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Short time returns for another, carries off same manner, but different place. 15. In this manner proceeds, till light of sun or movements perceived in the house admonish time retire den,

16. Does mischief to bird-catchers. 17. Early morning yisits nests and birdlime, carries off successively birds happen entangled. 18. Young hares hunts plains, seizes old ones seats, digs out rabbits warrens, finds nests partridges, quails, &c., seizes mothers eggs, and destroys number game. 19. Dogs spontaneously hunt fox. 20. Though his odour strong, they often prefer him to stag, hare. 21. Pursued, runs to hole; not uncommon to send in terriers to detain till hunters remove earth above, and kill or seize. 22. Most certain of destroying fox begin shutting hole, to station a man with gun near entrance, then search with dogs. 23. When fall in with immediately makes for hole. 24. But comes up to it, he met with discharge gun.


LESSON 146.-Original, 403. From the following subjects the pupil may select two or three for Description, according to the preceding rules and examples. The materials must be derived solely from his own observation. To secure this he is presented with only familiar objects:404.-1. Characteristic Qua- ( 1. The Horse. 2. The Ass. lities,

3. The Ox. 4. The Dog. 2. Size, shape, appearance,

5. The Goat. 6. The Hare.

of 3. Food, 4. Habits,

7. Common Poultry. 5. Where most abundant, 8. The Pigeon. 6. Of what utility to men, 9. Sky-Lark. 10. Red-Breast.


LESSON 147.–Original. 405. From the following objects let the pupil select one or two with which he is most familiar, and give a Description drawn from his own observation :

Ist. in structure of their habi1. Instances displaying the tations. Instinct of Animals, – 2nd, in their means of self

preservation and defence. 2. Transformation which several insects undergo.





406. OBJECTS OF INVENTION. - RULE 1. State the purpose for which the object is designed.

2. Its form or figure, with an analysis of its parts.

3. The materials of which it is made, and the manner or process of its construction.

4. The mode of working it.

5. A Diagram, accompanying the description, will frequently be of great assistance in conveying a more accurate conception of the various parts.

Memoriter Exercise. 407. 1. Read the following Description two or three times, noticing the sequence of the sentences.

2. Reproduce the Example from recollection.

3. Institute a Comparison between your own and the original, when all deviations either in construction, punctuation, or sequence must be noticed.

408. MODEL.—The Common Pump. 1. The Common or domestic Pump is employed in raising water, and ends, for its efficacy, on the principle of atmospheric pressure. 2. It consists of a long tube or barrel, called the pump-log, which reaches from a few feet above the ground to near the bottom of the well. At the lower part of the tube is a valve, opening upwards, call the pump-box. When the pump is not in action, this is always shut. 3. At some distance above the lower valve is placed a short movable cylinder, called the piston. The piston has an aperture through it, which is closed by a valve opening upwards like the lower valve.

4. The following is the mode of working the Pump.-Suppose the Piston pressed down towards the lower valve, then, on depressing the handle or lever at the top, a vacuum would be formed between the Piston and lower valve, did not the water in the well rise, in consequence of the pressure of the atmosphere on that around the pump-log in the well, and take the place of the air thus removed. Then, on raising the end of the lever or handle, the lower valve closes, because the water is forced upon it, in consequence of the descent of the piston, and at the same time, the valve in the piston opens, and the water, which cannot descend, now passes above the valve. Next, on raising the piston, by again depressing the lever, this portion of water is lifted up to the piston, or a little above it, while another portion rushes through the lower valve, to fill its place. After a few strokes of the lever, the space from the piston to the spout is filled with the water, where, on continuing to work the lever, it is discharged in a constant stream.

LESSON 149.-Hints.

409. From the following Hints, which are given in regular succession, produce a Description, developed and expressed as nearly as possible in accordance with the previous rules :

410. THE BAROMETER, 1. Barometer philosophical instrument measuring weight atmosphere. 2. Barometer said invention Torricelli, observing column water about 33 feet equal in weight to one of air same base, concluded that column of mercury only 29} inches would be so too, such column mercury equal weight to 33 feet water.

3. Common barometer glass tube about two-tenths inch diameter, its length at least thirty-one inches. 4. This tube filled mercury so not have air over it, the maker placing finger on end, immerses in basin of quicksilver, and then takes finger away. 5. Quicksilver in tube by own weight endeavours descend into basin : bat external air pressing on surface of quicksilver in basin without, no air in tube at top, quicksilver continue in tube, raised by air on surface in basin below.

6. Usual range barometer in this country from 28 to 31 inches; when air pure and heavy, raises mercury to nearly thirty-one, when light and full of vapours falls to nearly 28. 7. In fine dry weather, air rendered pure, free light vapours, consequently extremely heavy, presses up the quicksilver. In moist rainy weather atmosphere charged with vapours, clouds, fogs, air sensibly lighter, presses on quicksilver less force. 9. When high winds blow, atmosphere light, quicksilver generally low, rises higher in cold weather than warm. 10. During frost, air is purest heaviest, barometer rises highest points.

11. Instrument also serviceable measuring height of moun


tains. 12. Ascending mountains, quicksilver found sink about tenth an inch in ninety feet; that if quicksilver fall an inch, have ascended nearly; but this subject to variations, from change of temperature and other causes, render corrections necessary. 13. General method, however, determining altitudes by barometer and thermometer extremely useful convenient, ingenious rules by Hutton, Gregory, and others, to facilitate computation.

LESSON 150.- Memoriter.

411. MANUFACTURES. - RULE 1. Sometimes the origin and progress of the manufacture may be given, along with the advantages which it has conferred on society. 2. At other times, the attention may be confined to a description of the various processes which the article undergoes. These must be detailed, as before stated, in the order of operation or occurrence.

Memoriter Exercise. 412. 1. Read the following Description two or three times, noticing the sequence of the sentences.

2. Reproduce the Example from recollection.

3. Institute a Comparison between your own and the original, when all deviations either in construction, punctuation, or sequence must be noticed.

413. MODEL.—MANUFACTURE OF Pins. 1. When the brass wire is received at the manufactory, the first operation is winding it off from one wheel to another, and causing it to pass through a circle in a piece of iron of a

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