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SECTION V.

PHENOMENA, OPERATIONS, AND FRO

DUCTIONS OF NATURE.

LESSON 130.

TURE.

364. APPEARANCES AND PHENOMENA OF NA

RULE. 1. Briefly describe the objects in the order in which they present themselves to your notice.

2. Let the most striking and interesting phenomena occupy the largest share of your attention and receive an ample development.

3. Let the minor incidents which may be introduced be rendered not only subservient but ornamental to the leading objects.

Memoriter Exercise. 365. 1. Read the following Extract two or three times over, noticing the sequence of the sentences.

2. Reproduce the Example from recollection.

3. Institute a Comparison between your own and the original, when all deviations either in construction, punctuation, or sequence must be noticed.

366. MODEL. SUNRISE AT SEA,

1. With the earliest dawn of morning we were on deck, in hope of seeing the English coast; but the mists veiled it from our view. A spectacle, however, the most grand in nature, repaid us for our disappointment, and we found the circumstances of a sunrise at sca, yet more interesting than those of a sunset. The moon, bright and nearly at her meridian, shed a strong lustre on the ocean, and gleamed between the sails upon the deck; but the dawn beginning to glimmer, contended with her light, and soon, touching the waters with a cold gray tint, discovered them spreading all around to the vast horizon. Not a sound broke upon the silence, except the lulling one occasioned by the course of the vessel through the waves, and now and then the drowsy song of the pilot, as he leaned on the helm ; his shadowy figure just discernible, and that of a sailor pacing near the head of the ship with crossed arms and a rolling step. The captain wrapped in a sea-coat, lay asleep on the deck, wearied with the early watch. As the dawn strengthened, it discovered white sails stealing along the distance, and the flight of some sea-fowls, as they uttered their slender cry, and then, dropping upon the waves, sat floating on the surface. Meanwhile, the light tints in the east began to change, and the skirts of a line of clouds below to assume a hue of tawny red, which gradually became rich orange and purple.

2. We could now perceive a long tract of the coast of France, like a dark streak of vapour, hovering in the south, and were somewhat alarmed on finding ourselves within view of the French shore, while that of England was still invisible. The moonlight faded fast from the waters ; soon the long beams of the sun shot their lines upwards through the clouds and into the clear blue sky above, while all the sea below glowed with fiery reflections, for a considerable time, before his disk appeared. At length he rose from the waves, looking from under clouds of purple and gold, and as he seemed to touch the water, a distinct vessel passed over his disc, like a dark speck.

LESSON 131.--Hints.

367. From the following Hints, which are given in regular succession, produce a Description, developed and expressed as nearly as possible in accordance with the rule:

368. STARLIGHT Night.

1. Clear frosty air of January affords opportunity not to be neglected, contemplating heavens, in order learn to distinguish principal stars. 2. This exercise, besides much clearer understanding what has been said motions of heavenly bodies than otherwise obtained, will elevate minds, purify hearts. 3. For heavens declare glory of God, firmament showeth his.

4. Some most remarkable stars, attention be directed, are Polar Star, Orion, Arcturus, Pleiades, mentioned Book of Job. 5. All stars in heavens, numberless as they seem, portioned into groups, called constellations, more easy finding any particular one.

6. In northern part sky, or part opposite to what see sun at noon, are seven bright stars, known to most name of Charles's Wain, 7. Of these seven stars three arranged curved line, four others a square. 8. If notice these last, shall see outer two point in a direct line to another farther north, Pole Star. 9. Astronomical name of Charles's Wain is Ursa Major or Great Bear, but Polar Star belongs another constellation, called Ursa Minor or Little Bear.

10. Pleiades or Seven Stars form cluster in south-east part of heavens, part constellation Taurus or Bull, one of signs of Zodiac. 11. At distance beyond Pleiades, but in same direction, observe four bright stars forming oblong square, inclosing three others slanting line. 12. This constellation Orion.

13. Far south-east of the three bright stars as Pleiades are to north-west, we observe brilliant star which is Sirius or Great Dog Star. 14. This largest probably nearest what termed Fixed Stars, but distance from earth at least 80,000 times as that of earth from sun. 15. Earth at one period of year 195,000,000 miles nearer to Sirius than at another, but

size of star not altered thereby, to be noticeable even by most powerful telescopes.

16. Arcturus, brilliant star, situated not far from tail of Great Bear, included in constellation Boötes. 17. A little south of Pleiades bright star called Aldebaran forms one of eyes constellation Taurus; at distance to east are two others Castor and Pollux, are principal stars constellation Gemini or Twins, another of signs of Zodiac.

18. If notice any of these stars for short period, observe all shift their places in same manner as moon, except Polar Star, which same place, whilst others rise in east, travel south, and sink in west.

LESSON 132. - Memoriter Exercise. 369. PHENOMENA. 1. Read the following Extract two or three times over, noticing the sequence of the sentences.

2. Reproduce the Example from recollection.

3. Institute a Comparison between your own and the original, when all deviations either in construction, punctuation, or sequence must be noticed.

370. MODEL. — LAND AND SEA BREEZES. 1. The Land and Sea Breezes, which are common on the coasts and islands situated between the tropics, belong to the class of periodical winds. During the day, the air, over the land, is strongly heated by the sun, and a cool breeze sets in from the sea ; but in the night, the atmosphere over the land becomes cooled, while the sea, and consequently the air over it, retains a temperature nearly even at all times ; accordingly, after sunset, a land-breeze blows off the shore. The seabreeze generally sets in about ten in the forenoon, and lasts till six in the evening; at seven the land-breeze begins, and continues till eight in the morning, when it dies away. These alternate breezes are, perhaps, felt more powerfully on the coast of Malabar than any where ; their effect there, extends to a distance of twenty leagues from the land.

2. Thus, within the limits of from twenty-eight to thirty degrees on each side of the equator, the movements of the atmosphere are carried on with great regularity; but, beyond these limits, the winds are extremely variable and uncertain, and the observations made, have not yet led to any satisfactory theory by which to explain them. It appears, however, that beyond the region of the trade-winds, the most frequent movements of the atmosphere are from the south-west, in the north temperate zone. This remark must be limited to winds blowing over the ocean, and in maritime countries ; because those in the interior of continents are influenced by a variety of circumstances, among which the height and position of chains of mountains are not the least important. These south-west and north-west winds of the temperate zones, are most likely occasioned in the following manner :- In the torrid zone there is a continual ascent of air, which, after rising, must spread itself to the north and south in an opposite direction to the trade-winds below; these upper currents, becoming cooled above, at last descend and mix themselves with the lower air; part of them may perhaps fall again into the trade-winds, and the remainder, pursuing its course towards the poles, may occasion the north-west and south-west winds, of which we have been speaking.

3. This interchange between the heated air of the Tropics, and the cold air of the Polar regions, greatly tends to moderate the climate of each. Besides the air from the Tropics being richer in oxygen, on account of the more luxuriant vegetation decomposing a larger quantity of carbonic acid, is well calculated to supply any deficiency in the amount of this most important substance, which might occur from the barrenness of a less favoured climate.

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