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Archbishop in, the Mars Queen oand morehe" Diary

tion, and exiled to Holyrood House.” Here the also, then ; but,' he added, “it cannot precede that Princess was living in 1813, when she received the of the Emperor.' The Queen, on her accession,

address of sympathy from the citizens of London- commanded that she should be proclaimed as • an address which was regarded by the Prince as Victoria’ only." the first step towards defying his authority.

We learn incidentally from Mr. Raikes “Journal” The Duke of Sussex, whilst occupying apart that on the Princess Victoria coming of age, on the ments here, used to entertain his friends hospitably. 24th of May, 1837, it was proposed by her uncle, Among others who dined here was Mr. Rush, am- the king, to form for her here an establishment of bassador from the United States in 1819-25, who her own ; but that the idea was “combated by her gives us the following sketch :

mother, as it would have given the nomination of “ The duke sat at the head of his table in the appointments to the then Court party.” The true old English style, and was full of cordiality death of King William, however, which happened and conversation. ... General principles of very shortly afterwards, put an end to the idea. government coming to be spoken of, he expatiated On the 20th of June following, only a month after on the blessings of free government, declaring that attaining her majority, as a girl of eighteen, she as all men, kings as well as others, were prone to was waited upon here early in the morning by the abuse power when they got to possess it, the Archbishop of Canterbury, and the then Lord only safe course was to limit its exercise by the Chamberlain, the Marquis of Conyngham, to receive strictest constitutional rules. In the palace of the news that she was Queen of England! kings, and from the son and brother of a king," For the following longer and more detailed adds the honest and sensible republican, “I should account of the affair we are indebted to the “ Diary not have been prepared for this declaration, but of a Lady of Quality :"_" At Kensington Palace that it was not the first time that I had heard him the Princess Victoria received the intelligence of converse in the same way.” The duke continued the death of William IV., June, 1837. On the to reside in this palace till his death. He was very 20th, at 2 a.m., the scene closed, and in a very fond of the long room on the first floor, which he short time the Archbishop of Canterbury and Lord made his library, and where he received visitors. Conyngham, the Chamberlain, set out to announce The interior of the room has been often engraved. the event to their young sovereign. They reached

But that which invests Kensington Palace with Kensington Palace about five; they knocked, they the greatest interest is the fact that it was the rang, they thumped for a considerable time before residence of the late Duke and Duchess of Kent, they could rouse the porter at the gate ; they were in the year 1819, and consequently the birth-place again kept waiting in the court-yard; they turned of her present Majesty, who spent here nearly all into one of the lower rooms, where they seemed her infancy, and the greater part of her youthful forgotten by everybody. They rang the bell, days. In the Gardens, as a child, the Princess desired that the attendant of the Princess Victoria Victoria used daily to take her walk, or ride in a might be sent to inform H.R.H. that they requested goat or donkey carriage, attended by her nurses. an audience on business of importance. After Her most gracious Majesty was born at a quarter another delay, and another ringing to inquire the past four o'clock in the morning of the 24th of cause, the attendant was summoned, who stated May, 1819, and on the 24th of the following month that the Princess was in such a sweet sleep she she was christened in the grand saloon of the could not venture to disturb her. Then they said, palace by the name of Alexandrina Victoria. The We are come to the Queen on business of state, reason of the choice of these two names is thus and even her sleep must give way to that.' It did; explained by the Hon. Amelia Murray, in her and, to prove that she did not keep them waiting, “Recollections :"-"It was believed that the Duke in a few minutes she came into the room in a of Kent wished to name his child Elizabeth, that loose white nightgown and shawl, her nightcap being a popular name with the English people. thrown off, and her hair falling upon her shoulders, But the Prince Regent, who was not kind to his her feet in slippers, tears in her eyes, but perfectly brothers, gave notice that he should stand in person collected and dignified.” as one godfather, and that the Emperor of Russia In this trying moment, though supported by her was to be another. At the baptism, when asked mother's presence, she gave vent to the feelings of by the Archbishop of Canterbury to name the her heart by bursting into a flood of tears as she infant, the Prince Regent gave only the name of thought of the responsibilities which had devolved * Alexandrina ;' but the duke requested that one upon her, and begged the Archbishop's prayers. other name might be added: ‘Give her her mother's The story of Her Majesty's accession, and the

y/of the mise of they had

Kensington Palace.]
ACCESSION OF QUEEN VICTORIA.

149 account of her first council, is thus told in the make the slightest difference in her manner, or “Greville Memoirs :"_"1837, June 21. The King show any in her countenance to any individual of died at twenty minutes after two yesterday morning, any rank, station, or party. I particularly watched and the young Queen met the council at Kensington her when Melbourne and her ministers, and the Palace at eleven. Never was anything like the Duke of Wellington and Peel approached her. She first impression she produced, or the chorus of went through the whole ceremony, occasionally praise and admiration which is raised about her looking at Melbourne for instructions when she had manner and behaviour, and certainly not without any doubt what to do, and with perfect calmness justice. It was very extraordinary and far beyond and self-possession, but, at the same time, with a what was looked for. Her extreme youth and in- modesty and propriety particularly interesting and experience, and the ignorance of the world con- ingratiating. When the business was done she cerning her, naturally excited intense curiosity to retired as she had entered, and I could see that see how she would act on this trying occasion, and no one was in the adjoining room.” there was a considerable assemblage at the palace, The scene at Kensington Palace on the above notwithstanding the short notice that was given. occasion is thus described by Mr. Rush, from The first thing that was to be done was to teach the lips of the late Lord Clarendon, one of the her her lesson, which, for this purpose, Melbourne Privy Councillors present at the time :-“Lord had himself to learn. I gave him the council Lansdowne, the president, announced to the papers, and explained all that was to be done, and council that they had met on the occasion of he went and explained all this to her. He asked the demise of the crown; then with some others her if she would enter the room accompanied by of the body, including the Premier, he left the the great officers of state, but she said she would council for a short time, when all returned with come in alone. When the lords were assembled, the the Princess. She entered, leaning upon the arm Lord President informed them of the King's death, of her uncle, the Duke of Sussex. The latter and suggested, as they were so numerous, that a few had not before been in the council-room, but of them should repair to the presence of the Queen, resides in the same palace, and had been with and inform her of the event, and that their lordships the Princess in an adjoining apartment. He conwere assembled in consequence; and, accordingly, ducted her to a chair at the head of the council. the two royal dukes, the two archbishops, the A short time after she took her seat, she read the chancellor, and Melbourne, went with him. The declaration which the sovereign makes on coming to Queen received them in the adjoining room alone. the throne, and took the oath to govern the realm As soon as they had returned, the proclamation according to law, and cause justice to be executed was read, and the usual order passed, when the in mercy. The members of the council then sucdoors were thrown open, and the Queen entered, cessively kneeled, one knee bending, and kissed accompanied by her two uncles, who advanced to the young queen's hånd as she extended it to each meet her. She bowed to the lords, took her seat, —for now she was the veritable Queen of England. and then read her speech in a clear, distinct, and Lord Clarendon described the whole ceremony as audible voice, and without any appearance of fear performed in a very appropriate and graceful manner or embarrassment. She was quite plainly dressed, by the young lady. Some timidity was discernible and in mourning. After she had read her speech at first, as she came into the room in the presence and taken and signed the oath for the security of of the cabinet and privy councillors; but it soon the Church of Scotland, the Privy Councillors were disappeared, and a becoming self-possession took sworn, the two royal dukes first by themselves; and its place. He noticed her discretion in not talking, as these two old men, her uncles, knelt before her, except as the business of the ceremonial made it swearing allegiance and kissing her hand, I saw proper, and confining herself chiefly, when she spoke, her blush up to the eyes, as if she felt the contrast to Lord Melbourne, as official head of the Ministry, between their several and natural relations; and this and to her uncle, the Duke of Sussex.” was the only sign of emotion she evinced. Her The author of “ The Diary of a Lady of Quality" manner to them was very graceful and engaging. thus describes the first meeting of the Privy She kissed them both, and moved towards the Council of the youthful queen, which differs only Duke of Sussex, who was furthest from her seat, and in some slight particulars from the accounts given too infirm to reach her. She seemed rather be above: “The first act of the reign was, of course, wildered at the multitude of men who were sworn, the summoning of the council, and most of the and who came one after another to kiss her hand; summonses were not received till after the early but she did not speak to anybody, nor did she hour fixed for its meeting. The Queen was, upon the opening of the doors, found sitting at the head Here, on the 21st of April, 1843, died, at the age of the table. She received first the homage of the of seventy, Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex. Duke of Cumberland, who, I suppose, was not king Mr. T. Raikes, in his “Journal,” says of him : “He of Hanover when he knelt to her; the Duke of was a stout, coarse-looking man, of a free habit, Sussex rose to perform the same ceremony, but plethoric, and subject to asthma. He lived at the Queen, with admirable grace, stood up, and Kensington Palace, and was married to Lady preventing him from kneeling, kissed him on the Cecilia Gore, who had been made Duchess of forehead. The crowd was so great, the arrange- Inverness by the Whigs. He had married prements were so ill-made, that my brothers told me viously, in 1793, Lady Augusta Murray ; but that

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the scene of swearing allegiance to their young marriage had been dissolved on the plea of the sovereign was more like that of the bidding at an duke not obtaining his father's consent. He was auction than anything else.”

always on bad terms with George IV., and under The state document signed by the youthful the weak government of William IV. he took the sovereign is to be seen in the Record Office. Sir Radical line, courted the Whigs, and got the David Wilkie has painted the scene, but with a rangership of a royal park.” He was buried at difference. The picture, it may be added, is well Kensal Green. His royal highness was, perhaps, known to the public, thanks to the engraver's the most popular of the sons of George III. He art. It may be a matter of wonder that the Lord had a magnificent library at Kensington, including Mayor of London (Alderman Kelly), should have one of the finest collections of Bibles in the world, figured in this picture; but on the sovereign's which was dispersed, soon after his death, under death the Lord Mayor is the only officer in the the hammer of the auctioneer. His widow, the kingdom whose commission still holds good; and Duchess of Inverness, was allowed to occupy his as such he takes his place, by virtue of his office, apartments until her death, in 1873. Under date at the Privy Council board until the new sovereign of Sunday, 29th March, 1840, Mr. Raikes writes is proclaimed.

in his “Journal: “The Duke of Sussex claims Kensington Palace.]

THE DUKE OF SUSSEX.

151

from the Whig Ministry the public acknowledg- and professed to be the first to meet her wishes, ment of his marriage with Lady Cecilia Underwood, but stipulating also that he expected a great favour and an addition of £6,000 a year to his income. for himself in return. This now proves to have This is the explanation : on the question of Prince been his object in view." Albert's precedence they first applied to the Duke Shortly after the death of the duke, the following of Sussex for his acquiescence, which he most paragraph, headed “The late 'Duchess of Sussex,'”

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violently refused. They then went to the Duke of appeared in the Times newspaper : “As the fact Cambridge with the same request, to which he made is becoming a matter of general discussion, that in less difficulty, saying, that he wished to promote the event of the death of the King of Hanover, and harmony in the family, and as it could not prevent of the Crown Prince, his son, the question of the him from being the son of his father, if the Duke title of Sir Augustus D'Este to the throne of that of Sussex consented, he should not object. Lord kingdom will create some controversy, the followMelbourne then returned to the latter, saying that ing letter from her royal highness (the Countess the Duke of Cambridge had agreed at once; upon d'Ameland) to Sir S. J. Dillon, will not be uninwhich Sussex, finding that he should lose all the teresting. It is dated so long since as December merit of the concession, went straight to the Queen, 16, 1811: 'My dear Sir, I wished to have

your pie stated the fact quite exactly. Wherween me D'Este, in the 7th und objection to go unde

answered your last letter, but having mislaid your town goes, is not that a permission asked? And first, I did not know how to direct to you. I am why were they not forbid ? I believe my marriage sure you must believe that I am delighted with at Rome good; and I shall never feel "the your pamphlet; but I must confess I do not think question at rest” till this is acknowledged. Prince you have stated the fact quite exactly when you say Augustus is now sent to Jersey, as Lieutenant (page 25) " that the question is at rest between me D'Este, in the 7th Fusiliers. Before he went, he and the Duke of Sussex, because the connection told his father he had no objection to go under has not only been declared illegal by sentence of any name they chose to make him take ; but that the Ecclesiastical Court, but has been dissolved by he knew what he was, and the time, he trusted, consent—that I have agreed to abandon all claims would come when himself would see justice done to his name," &c. Now, my dear sir, had I to his mother and sister, and his own birth.'" believed the sentence of the Ecclesiastical Court | George III. having made St. James's and to be anything but a stretch of power, my girl Buckingham Palace the head-quarters of royalty would not have been born. Lord Thurlow told and the court, henceforward Kensington became me my marriage was good abroad—religion taught the occasional or permanent residence of some of me it was good at home, and not one decree of the younger branches of the royal family. any powerful enemy could make me believe other- Kensington Palace, we need hardly add, is wise, nor ever will. By refusing me a subsistence maintained at the cost of the nation; and, though they forced me to take a name—not the Duke of no longer used actually as a royal residence, it Sussex's—but they have not made me believe that is appropriated to the use of certain pensioned I had no right to his. My children and myself families, favoured by royalty, and a lady who is were to starve, or I was to obey; and I obeyed; distantly connected with the highest court circles but I am not convinced. Therefore, pray don't holds the envied and not very laborious post of call this “an act of mutual consent," or say “the housekeeper. It may safely be assumed, we think, question is at rest." The moment my son wishes that she is “at the top of her profession.” The it, I am ready to declare that it was debt, im- Right Hon. John Wilson Croker lived here for prisonment, arrestation, necessity (force like this, some time. The Duke and Duchess of Teck in short), which obliged me to seem to give up and the Marquis and Marchioness of Lorne have my claims, and not my conviction of their fallacy. since occupied those apartments which formerly When the banns were published in the most were inhabited by the distinguished personages frequented church in London, and where all the mentioned above.

CHAPTER XIII.

KENSINGTON GARDENS.

"Where Kensington, luxuriant in her bowers,
Sees snow of blossoms, and a wild of flowers;
The dames of Britain oft in crowds repair
To gravel walks and unpolluted air :
Here, while the town in damps and darkness lies,
They breathe in sunshine and see azure skies;
Each walk, with robes of various dyes bespread,
Seems from afar a moving tulip-bed,
Where rich brocades and glossy damasks glow,
And chintz, the rival of the showery bow."--Tickell.

"Military" Appearance of the Gardens, as laid out by Wise and Loudon-Addison's Comments on the Horticultural Improvements of his Time

The Gardens as they appeared at the Beginning of the Last Century-Queen Anne's Banqueting House-Statue of Dr. Jenner-Bridgeman's Additions to the Gardens-The “Ha! ha!”-“Capability" Brown-The Gardens first opened to the Public-A Foreigner's Opinion of Kensington Gardens-“Tommy Hill" and John Poole-Introduction of Rare Plants and Shrubs-Scotch Pines and other Trees A Friendly Flash of Lightning--The Reservoir and Fountains-Tickell, and his Poem on Kensington Gardens-Chateaubriand-Introduction of Hooped Petticoats—The Broad Walk becomes a Fashionable Promenade-Eccentricities in Costume-The Childhood of Queen Victoria, and her Early Intercourse with her Future Subjects-A Critical Review of the Gardens.

The gardens attached to Kensington Palace, when | military, the consequence was that closely-cropped purchased by William III., did not exceed twenty- yews, and prim holly hedges, were taught, under six acres. They were immediately laid out ac- the auspices of Loudon and Wise, the royal garcording to the royal taste; and this being entirely deners, to imitate the lines, angles, bastions, scarps,

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