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connected in sense as near together as possible. Let the clauses follow each other in the order of time and connection, reserving, if needful, the most important to the close of each sentence. Avoid terminating your sentences with an insignificant or inharmonious word.
EXERCISES. In the following exercises, arrange the clauses according to the rule, and improve the construction wherever it is desirable, without altering the sense.
1. The Helvetii, moved by the want of everything, sent to Cæsar ambassadors concerning a surrender. These having met him on the way, with great humility addressed him, and besought peace with tears. Cæsar ordered them to wait in that place in which they were for his arrival ; they obeyed. There, after Cæsar had come, hostages, arms, and those slaves who to them had fled, he demanded. Whilst they were occupied in seeking for these, and bringing them to the appointed place, night intervening, about 6000 men of the canton called Verbigenus, either actuated from fear lest their arms having been given up, they should undergo severe punishment, or induced by the hope of safety, because in such a multitude of surrenderers, they thought that their flight would either be concealed or altogether overlooked, at midnight from the camp of the Helvetii they departed, and to the Rhine on the confines of Germany escaped.
2. At the same time in which messages were brought to Cæsar, ambassadors from the Ædui and Trevěri came. The Ædui complained that the Harudes, who lately into Gaul had come, were laying waste their country ; and that though hostages had been given to purchase peace from Ariovistus, they were unable. The Trevěri stated that 100 cantons of the Suevi, on the banks of the Rhine had settled, were endeavouring the Rhine to cross under the command of two brothers, Nasma and Cimberius. At these things Cæsar being much alarmed, thought he should by all means hasten to prevent a junction of these new troops of the Suevi with the old forces of Ariovistus, lest their combination should prove too powerful. Therefore, having hastily procured a supply of corn, by rapid marches against Ariovistus, he advanced.
3. This thing being determined upon, about the second watch, with great noise and tumult, they departed from the camp in no fixed order or discipline, since each individual the first place sought for himself, and they so hastened to arrive home, that their departure seemed very much like to a flight. Cæsar of this thing having been quickly informed by means of scouts, fearing some treachery, because he had not perceived why they should depart, restrained within his camp his army and cavalry. At dawn of day, however, the flight having been certified by the scouts, he sends forward all his cavalry to harass the enemies' rear. Over these Quintus Pedius, and Lucius Aurunculius Cotta, he appointed. Titus Labienus, with three legions, he ordered to follow. These having pursued for many miles, slew a great number of the fugitives. But when our soldiers came up to the main body of the rear, these faced about and maintained their ground, bravely resisting the attack of our men. The troops in advance, however, thinking themselves at too great a distance from immediate attack, nor being held under any discipline, when they heard a clamour behind, broke rank, and placed their safety in flight.
LESSON 24. - Transposition (continued). 57. In the following exercises, arrange the clauses according to the preceding directions, and improve the construction wherever desirable.
1. The German war having been finished, Cæsar for many reasons determined to cross the Rhine ; more especially since he saw that the Germans so easily were induced to come into Gaul. He wished too that they should be made to fear for their own affairs, when they perceived that the Roman army both could and would cross the Rhine. In addition to this, a portion of the cavalry of the Usipetes and Tenchtheri having for the sake of plunder and forage crossed the Meuse, had not been present in the recent conflict, but had crossed the Rhine after the flight of their countrymen, had now betaken themselves into the territories of the Sigambri, with whom they had formed an alliance. When Cæsar to the Sigambri sent messengers, demanding the surrender of those men who on him and Gaul had brought war, the following reply was given. “ The Rhine terminated the empire of the Roman people. If, therefore, Cæsar thought it improper that the Germans should against his will pass into Gaul, why should he demand for himself any power or authority beyond the Rhine ?” But the Ubii were the only inhabitants residing across the Rhine, who to Cæsar had sent ambassadors, giving hostages and forming an alliance. These earnestly entreated him to render them assistance, because by the Suevi they were very sorely oppressed. Should his public occupations prevent him from doing this, yet were he only to transport his army across the Rhine, essential service would be rendered to them, both now and in future, so high was the opinion entertained both of himself and his army, by the defeat of Ariovistus and his recent victory, even among the farthest nations of the Germans, that they should feel themselves safe in the friendship of the Roman people. They promised for transporting the army a large number of vessels.
2. The following is the mode of fighting from the chariots. At first they ride round in every direction, casting their darts, and generally by the alarm which they excite among the horses of their foes, and by the noise of the wheels, throw all ranks into confusion. When they have insinuated themselves among the enemy's cavalry, the warriors leaping from their chariots fight on foot. In the mean time, by degrees the drivers leave the thick of the battle, and so stand in their chariots, that should their masters be oppressed by the multitude of the enemy, they have to their friends a ready access. They thus exhibit the rapidity of cavalry and the firmness of infantry in their battles. By daily use and exercise, even in steep and precipitous places, they are enabled to rein in their horses at full speed, and, within a very short space, governing and turning them. They are also accustomed to run along the beam, stand on the yoke, and thence with amazing rapidity to betake themselves into the chariot.
CLASSIFICATION AND ARRANGEMENT.
LESSON 25. 58. The ready and judicious application of our knowledge will materially depend on the habit which the mind has acquired of condensing and classifying the various facts, principles, and sentiments, which may have formed the subjects of its attention. To promote this important object, and prepare the pupil for connected narrative, he will be required, in this chapter, to arrange into appropriate paragraphs, those sentences or parts of sentences in some portion of the Book of Proverbs, which have an intimate connexion with each other. Thus, the passages which relate to similar characters, sentiments, virtues, vices, conditions of life, prosperity, adversity, and such subjects, must be reduced under their appropriate heads. Such verses as cannot be classed under any one of the general divisions, must be placed by themselves. That essay, however, which presents the smallest portion of the chapter under the latter department must be accounted the best.
59. RULE. — In arranging sentences of this kind, three stages or processes will, in general, be requisite;