Графични страници
PDF файл
ePub

in regular succession, produce a Description, developed and expressed as nearly as possible in accordance with the rule :

343. SEVILLE, 1. Seville situated fertile delightful plain, near mouth Guadalquiver, formerly admitted vessels large size ; great city earliest period. 2. By Romans celebrated appellation Hispalis ; foundation to Hercules ; with neighbouring colony Italica, capital of Bætica. 3. Under Moors an independent kingdom ; if true on its capture by Ferdinand the Catholic, * 400,000 Moors marched out, must an immense city. 4. Notwithstanding depopulation by bigotry and treachery, became more splendid, in consequence emporium wealth which flowed in from western hemisphere. 5. Then manufacturing industry flourishing. 6. By return to government in 1601, Seville contained 16,000 silk looms, employment to 130,000 workmen, 7. Frequently increase of splendour by a royal residence. 8. Since the above, Seville not only declined with Spain, but also by filling up channel of Guadalquiver, navi-, gable only for small ships, transferred to Cadiz commerce of America.

9. Seville now solemn, inert, gloomy. 10. Like other Spanish, particularly of Moorish origin, streets narrow, winding, dirty ; some splendid public edifices. 11. Foremost cathedral, largest ecclesiastical structure in the Peninsula ; its most striking feature its tower, erected by the learned Geber, used as an observatory. 12. Many of the convents very splendid, previous to the French invasion, contained numerous works Spanish artists, of whom Seville the nurse. 13. There was above all splendid collection of works of Murillo, prince of these artists, and native of Seville. 14. Of these treasures city has been despoiled by ravages invader. 15. Seville has still 2500 silk looms ; government maintains cannon foundry and tobacco manufactory. 16. Exchange and Marine Academy handsome edifices.

LESSON 120.- Memoriter Exercise. 344. 1. Read the following Extract two or three times over, noticing the sequence of the sentences.

2. Reproduce the Example from recollection.

3. Institute a Comparison between your own and the original, when all deviations either in construction, punctuation, or sequence must be noticed.

345. MODEL. - TAE HIGHLANDS OF SCOTLAND. 1. The Highlands of Scotland form an extensive territory, comprising rather more than half the surface of Scotland. They include the whole region north of the Forth and Clyde, except the belt on the castern coast, between the Friths of Forth and Moray. The Highlands, in their aspect, differ from the Lowlands; to a greater degree, indeed, than the Lowlands differ from England. This region consists altogether of continuous ranges of lofty mountains, which, on the borders, "leave between them some of the fine and broad valleys called straths, but in the interior only the deep and often rocky intervals called glens.

2. They are peopled by a race totally distinct from the Lowlanders. These mountaineers wear a costume quite peculiar to themselves ; they speak a Celtic dialect, deep, strong, and guttural, bearing no resemblance to the Teutonic speech of the Lowlands and of England. Down to the year 1745, they acted in clans, led by hereditary chiefs, to whom they were entirely devoted, and who exercised over them a paternal but absolute sway. This spirit of clanship led them to attach themselves strongly to the hereditary right of the Stuarts, of which, under Montrose, they gave powerful proofs, which had nearly turned the tide of war in its favour. Afterwards, in 1745, they suddenly invaded England; and, in the absence of the army in Flanders, struck alarm into the dynasty of Hano

ver.

The ultimately fatal issue of that contest broke entirely the independence of the Highland chiefs. A number were either brought to the scaffold, or sent into exile; military roads were made, and forts erected in the heart of their territory; they were deprived of their heritable jurisdictions, and of all their other feudal privileges; even the national dress was prohibited, on account of the recollections it was calculated to excite. Afterwards, however, government wisely adopted the plan of conciliation, in preference to measures of severity.

3. The lairds, deprived of their absolute power, and attracted by the gaieties and luxuries of cities, soon accustomed themselves to view their estates only as material capitals, to be worked according to the great principles of political economy. The multitude of little spots, divided among vassals, in whose numbers they placed their strength, were thrown into large sheep farms; and the tenants, whose ancestors had occupied the soil for ages, were driven out to seek, wherever they could find it, a home, or at least a shelter. Some migrated to the Lowland manufacturing cities, and a great portion went to America ; yet, it is remarkable that, in consequence of the advance of commerce and fisheries, even the Highland counties augmented their population, between 1801 and 1821 from 434,000 to 512,000.

LESSON 121.-Hints.

346. From the following Hints, which are given in regular succession, produce a Description, developed and expressed as nearly as possible in ac cordance with the rule :

347. HINTS.— ENVIRONS OF NAPLES. 1. Environs of Naples present combination most beautiful and most terrible in nature; extend along western shore from Naples to Miseno, which forms termination of the bay. 2. Our chief ornament mountain Posilippo, spreads its variod outline several miles along shores. 3. Its promontory broken into bays, islands, caverns, object above all attracts traveller, Grotto. 4. In wildest and picturesque recesses of romantic defiles opens this artificial excavation, penetrates the mountain for three-quarters of a mile on way to Puzzuoli. 5. Baiae, viewed by the Romans most enchanting, was absolutely crowded villas of great men. 6. Here academy of Cicero, favourite haunt of Virgil, palace of Lucullus. 7. Lake of Avernus, and Elysian fields neither dreadful nor beautiful as names would import. 8. Tomb of Virgil on our beautiful heights of Posilippo excites stronger emotions than any other. 9. Farther on, village of Puzzuoli site of ancient Puteoli, where remains of Amphitheatre and Temple of Jupiter almost vie with monuments of Rome. 10. Beauty of this region, gloomily mingled terrible indications ancient conflagration. 11. Solpatara, naked plain, surrounded rampart of shattered hills, heated by subterraneous fire, sensible to those passing over it, by whom workings of furnace heard. 12. When struck, rebellows in hollow murmurs, sulphureous exhalations rise from; a pale flame seen issuing by night from orifice in this burning plain. 13. Quarries of peculiar stone called Puzzolana, used in several manufactures, present striking picturesque aspect. 14. Lucrine Lake, on which ancients erected several magnificent, nearly filled up one night by the Monte Nuovo, a black mass of scoriæ and ashes, rose suddenly from bosom of the waters.

LESSON 122.-Original. 348. From the following subjects, the pupil may select one for description according to the preceding rule:

1. A description of some town, village, or city, with which the pupil is acquainted. 2. Do.

district

do.

SECTION IV. - MANNERS AND CUSTOMS.

LESSON 123. 349. In this Section, a formal and complete Description of what may be comprised under this head is not expected were it practicable, but such a delineation only of the more important particulars as a sensible intelligent observer may, with atten. tion, be enabled to produce. The Description may be confined sometimes to the domestic habits and employments of a particular class or community of persons; sometimes to their religious belief, ceremonies, and mode of worship; sometimes to their morals and such customs as exhibit the influence or deficiency of moral principles; and at other times to their costumes, diversions, and amusements.

350. GENERAL RULE. — 1. Whatever may be the object of the writer, let the most prominent points only be selected for discussion. Let these be developed so as to leave a pleasing impression on the mind of the hearer or reader.

2. Let the incidents be related in the order in which they occurred.

3. Let the reflections, if any, be just and natural; briefly expressed, and placed near the subject to which they belong.

Memoriter Exercise.

351. 1. Read the following Extract two or three times over, noticing the sequence of the sentences.

« ПредишнаНапред »