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LESSON 139. Original. 386. From the following subjects the pupil may select two or three for Description according to the preceding rules and examples, and written from his own observations :

1. A description of the Aurora Borealis ; or Milky Way; or Harvest Moon,

2. A description of the Tides ; or Rain; or Snow.

3. A description of the phenomena of January; or April ; or August

4. A description of the advantages of a variety of Seasons.

5. A description of circulation of Sap in the trees; budding of trees.

6. A description of Distribution of Seeds.



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387. Descriptions of Animated Nature may be regarded under two principal heads, -the Scientific and the Popular.

388. Requisites. Minute observation, extensive research, and great anatomical skill, are requisite for forming a profound Naturalist. A whole life might be spent in becoming such a character.

389. RULE. -- A Scientific description comprises an enumeration of the generic and specific properties, the form, colour, food, habits, &c. by which an animal is distinguished from every other. 390. RULE for a Popular description. The

Popular description is generally confined to the development of some leading peculiarities of an animal, such as its general appearance, food, habits, and disposition.

In this restricted sense, the study of animated nature has frequently formed a most agreeable and instructive recreation to many benevolent and observing minds, as may be instanced in White of Selborne, Bewick of Newcastle, Dr. Stanley late Bishop of Norwich, Kirby of Ipswich, and the poet Cowper.

Memoriter Exercise. 391. 1. Read the following Extract two or three times over, noticing the sequence of the sentences.

2. Reproduce the Example from recollection.

3. Institute a Comparison between your own and the original, when all deviations either in construction, punctuation, or sequence must be noticed.

392. MODEL. The Elephant. 1. The Generic characters are,—no cutting teeth in either jaw; tusks in the upper jaw; .a proboscis very long and prehensile; body nearly naked.

2. The form of the whole animal is awkward; the head is very large ; the body thick, back arched ; the legs short and clumsy; the tail is of a moderate length, terminated by very thick black hairs.

3. In colour, the body is generally dusky or blackish, with a few hairs scattered over it. White elephants are rarely found.

4. General Appearance. The tusks are situated in the

upper jaw, projecting on either side of the proboscis : they often attain the length of ten feet, but are small and bent downwards in the females, and some of the males ; the females are often without them. In the young animal, they are so small as not to be seen externally; and those born with it are shed and replaced by others. It is from the tusks that ivory is obtained. The proboscis of the elephant is one of the wonders of nature, being at once the organ of respiration, and the instrument by which the animal conveys its food to its mouth. It is composed of a vast number of flexible rings, and consists of a double tube with a circular tip, a little flattened, and furnished with a fleshy movable hook, which can pick up the smallest objects. The trunk is flexible in all directions, and serves as an arm and hand. The nostrils are situated at the extremity of the trunk. The elephant has been known to attain the height of twelve feet; it does not, however, usually exceed that of nine or ten. The elephants of India and Ceylon excel those of Africa in size and strength.

5. Food and Habits. The general food of the elephant is grain, fruits, and the young branches of trees. It is much dreaded from the ravages which it commits in plantations, not only injuring the crops by its great consumption, but by tread. ing down and spoiling what has not been consumed. Elephants herd together in great numbers in shady woods, avoiding equally the extremes of heat and cold. They frequently bathe, and will roll themselves in the mud ; they swim with great ease. There is, in all probability, much exaggeration with regard to the elephant's sagacity; yet, it cannot be doubted that it possesses a higher degree of intelligence than other quadrupeds, excepting perhaps the dog. When tamed, it is employed to perform operations requiring skill as well as strength. It appears that elephants attach themselves strongly to those who have the charge over them, are grateful for attentions shown, and resentful for injuries received. They were, in ancient times, much employed in war. When wounded, their distress is said to be very moving. Considering their unwieldly bulk their pace is swift, but not so much so but that a nimble Indian can overtake them.

LESSON 141.-Hints.

393. From the following Hints, which are given in regular succession, produce a Description, developed and expressed as nearly as possible in accordance with the previous rules :

394. The Common SHEEP. 1. Common Sheep have horns twisted spirally outwards, tail round short, body covered with wool. 2. The male named ram, female ewe, young lamb. 3. Bodies of these in temperate, clad with curled closely matted kind of hair, called. 4. The distinguishing characteristic wool is, when even coarsest sort manufactured thickens milling, and forms close texture, owing peculiar roughness surface and to curiy form; whereas finest hair under same operation neither thicken nor form texture. 5. In temperate countrics fleeces shorn once, and in warmer climates twice, animals well washed to cleanse wool.

6. Wool intended manufactured cloth of mixed colours, dyed in fleece before spun. 7. Intended for tapestry, dyed after spun ; and when wrought into cloth of uniform colour not dyed until cloth made.

8. Skins of, after processes called tanning and currying, manufactured into thin coarse useful kind of leather in request by saddlers, book-binders, others. 9. These skins different process converted parchment used for deeds. 10. Lambs skins into gloves. 11. During winter sheep-skins common dress lower class peasantry Russia.

12. Every part sheep advantageous mankind. 13. Flesh under denomination mutton supplies wholesome palatable food, in greatest estimation when animals three and not more than six years old. 14. That of lambs, spring of year, in demand. 15. Suet is solid kind of fat found various parts bodies (particularly kidneys and intestines) of sheep, oxen, other ruminating animals. 16. Suet for culinary and other purposes, extensively making candles. 17. Milk of sheep rich nourishing, and esteem among peasantry of all countries. 18. Produces abundance of butter so unpalatable seldom to be eaten. 19. It yields proportion strong tough cheese. 20. Of entrails are made strings cat-gut, used different kinds musical instruments, and coverings whips. 21. Handles of knives, and useful articles made of bones sheep ; refuse parts coarsely ground serve manure. 22. Important advantage in another respect derived from these animals, by folding them on land on which corn is be grown.

LESSON 142.-Memoriter.

TRANSFORMATION OF Winged Insects. 395. 1. Read the following Extract two or three times over, noticing the sequence of the sentences.

2. Reproduce the Example from recollection.

3. Institute a Comparison between your own and the original, when all deviations either in construction, punctuation, or sequence must be noticed.

396. MODEL. 1. The life of winged insects consists of three principal periods, which present very different scenes to the student of

In the first period, the insect appears under the form of a worm, caterpillar, or larva. Its body is long and cylindrical, and consists of a succession of rings, which are generally membranous, and incased within each other. By the aid of its rings, or of crotchets, or of several pairs of legs, it crawls about in quest of food; and its movements are, in some species, remarkably quick. Its head is armed with teeth or pincers, by which it eats the leaves of plants or other


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