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Together let us beat this ample field,
Try what the open, what the covert yield;
The latent tracks, the giddy heights explore,

Of those who blindly creep, or sightless soar.” REMARKS. - - In metaphors of this kind, all the particulars of the primary subject should have others corresponding to them in the metaphorical one. Care, therefore, should be taken that their qualities be not interchanged, and that those particulars which belong to the primary subject only, may never appear iu the metaphorical one. In the preceding example, the “ mighty maze" may represent the human constitution. The “planmay be the leading principles and feelings of human nature. The “ weeds and flowers” are virtues and vices, weaknesses and amiabilities. The forbidden fruitis temptation to irregular indulgence or passion. The open parts ” designate the knowledge which we can acquire and enjoy. By " the covertare meant such workings of the mind or economy of the body as we cannot explain. The latent trackmay denote abstruse speculations; and "giddy heightsmay signify ambitious designs.


EXERCISES. —Define a Metaphor. How can the word of God be a lamp? Show the difference between a Metaphor and a Simile. What caution is given with regard to the use of terms ? Mention the sources of metaphors. With what propriety can our Saviour be designated the lamb of God ? A vine-a door ? Piso be called a vulture? Chatham a bulwark? Age the sunset of life ? A man's horses become a, Charybdis of his estate ? Quote the first rule for the management of the Metaphor. Why compare God to a rock, &c. ? What is meant by forced metaphors ? From what subjects should metaphors be selected ? Quote the second rule for the management of metaphors, and explain the examples. Quote the third rule and explain the examples. In constructing a metaphor, what kind of language should be employed ? Quote the fourth rule and explain the examples. What method is to be adopted when we are in doubt whether the metaphor is of the mixed kind or not? What is said respecting crowding metaphors ? Quote the fifth rule and explain the examples. What is said of metaphors expressed by single words ? - of extended metaphors ?


METAPHOR CONTINUED. 146. Neatly transcribe the following Examples, underlining the words exemplifying the Figure, and subjoining to each Example a few Remarks tending to show the propriety of the Metaphor:

1. Childhood and youth are vanity. Remarks. 2. Cicero calls Marc Antony—“The torch of the state.” Remarks. 3. Conscience is a thousand swords. Remarks. 4. The tree of knowledge, blasted by disputes,

Produces sapless leaves instead of fruits.
5. O! when the growling winds contend, and all

The sounding forest fluctuates in the storm,
To sink in warm repose, and hear the din

Howl o'er the steady battlements.

6. Shakspeare represents human life under the figure of a voyage

at sea, and our progress in it by the figure of a tide in the following words :

* There is a tide in the affairs of men,
Which, taken at the full, leads on to fortune ;
Omitted, all the voyage of this life

Is bound in shallows and in miseries."

7. In considering a family connected with a common parent to resemble a tree, the trunk and branches of which are connected with a common root, we make use of a simile; but when we consider the family to be a tree, we convert the simile into a metaphor. Thus, Shakspeare introduces the Duchess of Glouceste:, giving an account of the royal pedi


gree to the Duke of Lancaster, the king's uncle, in the following words:

“ Edward's seven sons, whereof thyself art one,
Were seven fair branches, springing from one root:
Some of these branches by the dest'nies cut.
But Thomas, my dear Lord, my life, my Glo'ster,
One flourishing branch of his most royal root,
Is hack'd down, and his summer leaves all faded,

By Envy's hand, and Murder's bloody axe.”

8. St. Jude, in his Epistle, verses 12, 13, delivers a series of strong metaphors against those who were tempting to seduce the early Christians from the true faith, thus ; —

“ These are spots in your feasts of charity, when they feast with you, feeding themselves without fear; clouds they are without water, carried about of winds; trees whose fruit withereth, without fruit, twice dead, plucked up by the roots; Raging waves of the sea, foaming out their own shame: wandering stars, to whom is reserved the blackness of darkness for ever.”



LESSON 75. Metonymy, Synecdoche, Personification, Apostrophe. 147. A METONYMY is the change of such names as have some relation to each other; as when we put the cause for the effect, or the effect for the cause, the container for the thing contained, the sign for the thing signified.

Thus, 1. The cause for the effect, or, the author for his works ; as, “I am reading Virgil,that is, his works. — 2. The effect for the cause ; as, Gray hairs should be respected ;” that is, old age. 3. The container for the thing contained ; as,

66 The

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kettle boils," meaning the water ; “A flourishing city," meaning the inhabitants. — 4. The sign for

the thing signified ; as,

“ He assumes the sceptre;" that is, “ He assumes the sovereignty."

148. a. A SYNÉCD chĚ or comprehension is when the whole is put for a part, or a part for the whole, a definite for an indefinite number, &c.; as, Man returns to the dust,” meaning only his body; "He earns his bread," meaning all the neccssaries of life.

b. In applying a synecdoche, care must be taken, that if a part is once used to represent the whole, or the whole to represent a part, the same mode must be preserved throughout, in order to avoid a confusion of terms and ideas.

149. PERSONIFICATION or Prosopopeia is that figure by which we ascribe intelligence and personality to irrational animals and inanimate things; as, "My children, the aged Goat replies;" “ The thirsty ground; " " The angry ocean;"

" " The mountains saw Thee, O Lord, and they trembled.

150. a. The lowest kind of Personification is when we attribute some of the properties or qualities of living creatures to inanimate objects; as, “ The angry ocean,". a furious dart," "a smiling morn,'

- "the sullen sky.” Expressions of this kind are very common in descriptive Poetry.

b. A second and higher kind is when inanimate objects or abstract ideas are introduced as acting, in a more sustained manner, like living creatures. This species of Personification is very frequently exhibited in poetical descriptions, and in the highest species of Oratory. The following is an instance from Thomson :

“But yonder comes the powerful king of day,
Rejoicing in the east. The lessening cloud,
The kindling azure, and the mountain's brow,
Illum'd with fluid gold, his near approach

Betoken glad." c. The third and highest kind is when inanimate objects and irrational beings are introduced not only as feeling and acting, but also as listening and speaking. This kind is appropriate only for representing some strong

emotion, either of love, anger, indignation, or of grief, remorse, or melancholy. The following address of Satan, when left in torment by the Messiah, is a tolerable specimen :

“O Earth, Earth, Earth! cannot my groans pervade

Thy stony heart to embowel me alive
Under this rock, before to-morrow's sun
Find me here weltering in the sordid dust,
A spectacle of scorn to all my host,

Wont to behold in me their kingly chief ? ” d. In prose compositions, this figure requires to be used with great moderation and delicacy, for the same assistance cannot be obtained as in poetry for raising passion to its proper height by the force of numbers and the glow of style.

151. An APOSTROPHE is a turning off from the subject of discourse to address some other person, dead or absent, or some object, as if that person or object were actually before the speaker ; thus, David, in his lamentation over Saul and Jonathan, says, “How are the mighty fallen in the midst of the battle! 0 Jonathan, thou wast slain in thy high places. I am distressed for thee, my

brother Jonathan ; very pleasant hast thou been unto me; thy love to me was wonderful.”

EXERCISES. 152. Neatly transcribe the following Examples, underlining the words exemplifying the Figure, and subjoining to each Example a few Remarks tending to show the propriety of each Figure :

1. Metonymy. -a. “ The sceptre shall not depart from Judah.”—b. They smote the city.”—c. “He reads the poets.” -d. “ He is studying Paley.”—

!-e. “He aspired to the crown.” - f. “The cups runs over.”—9. “ The thorns of state." Remarks. 2. Synecdoche. A flect of twenty sail.” – 6. “Since


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