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325.- Route from ROME TO NAPLES. 1. Road on leaving Rome excellent, posting defective in appearance and appointment of horses, but in celerity equalled the best regulated road in England in 1818. 2. Pontine marshes of which dreadful accounts, differ little from parts of Cambridgeshire, but the livid aspect of the inhabitants proof of its unwholesomeness.
3. On quitting Terracina, we entered the Neapolitan terri. tory, the road begins to wind among the Apennines ; for many miles one continued pass wild, rugged country. 4. Adapted by nature a region of robbers. 5. Richness and luxuriance of country, between Terracina and Naples, remarkably striking. 6. Hedges of Laurestinus, olives, vineyards, orange and lemon groves, covered with fruit ; myrtle, fig, and palm trees, give a soft character to the landscape. 7. Orange tree adds richness to the prospect, but its form clumpy and too round to be picturesque. 8. Inhabitants seem to increase in misery, in proportion to the improving kindness of climate, and fertility of soil. 9. Never saw such shocking objects of human wretchedness as in this smiling land of corn, wine, oil. 10. At Fondi and Capua the poor naked creatures seemed in state of starvation, scrambled for the orange peel which fell from the carriage. 11. Much of this misery due to the government, some to the blessings of fine climate and rich soil, for nothing will supply want of industry.
12. Reached Naples after dark, on Feb. 11. had a first view of the bay of Naples, of this the windows of our lodging fine view. 13. Weather beautiful, warm as June day in England. 14. Breakfast without fire, marble floor, casements open, enjoying fresh sea-breeze. 15. First view of Vesuvius disappoints. 16. Could not discover that it was a burning mountain unless told so; the smoke has the appearance of the passing cloud seen hanging on the brow of some hill,
LESSON 112.- Original. 326. From the following Subjects, the Pupil may select one or more for description according to the preceding rule. It is expected that he will draw solely from his own observation.
1. A description of some route, taken either by coach or railroad. The incidents occurring on the road may be briefly introduced.
2. A ramble into the country. 3. A sojourn at the sea-side.
OBJECTS OF GENERAL CURIOSITY OR
LESSON 113. 327. QUALIFICATIONS.
In addition to the qualifications recommended (Art. 311.), a knowledge of the principal terms of Architecture will be advantageous.
328. GENERAL RULE. . 1. Either at the commencement, or at a very early stage, give a brief description of the locality in which the object is situated.
2. State its general appearance, figure, or form.
3. State its antiquity or date of construction, and, if requisite, a brief sketch of its history.
4. The purpose for which it was designed, its convenience or suitableness.
5. The striking characteristics which distinguish it from other objects of the same kind.
6. The feelings or reflections excited by a consideration of the whole.
Whether all or only a few of the preceding particulars be included in a description, will depend on the taste or object of the writer.
The numerals 1. 2. 3. &c. in the Memoriter Exercises refer to the divisions of the rule.
329. 1. Read the following Extract two or three times over, noticing the sequence of the sentences.
2. Reproduce the Example from recollection.
3. Institute a Comparison between your own and the original, when all deviations .either in construction, punctuation, or sequence 'must be noticed.
330. MODEL. - PYRAMIDS OF EGYPT. 1. The three pyramids that are the most taken notice of by travelers, as exceeding all the rest both in bulk and beauty, are situated on a ridge of rocky hills, on the borders of the Libyan desert, about ten miles westward from the village of Ghiza, which is supposed to be the spot where the ancient Memphis stood, though there are now not the least traces to be found of the ruins of that great and renowned city.
2. The largest of these pyramids, which has suffered least by time and weather, is six hundred and ninety-three English feet square at the base, and its perpendicular height is four hundred and ninety-nine feet; but if the height be taken as the pyramid ascends inclining, it is then six hundred and ninety-three feet; which is exactly equal to the breadth of the base, so that the angles and base make an equilateral triangle. The whole area, therefore, of the base contains four hundred and eighty-two thousand two hundred and fortynine square feet, which is something more than eleven acres of ground.
5. On the outside of this pyramid there is an ascent by steps ; the breadth and depth of every step is one entire stone, and several of them are thirty feet in length. The top of the pyramid does not end in a point, as it appears to those who view it from below, but in a little square consisting of nine stones, besides two that are wanting at the angles. Each side of the platform is about sixteen feet; so that a considerable number of persons may stand upon it. From this elevation there is one of the most beautiful prospects that can be imagined.
4. On the north side of the large pyramid, sixteen steps from the bottom, there is a narrow passage leading downwards into the body of the structure. Those who have ex. plored this passage find within, galleries, chambers, and a noble hall, built of Thebaic marble situated in the centre of the pyramid. In this stately hall stands a tomb, which consists of one entire piece of marble hollowed, without any lid or covering ; and on being struck it sounds like a bell. The general opinion is, that it was designed for the tomb of Cheops or Chemnis, king of Egypt, the supposed founder of this pyramid. There is no appearance, however, of any corpse having been laid in it.
3. and 6. The utmost uncertainty exists in all that concerns the construction of the pyramids. Their builders, origin, date, and purposes, are entirely lost in the night of ages. As the sides of all the Pyramids face the cardinal points, and of course give the true meridian of the places where they are situated, it would seem that their builders had made some progress in scientific knowledge ; and the structures themselves, under all circumstances, notwithstanding their plain exterior, clearly show the advanced state of art in those very early times.
LESSON 114. - Hints. 331. From the following Hints, which are given in regular succession, produce a Description developed and expressed as nearly as possible in accordance with the rule:
332. - ALHAMBRA. 1. Alhambra, ancient fortress and palace of the Moorish kings, its situation on the top of a hill overlooking the city, surrounded by a wall high and thick. 2. The road by a winding path through wood, lofty elms, poplars, oleanders, orange and lemon trees.
3. By side of the path beautiful marble fountains, streams transparent rushing down. 4. Entrance an archway, a key carved over, symbol of the Mahomedan monarchs. 5. This gate called that of Justice, according to Eastern forms, where kings administered justice.
6. Leaving Gate of Judgment, passed through another now converted into a chapel, with fatigue arrived at Square of the cisterns, under which water is brought from another hill, distance of a league. 7. These reservoirs large, contained an ample supply for the numerous inhabitants formerly dwelling here. From this prospect surrounding country fine, majestic Sierra Nevada seemed impending over us.
8. Apartments in this palace of enchantment numerous, should fear fatiguing by describing. 9. Character of the whole remote from all objects to which we are accustomed, impressions of wonder and delight excited, afford pleasing recollections during the remainder of my life. 10. This noble palace hastening to decay, without repairs, finances of Spain inadequate, in a few years this will be a pile of ruins ; its voluptuous apartments, stately columns, lofty walls, mingled together, no memorial be left in Spain of a people once governing the Peninsula.