most remote village in the English ‘shires.' The What would this writer have said if he could have few people who lived here were wholly agricultural, looked forward to their condition in the year of and they owed every useful lesson of their lives grace 1876? much more to their own intelligence and observa- Its population seems to have been always scanty. tion than to any instruction given them by those As the earliest parish register goes back no further who were paid to be their teachers." But if “the than 1701, we are driven to draw our inferences ttle over the hamlet appears to have souls to a of London," one we do not find any

from the Subsidy Rolls. Probably, in the reign of metropolis this suburb was in the middle of the Henry VIII., the entire population did not exceed last century may be inferred from the silence of a hundred, and at the accession of James II. it had “honest” John Stow, and even of Strype, who, risen, according to the same calculation, to only a in treating of London, make no mention of Padlittle over three hundred. Even as lately as the dington. Indeed, though they devote a chapter of year 1795 the hamlet appears to have contained “The Circuit Walk,” which concludes the “Survey only 341 houses, which, allowing five souls to a of London,” to Kensington, Hammersmith, Fulham, house, would give a population of about 1,700. and Marylebone, we do not find any mention of Indeed, so small and insignificant did the village the names of Paddington or Bayswater; the only continue down to our own times, that George hint in that direction being an entry of “Lisham" Canning instituted a witty comparison between a (i.e. Lisson) “Grove" in the index as “ near Padgreat and a small premier, when he uttered the dington.” The whole neighbourhood, indeed, is mot :

passed entirely sub silentio by Evelyn and Pepys; “ As London to Paddington

it is not mentioned by name by Horace Walpole ; So is Pitt to Addington."

and, though so near to Tyburn, it is apparently The old stone indicating the first mile from ignored by Dr. Johnson and Boswell. It may be Tyburn turnpike towards Harrow still remains in inferred that even Mrs. Montagu scarcely ever the road. In 1798, when Cary published his drove so far out into the western wilds. Charles “Road Book," there were ten “stages” running Dickens and George A. Sala, too, say but little every day from London to Paddington. William about it. It is clear, then, that we must go to Robins, in his work on Paddington, already quoted, other sources for any antiquarian notes on this which was published in the year 1853, says :—“A neighbourhood, or for anecdotes about its inhabicity of palaces has sprung up here within twenty | tants. years. A road of iron, with steeds of steam, Paddington is not mentioned in the “ Domesday brings into the centre of this city, and takes from Book ;” and it is probable that in the Conqueror's it in one year, a greater number of living beings time the whole site was part of the great forest of than could be found in all England a few years Middlesex, of which small portions only appear to ago; while the whole of London can be traversed have been at any time the property of the Crown. in half the time it took to reach Holborn Bars at The district, nevertheless, was, in remote times, a the beginning of this century, when the road was in part of the extensive parish of St. Margaret's, Westthe hands of Mr. Miles, his pair-horse coach, and minster, as appears from the fact that its church his redoubtable boy,” long the only appointed was for a century or two, if not longer, a sort of agents of communication between Paddington and chapel of ease, subject to the Rector or Vicar of St. the City. The fares were as. and 35.; the journey, Margaret's, as, indeed, it continued to be down to we are told, took more than three hours; and to the dissolution of monasteries, under Henry VIII., beguile the time at resting-places, “Miles's Boy” when the manor of Paddington was given to the told tales and played upon the fiddle. Charles newly-founded see of Westminster. The manor Knight also tells us that “at the beginning of the of Paddington was given in 1191, by the Abbot present century only one stage-coach ran from the Walter, to the Convent of St. Peter's, Westminster ; then suburban village of Paddington to the City, and from the close of the thirteenth century the and that it was never filled !”

whole of the temporalities of the district, such as A map of London, published so lately as 1823, | the “rent of land and the young of animals,” were exhibits Paddington as quite distinct from the devoted to charity. We read that, in 1439, a metropolis, which has the Edgware Road as its “head of water at Paddyngton” was granted to the western boundary. A rivulet is marked as running Lord Mayor and citizens of London, and to their from north to south through Westbourne Green, successors, by the Abbot of Westminster. On the parallel with Craven Place; and Westbourne abolition of the see of Westminster, shortly after House is marked with the name of its residentits establishment, Edward VI. gave this manor to owner, Mr. Cockerell, just like a country manor Ridley, Bishop of London, and his successors. It house fifty miles from London ; while half a mile will be observed that the names of many of the further are two isolated farms, named Portobello streets around Paddington, especially to the north, and Notting Barns respectively. The present perpetuate the names of several successive Bishops parish includes in its area a portion of Kensington of London, such as Randolph, Howley, Blomfield, Gardiens.

and Porteus. “Crescents and Colonnades," writes llow little known to the inhabitants of the great Hone in his “ Table-Book," in 1827, “are planned




by the architect to the Bishop of London on the dington, wth ye appurten'ces,” was sold to one ground belonging to the see near Bayswater." Thomas Browne, for the sum of three thousand.

The above-mentioned abbot of Westminster, nine hundred and fifty-eight pounds, seventeen Walter, appears to have purchased the interest in shillings, and four pence; but when Dr. Sheldon the soil here from two brothers, who were called was appointed to the bishopric of London, after respectively Richard and William de Padinton; the Restoration, he claimed the manor and also the and on his death the manor of Paddington was rectory. Sheldon's relatives, it is stated, received assigned to the almoner for the celebration of his the profits of the manor and rectory for nearly anniversary, when a solemn feast was to be held. eighty years. The almoner for the time being was directed to find “In the middle of the last century,” says John for the convent “fine manchets, cakes, crumpets, Timbs, in his “ Curiosities of London," " nearly the cracknells, and wafers, and a gallon of wine for whole of Paddington had become grazing-land, each friar, with three good pittances, or doles, with upwards of 1,100 acres; and the occupiers of the good ale in abundance at every table, and in the bishop's estate kept here hundreds of cows." presence of the whole brotherhood; in the same Robins, in his work on this parish, writes :Inanner as upon other occasions the cellarer is “ The fact of Paddington, in Surrey, or “Padendene,' bound to find beer at the usual feasts or anni. as it was called, being mentioned in the Conqueror's versaries, in the great tankard of five quarts." survey, while Paddington, in Middlesex, was not

Maitland, in his “ History of London," tells us noticed, inclines me to believe the dene or den, in that, in 1439, “the Abbot of Westminster granted Surrey, was the original mark of the Pædings; and to Robert Large, the mayor, and citizens of London, that the smaller enclosure in Middlesex was at first and their successors, one head of water, containing peopled and cultivated by a migration of a portion twenty-six perches in length and one in breadth, of that family from the den, when it had become together with all its springs in the manor of Pad- inconveniently full. . . . At what period this dington; in consideration of which grant the City migration happened,” he adds, “it is impossible to is for ever to pay to the said abbot and his suc- say; but there is very little doubt that the first cessors, at the feast of St. Peter, two peppercorns. settlement was made near the bourn, or brook, But if the intended work should happen to draw which ran through the forest." This brook, of the water from the ancient wells in the manor of which we have already had occasion to speak in a Hida, then the aforesaid grant to cease and become previous chapter, was, at the beginning of this entirely void.” Mr. Robins, in his “Paddington, century, a favourite resort for anglers. Past and Present,” remarks that, “ although the There is extant a curious etching of the old abbots at length, and by slow degrees, acquired to parish church of Paddington, dated 1750. It stood themselves and their house, either with or without about eighty yards to the north of the present the sanction of the Crown, both spiritual and tem- edifice, and its site may still be seen among the poral dominion over these places, we must not tombs, which were ranged inside and outside of it. imagine that all the tenements in Westbourn and It was a plain, neat building, of one aisle, consisting Paddington had been by this time transferred by of only a nave, and with a bell-turret and spire at the devout and the timid to their safe keeping; for the west end, not unlike the type of the country besides the few small holders, who obstinately pre- churches of Sussex, and its picturesqueness was ferred their hereditary rights to works of charity or heightened by the dark foliage of an ancient yewdevotion, there is good reason to believe that the tree. ancient family of De Veres held a considerable This church was built by Sir Joseph Sheldon and tract of land in this parish down to 1461."

Daniel Sheldon, to whom the manor was leased by The high road at Paddington must have presented Sheldon, Bishop of London, and afterwards Archan amusing spectacle in the year 1523, when the bishop of Canterbury, in the reign of Charles II., Prior of St. Bartholomew's and all his brethren, and it replaced a more ancient church, which had with the lay brethren, and an array of wagons and become “old and ruinous,” and which was taken boats upon trucks, went along through Paddington down about the year 1678. towards Harrow, where they had resolved to re- In this second church, which was dedicated to main for two months, till the fatal day should St. James, were married, on the 23rd of March, have passed on which it was foretold that the 1729, Hogarth and Jane Thornhill, the daughter of Thames should suddenly rise and wash away half Sir James Thornhill ; the marriage, it is said, was London!

a runaway match, carried out much against the will During the Commonwealth “the manor of Pad- of the bride's father.

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