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posture upon the table, was propped up against a candlestick, and in a silent language, interpreted by Dot, contrib

THE LAWS OF DU ELLING.1 uted greatly to the hilarity of the evening.

“Lord love her little heart!” exclaimed Potten, as he It may not be generally known that just fifty years ago wiped tears of amusement from his eyes when Dot had sunk a benevolent and enterprising Irish gentleman und-rtook, exhausted to sleep; "she's as good as any play; that 'ere unaided and alone, to do for duelling what the Brussels doll's a fortun' to us."

Conference has attempted to do for war. Duels, he had But the next evening Potten was not so well entertained. said to himself, could not perbaps be put an end to, but Dot, it appeared, had been seized with a shivering fit, and they could be regulated. Ile seems, however, to bave enwas now sleeping heavily, breathing stertorously, and toss tertained some hope that his code might gradually bave the ing uneasily, with a skin as bot and dry as a burning coal. effect of abolishing the custom of duelling altogether; and, But poor people shrink from the expense of a doctor ; and had he lived until now, he would doubtless have attributed the Pottens resolved to see what a night would bring forth. its comparative disuse, as far at least as England is conThe night brought forth a sore throat, 80 sore that it seemed cerned, to the influence of his well-meant little book. The as if Dot would be choked. There was no help for it; a author conceals his name ; but he informs the reader, in a doctor must be called, and Potten, on his way to work, en preliminary essay on “the point of honor," that, “ born gaged one to “ look in." The doctor looked in, and looked and educated in a country which has been emphatically serious. He sent medicine, and word that he would look called the Land of Duel, and acquainted with several of in again in the evening. In the evening he came ; and its most chivalrous inbabitants, a case of point-blank pistols Potten was there.

was almost his earliest boast.” “ We have sometimes," he Dot was one bright red flush, to the very whites of her adds, “ felt ourselves obliged to ask the reparation of an eyes.

injury or satisfaction for an offence; but with deep, deep “ Wbat is it, sir, please ?” asked Potten, with white and gratitude we here record the fact that the controller of all trembling lips.

buman actions never saw those pistols levied at a fellow“Well," said the doctor, “it is best to tell you, in order subject, a hostile message forwarded to our address, or a that you may take precautions. It is a very bad case of | single shot discharged when the counsel which we offered scarlet fever.”

was adopted.” Probably the counsel offered was to the Potten groaned heavily, dropped down by the bedside effect that a full apology should be made. In any case, the and hid bis face in the clothes.

author of The British Code of Duel” was well qualified “Come, be a man,” said the doctor, touching him on the to deal with the question he had taken up, and he knew, shoulder; “don't give way like that. I've known worse | moreover, precisely what was to be said on both sides. cases recover.".

“baving held directly opposing sentiments upon the subPotten got up, and stared about him like one distraught. ject.”

The doctor gave his directions to Mrs. Potten ; and with From his original opinion that duelling was a necesa kind “good night,” departed.

sary evil he gradually came to believe that it was a pracThe eighth day was approaching, and Dot was in a high | tice not to be tolerated. When, however, he addressed state of delirium. There were no sweet flowers, no violets, “several courts in Christendom,” hoping to obtain from no primroses, no daffodils for poor little Dot, to catch her them a formal condemnation of the duel, he found it to be eye and soothe her senses; no grapes and no blood-oranges generally held that “a practice sanctioned by time and to moisten ber poor parched lips. And whenever her precedent, which had withstood the raillery of the satirist, father drew near her pillow, she, when the delirious fit was the terror of the penal laws, and the admonition of the upon her, would turn away her face and mutter: “ Do pulpit, nay, the fear of a future state, could never be abol. away, b'ack man; do away, b'ack man!”.

ished.” The eighth day came and passed ; and Dot passed away Sir Walter Scott wrote a letter to the author, in in the twilight.

which he says that, while doing the fullest justice to the Potten had scarcely spoken a word as long as the fever pbilanthropy of his motives, he is still afraid “that the lasted; but now, as he stood looking with a ghastly face, practice of duelling is so deeply engrafted on the forms of and dry, fierce eyes, at the tiny corpse before him, he said, society that, for a length of time at least, until mankind in slow, distinct, deliberate tones : « Susan, I've killed my may entertain much clearer views upon most moral subjects, child."

it will hardly fall into disuse.” Worse than that, the Duke Mrs. Potten, for a moment, hushed her sobs, and stared of Wellington, after assuring the author that he had perused at bim in blank amazement.

a manuscript copy of bis code“ with great interest,” failed “ Look here," continued Potten, in low, husky tones: “I on being provoked by Lord Winchilsea, to observe Article knowed there'd bin fever in the house where this come VIII., which sets forth that “when a gentleman is the defrom ; the lady that gave it me begged and prayed o' me positary of any public trust, it is more honorable to sacrito burn it, or, leastways, to burn the clo'es and the hair, | fice his individual feelings than the general interests of and bake and scour and reg'lar disinfect the rest on it; but | society." I was afraid o' sp'ilin' it, and — and — as they was always A Mr. Brie, too, “though an admirer of the code," endisinfectin' everything in that house, I never give it a sec. gaged in a duel which the code did not sanction, and which ond thought, and - and -1- give it her;" and, with his second, by observing the principles laid down in the a sob that shook bis whole body, he threw down upon the code, might easily have avoided. patchwork counterpane the black doll.

At last, however, encouraged by experienced friends " as Mrs. Potten had listened to him with a face that grew | well as by Plato's assurance that it is truly honorable ti paler and graver and more horror-stricken at every word he | contrive how the worst things can be turned into better," uttered; but all she said was, in a voice full of awe and the promoter of the anti-duelling movement took up thagony: “Oh, John!"

ground that the duel could not be absolutely done away It was the only reproach she made him ; but it may be with, but that it might be surrounded by conditions and that there is more in a tone than in words.

determined by rules wbich would deprive it of some of its Potten walked slowly to the door, and left the room. He | most objectionable features, and, in certain cases, prevent looked like a man in a dream. He did not return that its taking place at all. Thereupon he made it his business night; and Mrs. Potten was alarmed. He did not return to draw up a guide through all the stages of a quarrel, in the next day or night; and the neighbors were alarmed. which the views of the advocate of single combat and of They thought, too truly, that the poor man had gone dis. the Christian moralist who scruples fighting " should be tracted, was mad with grief and his sense of having bene the equally respected. cause of the death of his child. In this belief, they natu When the first edition of the work was issued, a poblerally expected to find bim on the river-side. And there, on | man and general officer, " who had fired eight shots in a the third day, they found himn – at low-water - drowned.

i The British Code of Duel. London. 1824.

single duel,” subscribed for twelve copies. Captain Fottrell, well known “by his desperate duel with Colonel

FOREIGN NOTES. Ross," approved of the “ Christian and philanthropic principles" on which the code was based, and the author was It is said that the late Sidney Dobell left a large quantity in hopes that his work would find favor not only with the

of manuscript in verse and prose. military, but with the clergy, many of whom had recently been “out," and with schoolmasters, who, it was suggested,

Ex-MARSHAL Bazaine bas taken the apartments forwould find in the “ British Code of Duel ” a suitable prize merly occupied by the late Emperor Napoleon III., in King book. In fact, two boys aged sixteen, named Wetherall Street, London. and Moran, had recently fought in Dublin. Two boys The Berlin Academy of Sciences offers a prize of two of the same age, who had been expelled from Yale College, hundred dollars for the best essay recording experiments, had fought with rifles at the distance of twenty paces, in satisfactorily proving whether the changes in the hardness presence of their parents, one of whom witnessed the death

and friability of steel are due to physical or chemical causes, of his son ; and two pupils of the Polytechnic School, aged or to both. Papers are to be sent in before March, 1876, seventeen, had fought in the Bois de Boulogne, when one, and the prize will be paid in July. of the seconds got mortally wounded through standing too

A NATIONAL Kaulbach Institution has been founded at near his principal. The “ British Code of Duel” bears unmistakable marks

Nürnberg to give assistance to talented German artists, of the opposite opinions entertained by the author at differ

without distinction of age, sex, or place of residence. The ent periods of his life. Thus in the preface, usually writ

council is composed of artists and lovers of art (Kunstten not before but after the book which it serves to intro

freunde), and the committee have already received powerduce, he disapproves of duelling altogether; whereas in the

ful support, especially from Germans residing in foreign opening pages of the body of the book he maintains that countries. duelling is as justifiable as war itself, though, like war, it It is a curious fact that Paris, with all its love of music ought never to be resorted to except in the last extremity. and amusements, and its crowds of foreigners, cannot supBut the author of the “ British Code of Duel " held that, port an opera — at least the state is always called upon to though it might be impossible to put an end to mortal com- furnish subsidies in aid of the Italian and French operas, bat, there could be no reason why certain objectionable | the Opéra Comique, and the Lyrique when it plays. But customs associated with duelling, such as posting, horse even with subsidies, which have been cut down since the whipping, nose-pulling, calling names, and so on, should | fall of the Empire, the business is not always a paying not be abolished. Already, we are told, “ these courses | one. Thus in 1869 the receipts of the Italians reached are rarely resorted to by honorable men; because if their 1,200,000 f., but the expenditure exceeded them by over origin be traced to the form used in the degradation of $85,000. The singers cost 700,000 f., the dancers 337,000 f., knights, the individual would usurp to bimself the preroga- the orchestra 137,000 f., and the other persons employed tive of the Crown; and he would, at the same time, become in the house 168,000 f. The subsidies have varied from amenable to municipal law, as for assault." In the end, time to time, being sometimes 600,000 f., sometimes after a preface and two introductions, the author prints his 700,000 f., and sometimes 800,000 f., and yet with this code, and in proclaiming it informs the British public that assistance the opera has always been in embarrassed " should any individual attempt to deviate from rules which circumstances. It would appear, however, that the subhave been so very highly sanctioned by the chief commander sidies have been paid, not to the inanager, but to the of the British army and others whose letters we have inserted Parisians, to enable them to have cheap music. in the introduction, his adversary will be justified in refus

The Times, in a review of the “Life of Louisa, ing to recognize him as a gentleman." Among the most remarkable articles in the code are No.

Queen of Prussia," speaks of Kosciusko's having “fallII., which enjoins every gentleman “to abstain from nick

en, severely wounded, with the words which became

historic, Finis Poloniæ.'” It would be interesting to names, mimicry, offensive jokes, and what is usually termed

know who first started the foolish story, which was conhorse-play, as in the imprudent indulgence of such very

tradicted by Kosciusko himself almost as soon as it was vulgar follies irreconcilable quarrels but too frequently orig

published, but which is still repeated from time to time as inate;” No. XXVI,, which sets forth that “an apology,

though its genuineness had never been called in question. with its usual accompaniment - the offer of a whip or switch — should always be accepted for a blow, or for any

It may be excusable to believe in the last words” attrib

uted to the Imperial Guard at Waterloo (where they did n't other offence which may be considered an assault ;” and

“die ” and did “surrender "), because some one member No. XXVII, which qualifies the severity of the article im

of the Guard, better bred than Cambronne, might really mediately preceding it by allowing the tender of a horse

have used the words which Cambron ne himself was at one whip or stick to be dispensed with “at the solicitation of

time supposed to have uttered. But Kosciusko settled the the offending party and upon the written plea of his

“ Finis Poloniæ " question when he wrote his well-known hazarding his commission, rank, pay, or family expect

letter to Count Ségur, assuring him that he had not, on ance.” A gentleman who is in liquor is not to be urged or allowed

falling, cried “ Finis Poloniæ ” for two reasons : first,

because he was all but mortally wounded at the time and to fight; nor one who has not had sufficient time to make

could not speak; secondly, because he could never have a proper disposition of his property and trusts for the ad

had the presumption to think that with his death Poland vantage of his family, clients, or creditors. All extrava

must come to an end. He even added that, after all their gant propositions are to be carefully rejected, such as fight

disasters, the Poles had no more reason to say “ Finis Poloing across a table or at handkerchiet's length; and “as

niæ" than had the French after Rosbach to say “ Finis the death of an individual may sometimes bring party feelings into action," all meetings must be as private as pos

Galliæ.” sible.

The aged poet, Runeberg, the greatest scald that Sweden In choosing the scene of action special precautions should has ever had, has been in extremely weak health for manyinvariably be used “to prevent the necessity for carrying years past. It appears that as he bas lain on his sick-bed, wounded gentlemen over walls, ditches, gates, stiles or at Helsingfors in Finland, he has occupied himself by close hedges; ” and at their meeting on the ground the parties | observation of the habits of birds, and specially with reshould invariably salute each other, and should, indeed, be | gard to the causes of migration, and he has at last put "emulous of offering this evidence of civilization.” The sol. | forward a singularly beautiful theory on the latter point. emn act of tossing up is to be performed with “ three, five, He believes, in fact, that it is the longing after light, and or seven coins, after they have been carefully shaken in a that alone, that draws the birds southwards. When the hat." No duel is to be fought on a Sunday or festival, or days shorten in the north, the birds go south, but as soon near a place of public worship.

as ever the long northern nights set in, with all their lumi

That held the pear to the gable wall. The pear on the gable wall may perhaps be more literal to some original in the poet's mind, but is it quite fair on bis part thus to confuse the lines of so perfect a picture, every touch and detail of which has found a place in the living memory of hundreds of readers? I am glad to find on the other hand that the magnificent epical fragment • Morte d'Arthur'is restored to the reader. We are glad of. The Passing of Arthur' as an addition to our stock; but we could not well accept it as a substitute for our earlier


nous and long-drawn hours, the wanderers return to their old haunts. It is generally supposed that they move southward to get more abundant food; but wby, asks Runeberg, do they leave their rich hunting grounds to return to the north? The central regions of Europe are in every way more desirable than the wastes of Scandinavia. Only one thing is richer there, and that is light. The same instinct that makes plants firmly rooted in the ground strain towards the light, spreading upwards in search of it, works in the birds, who, on their free wings, fly after and follow it. This very suggestive and poetical notion is further carried out by reference to various analogies in natural history, and the final sentence is quite epigrammatic: “ The bird of passage is of noble birth; he bears a motto, and his motto is Luz mea dur.

We tbought the gas-companies of the United States were rather autocratic institutions; but it seems that the English gas companies could give ours a lesson in oppression. The Pall Mall Gazelle remarks: “ Perhaps the most absolute form of government which now exists in Europe is that of the London gas-companies. All that was bitherto known on the subject by the unfortunate gasconsumer was that they supplied him with an article of low illuminating power and high price — the former constant in amount and the latter variable, and readjusted from time to time subject to the performance of certain little illusory formalities called an inquiry,' at the discretion of the gas-company. It now appears, however, that the quality of the article supplied is equally discretionary with the companies, and that they claim not only the right to vary it at their will, but to compel the consumer to adapt his gas-fittings to the alteration. 'A Bromptonian' states that he has received a circular from the Gaslight and Coke Company informing him that the directors, baving at the urgent request of the Kensington Vestry changed the supply of gas in that district from cannel to common, give notice that except where an argand burner is fixed the common gas requires a burner slightly larger than those used for cannel gas. It is probable that no cooler notice than this ever emanated even from a gascompany. It amounts, in fact, to saying to each of their customers, •As we have resolved to supply you with inferior gas in future, you will be good enough to alter your gas-burners in order to make use of it.'”.

“Mr. Tennyson,” says Sylvanus Urban in The Gentleman's Magazine, “is probably as well aware as any of his critics can be of the strong tendency existing in his own mind to touch and retouch even his finished work in a fidgety and unsatisfied way. Indeed, to those who read him thoughtfully he has given one or two hints of his knowledge of this particular failing. In · Will Waterproof's Lyrical Monologue' -- a poem full of deep autobiographical interest - he writes in evident allusion to his own method of working,

Nor add and alter, many times,

Till all be ripe, and rotten. It is just possible that in the two alterations I notice in the new edition of his works he bas, in his desire to be exact and faithful, advanced a stage beyond ripeness. Everybody knows the couplet in Lady Clara Vere de Vere,'

The grand old gardener and his wife

Smile at the claims of long descent. In the new edition the first line is altered, and the epi. thets are dropped for the literal simplicity of

The gardener Adam and his wife. The other alteration is in the poem Mariana in the Moated Grange.' The verse ran thus in earlier editions :

With blackest moss the flower-pots

Were thickly crusted, one and all :
The broken nails fell from the knots

That held the peach to the garden wall.
The last line of the first verse now reads, –

Dr. SCHLIEMANN describes in the Allgemeine Zeilung an ascent, made by him last month, of Mount Parnassus. He did not see any snow until he had gained an altitude of 6000 feet, and even then only in clefts of the mountain. At nine in the evening, after repeatedly losing his way, he arrived at one of the highest of the shepherds' huts; but the place was so filthy that he preferred to sleep with his companions in the open air. This he did with comparative comfort, though when he left Delphi that morning the temperature was at 32 deg. Réaumur, while at his sleepingplace the thermometer showed 4 deg. only. At two A. M. they proceeded on mules for an hour and a balf, after which they had to climb with hands and feet up the Lykeri, which is the highest peak of the mountain. They reached the summit with much labor at five o'clock, just as the sun was rising. To the east they saw the green fields and meadows of Baotia, Lake Copais, Attica, the island of Eubea, and the Ægean Sea; to the north, the mountain chains of Othrys and Eta, Pindus, Olympus, Ossa, Pelion, and Athos ; to the south, the high table-land they had visited on the previous day, the ravine of Pleistos, in which Delphi lies bidden, the beautiful plain of Krysso, the bays of Cirrha and Anticirrha, and the magnificent mountain range of the Helicon, the bay of Corintb, Acrocorinthos, the mountains of Achaïa, descending precipitously to the sea, the high mountains of Arcadia, and in the background the gigantic Taygetos; to the west, the mountains of Locria, Ætolia, and Acarnania, and bebind them the Adriatic. Dr. Schliemann adds that on the summit of the mountain he found only one kind of plant, with small thick leaves, but that at the foot of the Lykeri there were six different species, giving abundant food io the sheep. Some of the shepherds have 2000 sheep, which is equivalent to a property of 30,000 drachmas, or 7500 thalers. Everywhere on the mountain-tops there are high stones of various shapes which serve as landmarks to the sbepherds in foggy weather. The women carry about with them a very primitive spinning apparatus, with which they are continually spinning wool, whether they sit, stand, or walk.

“No little anxiety," says the Pall Mall Gazette, “ has been caused in the neighborhood of London during the last few days by the sudden appearance of myriads of ants. A vanguard of these insects has even been seen marching over Waterloo Bridge, and it is impossible to deny that our position is at the present moment one of extreme peril. At any moment the invading army may be upon us, and we shall then be exposed to all the horrors of an antplague. Those who are accustomed to look on the ant as an industrious but insignificant creature will probably smile at the idea of its presence even in swarms being a source of serious inconvenience. Without any wish to cause an unnecessary panic, but merely with the view of preparing Londoners for possible contingencies, it may be as well to call attention to the proceedings of an army of ants that some years ago in vaded the island of Grenada. The ants on that occasion descended from the hills like torrents, and the plantations, as well as every path and road for miles, were filled with them. Rats, mice, and reptiles of every kind became an easy prey to them, and even the birds, which they attacked whenever they lighted on the ground in search of food, were so harassed as to be at length unable to resist them. Streams of water opposed only a temporary obstacle to their progress ; tbe foremost rushing blindly on certain death and fresh armies instantly



"Souleve ta paupière close,
Qu'eflluere un songe virginal!"

beginning of the Original.

Those slumbering lids unclose,

Where pure dreams hover so light! A spectre am I - tho Rose

That you wore at the ball last night.
You took me, watered so late

My leaves yet glistened with dew,j
And amid the starry fête
You bore me the evening through.

O lady, for whom I died,

You cannot drive me away! My spectre at your bedside

Shall dance till the dawning of day. Yet fear not, nor make lament,

Nor breathe sad psalms for my rest! For my soul is this tender scent,

And I come from the bowers of the Blest


following, till a bank was formed of the carcasses of those which were drowned sufficient to damn up the waters and allow the main body to pass over in safety. Even fire was tried without effect. When it was lighted to arrest their route, they rushed into the blaze in such myriads as to extinguish it. To such straits was the unfortunate island reduced by the ants that a reward of £20,000 was offered, but in vain, for an effectual means of destroying them; and it was not until a hurricane in 1780 came and blew them away and drowned them, - doing, by the way, almost more mischief than the ants, - that Grenada was freed from these terrible destroyers. Happily, in London we have the steam-roller, which should be kept ready for immediate action in the face of the calamity with which we are now threatened.”

A GERMAN paper publishes a curious account by Herr Von Fries, an Austrian employed in the Chinese Customs service, of an official Chinese banquet at which he was present. The guests, he says, having all assembled in the outer court-yard of the house, the doors were thrown open by two coolies, who admitted them into a second court-yard. Here they were received by a flourish of trumpets, some discordant Chinese music, and the firing of mortars. They then proceeded to the third court-yard, where the master of the house received them and showed them into the diningroom, which is only divided from the court-yard by a glass partition. In the middle of the room was a large round table, and against the walls were chairs with a small table before each, to put teacups on, tea being served immediately before dinner. The walls were covered with Chinese pictures, and numberless lamps and lanterns hung from the ceiling. After a short conversation in the Chinese language, the table was laid in the presence of the guests. When all was ready, the host asked each guest to come to the table, pointing out his seat, and handing him with many compliments a set of red lacquered chopsticks. When this ceremony was completed, the company sat down to dinner. Rice wine was first brought up, together with ham, eggs, and various cold vegetables. The next course consisted of bird's-nest soup, and thirty-four dishes followed, among which were sharks’ tins, a soup made of diminutive snails of the size of small beans, which came from Lake Tabu, a ragout of ducks' tongues, fishes' brains with brown sauce (a most disgusting dish to a European palate), and puddings baked in oil. Roast pork and ducks were also served; these were eatable, and the fish was particularly well cooked, but Herr Von Fries came to the conclusion that the simplest European dish is far preferable to the most elaborate delicacy of the Chinese cuisine, and he says that after dinner he felt as if he had eaten boiled guttapercha. The best part of the entertainment was a dish of excellent fruit. Champagne was served towards the end of the dinner; this is the only wine drunk by the Chinese, and only the wealthy can afford to buy it, as a case costs from ten to fifteen Mexican ducats. Cigars were handed round after the soup, and it is the custom to go away directly after dinner. It is also remarkable that at a banquet of this kind the host only appears in official costume, the guests being all in mufti.

How many for deaths so divine

Would have given their lives away! Was never such fate as mine

For in death on your neck I lay!
To my alabaster bier

A poet came with a kiss :
And he wrote, “ A rose lics here,
But kings might envy its bliss.”

Francis David MORICE.


If we be fools of chance, indeed, and tend No whither, then the blinder fools in this :

That, loving good, we live, in scorn of bliss, Its wageless servants to the evil end.

If at the last man's thirst for higher things

Be quenched in dust, the giver of his life,

Why press with growing zeal a hopeless strife ? Why — born for creeping – should he dream of wings ? O Mother Dust! thou hast one law so mild,

We call it sacred – all chy creatures own itThe tie which binds the parent and the child;

Why has man's loving heart alone outgrown it?

Why hast thou travailed so to be denied, So trampled by a would-be matricide ?


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good profit from it, and with which he is supposed to be EVERY SATURDAY: thoroughly familiar. If he be agent, he has limited reA JOURNAL OF CHOICE READING,

sponsibilities and limited control ; he risks little, and his PUBLISHED WEEKLY BY H. O. HOUGHTON AND COMPANY, commission bearing a fixed ratio, he makes something out 219 WASHINGTON STREET, BOSTON;

of every transaction, whether his principal makes a good NEW YORK: HURD AND HOUGHTON ;

or a poor sale. Of course the more successful he is in his Cambridge: The Riverside Press.

management of the trust, the more he receives in commisSingle Numbers, 10 c18.; Monthly Paris, 50 cts.; Yearly Subscrip!ion, $5.00. sion, and his interest is appealed to. Yet there is a dif

N. B. THE ATLANTIC MONTHLY and EVERY SATURDAY sent to one address ference, not to be ignored, between the activity of a perjor 38.00.

son who is simply the agent for another, and that of one

who ventures property and business reputation. As beTEN PER CENT.

tween the author owning his books and the publisher

owning them, we think the latter more likely to make the The bargains made by publishers with authors are

investment pay. various, but from what we can learn, the half profits sys

Another reason has already been implied. The author tem, as it is called, predominates in England, and the ten

makes his investment, but he is compelled to entrust the per cent. system in America. Mr. Spedding, at any rate,

management of it to another. It is impossible that he in his little book, “ Authors and Publishers,” implies that

should personally direct it, yet from his interest in the the half profits system is the one most in vogue in Eng

matter, and his partial knowledge, he is constantly tempted land, and he is delighted at the discovery he made when

to take a share of the management, and his agent, for one he came to receive copyright from the American publishers of his edition of Bacon's works, that in America

reason or another, is very likely to fall into a way of exauthors were free from the entanglements of a system

pecting his principal to fulfil quite important functions.

It is easy to see that between them both there might be which always seemed to halve their half, and received a

some irregularity in the movement of the machine. clear ten per cent. on the retail price of all copies sold ;

We have not ventured to say how good or how poor a that they had nothing to do with the intricate accounts

piece of property a moderately successful book may be, pertaining to manufacture and advertising, but simply

how it would rank as an investment to tempt an author, needed to know how many copies had actually been sold

but we are inclined to think that the profits of a publisher since the last settlement; the retail price was advertised,

are from two sources : books on which there is no copyand they had at least arithmetic enough to reckon ten per

right, but which sell steadily year after year, and books cent. on the product of the number of copies and price

which run up into large editions, where the advertising of each copy.

has come to bear an exceedingly small ratio to the reThe usual mode of dealing with authors for whom pub

ceipts, and the stereotype plates have been paid for out lishers are freely disposed to publish would seem to be

of the profits. that the publisher, taking upon himself the expenses of

In our judgment, if an author wishes to invest money publication, collects the proceeds of the sale and hands to

| in his books, he cannot do better than own the stereotype the author ten per cent. of the retail price of each copy

plates from which the book is made. That gives him sold. Why should not the author, when he has the money

control of his book as nothing else can, and so long as his to invest, himself bear all the expenses, receive all the

book sells, the plates are property. If his publisher fails proceeds, and pay the publisher ten per cent. for his labor

or gives up his business, the plates cannot fall into the in publishing the book? This is by no means an uncom

hands of any one who would use them ill, and withmon arrangement. It sometimes is made when the author

out the plates the book cannot be printed. In this way, is rich and the publisher poor; sometimes when the pub

too, he shares risks with the publisher. Ilis own risk is lisher does not regard the book as a safe investment and

a simple one; the manufacture of the plates is not atthe author is willing to assume the risk ; and sometimes,

tended with complicated calculations, and once made, though less frequently, a successful author prefers this

there need be but trifling expense of repair ever called method as insuring him a larger share of the profits, the

for; the merest tyro can own the plates, but the printed publisher in this case receiving an agent's commission.

stock, as we have before explained, is of much more variaThe answer in general which we should make to the

ble value, and requires to be under the control of an exquestion is that the author by this course becomes a cap

pert. A not uncommon mode of publishing, where the italist, and it is for him to consider whether his money thus

author owns the plates, is for the publisher to assume all invested will bring him in a better return than if put out

other expenses and pay him a copyright of fifteen per at interest in some other form. He is entitled to his

cent, on the retail price of all copies of the book sold, ten copyright as payment for the labor of his brain, and if he

per cent. being regarded as copyright and five per cent. wishes to reckon the profit upon publishing his own works,

as interest on the investment : five per cent be it observed he must deduct the copyright which he would in any

on the retail price of the book, not on the amount investevent receive. It makes no difference whether the pub

ed in the plates. lisher pays it to him or he pays it to himself. That being

NOTES. subtracted, will his investment of money in his books pay him as well as if invested in some other way? That is - The Journal of Social Science, No. VII., is nearly the question which he must ask himself.

| ready for subscribers and the public. This journal is We may say for one thing that it will not pay him as issued by the American Social Science Association, through much as it would pay the publisher, were that person to Ilurd and Houghton, New York; The Riverside Press, be the capitalist, and not, as we are now supposing, the Cambridge, and some notion of the scope of the Associaagent. The reason is obvious. The publisher, if he be tion, and the valuable character of the contributions to its capitalist, is a person with full responsibilities, engaged in meetings and journal may be formed from an examination using his money in a business of which he has control, of the contents of this new number. Dr. Woolsey writes which he must manage economically in order to extract a upon “ The Exemption of Private Property upon the Sea

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