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Corinthians xv., where we are emphatically told that we novels. This rule appears to us just as wise and sensible do not know with what bodies the dead shall be raised. as if a parent whose son was about to travel partly on busiThe experience of ages has taught men the true meaning, ness in cities, partly in the country, and partly among works of that sublime passage. Swift and sure is the decay of of art, were to advise him in this fashion : “I would have our mortal vestment, whether we commit it to the devour- you above all things remember to keep a most observant ing flame or to the corrupting earth. A hundred years eye on everything about you in the places where you do hence it will not matter which we chose. The atoms business. If you confine your attention to what concerns which have composed our body will have dissolved in a yourself, if you cannot tell me what other people were dothousand directions, will have taken new forms, will have ing, if you fail to note all the things in the counting-houses become part, it may be, of other organisms. That which and the shop-windows, I shall take you for an idle fellow. we now call our body is made up of what in bygone ages As to the country, no doubt you had better observe its may have been part of the body of our forefather. Nature beauties than not, but it does not much matter. As to is economic of her materials, and uses them many times. pictures and so forth, certainly they are good in their way; But the spiritual body which we look to receive is different but as they are only made to be looked at, why, you may from the natural body. In the resurrection they neither look at them just as carefully or carelessly as you please. marry nor are given in marriage. The distinctions of mor- Instead of acting by analogy to such advice as this, tality are lost; we have borne the image of the earthy, but which we need not spend time in showing to be counter to then we shall bear the image of the heavenly. It doth not the general opinion and habits of mankind, we prefer to yet appear what we shall be; but at least we shall not be treat reading as a branch of human life, and to hold a docshut any more in this prison of the senses, hampered and trine directly opposed to the popular fallacy. We mainfettered by bodily conditions. Secure in this belief, we tain that the true belief as to skipping is to this effect contemplate without fear the inevitable dissolution of our generally speaking, it is not wrong to skip. Skipping is an decaying flesh; we watch its atoms lost in the ocean of important part of the art of reading, and should be pracmatter, as our breath is lost in the ocean of air ; for the tised systeinatically. It is most to be practised in solid physical laws by which this kaleidoscopic whirl of atoms books — by which we mean, for the purposes of this disand organisms is governed, are but expressions of the will cussion, books that are read merely for information. Solid of Him who has promised an immortality of joy, nor hath or serious reading consists in attending to the matter of a it entered into the heart of man to conceive what He hath book independently of the form, except indeed when the prepared for them that love Him.

form itself is the primary subject of study, as for instance from the point of view of a philologist or historian of liter

ature. The more solid the book, the more expedient it is THE ART OF SKIPPING.

to skip, and the more useful it is to know how to skip

judiciously. But when the form is of sensible imporConsidERING how much more people read, or are sup- tance to the reader as compared with the matter — or, in posed to read, nowadays than they ever did before, it is less abstract language, when a book is read partly or not a little strange how seldom they are aware that there wholly for entertainment and artistic pleasure, indepenis room for the exercise of art in reading as well as in other dently of information — then the art of skipping is no occupations. The remark which Socrates made on states- longer in its proper place, and should be very sparingly manship, that it was an exceedingly difficult and compli- used, if at all. It is generally a mistake in poetry, and it cated business which every body practised, and nobody is absolutely wrong in a good novel. We do not mean to thought himself bound to learn, applies with tenfold force forbid a cursory glance at a novel or a volume of poems in our own day, not merely to its original object, but to an about which nothing is known, honestly intended as a infinity of other matters. And the exercise of reading, in preliminary inquiry to ascertain whether it is worth readwhich many of us spend, whether for work or for pleasure, ing at all. One has a perfect right to look into a book and a very appreciable proportion of our lives, certainly falls say that it appears to be worth reading or not worth readwithin the spirit of his censure. We learn in our infancy ing, as the case may be ; and the faculty of doing this with to read words, but we are left to pick up the way to read a reasonable chance of guessing right is indeed closely books. Advice about the choice of the kind of matter to connected with the art and mystery of skipping. But be read is indeed plentiful enough, and is not unfrequently we must protest against the babit of tasting a good novel overdone; but how to read the things chosen intelligently by dips and skips — which really is nothing better than and economically, how to extract the greatest profit with taking extracts at random — and then pretending to have the least expense of time and eyesight — this, which surely read the novel. This way of treating the masterpieces of is a thing worth knowing, is left for the most part to come fiction, though we fear it is not uncommon and meets with by nature. So far as we are aware, there is only one cur- but little reprehension, we take to be no less vicious and rent precept on the subject, and that is radically wrong. demoralizing than the much-decried practice of skipping As the prejudice created by it must be cleared away before in books of solid instruction is in truth wholesome and any reasonable conclusions of a positive kind can be arrived laudable. The same observation applies, though in a less at, we shall do our best to expose the venerable fallacy at degree, to the reading of poems. the risk of being held to encourage idleness, desultoriness, Our position may seem paradoxical, but it can be estaband naughtiness generally.

lished by indisputable steps. Let us begin at the beginAlmost every one who was fond of reading as a child ning with the extreme of serious literature. The books must more or less distinctly remember having impressed on which are wholly made up of solid instruction, or profess him at various times that It is wrong to skip.” This so to be, which are completely free, so far as human frailty maxim is answerable for a quantity of time and trouble will allow, from any suspicion of art or amusement, are wasted in useless reading by the children who listen to it, Charles Lamb's class of biblia abibla, books which are after they have come to riper years, which, if the statistics

no books.

This class includes nearly all dictionaries — could only be collected and nicely made out, should be not quite all, for M. Littré, and perhaps a few others, enough to raise a clamor for a Royal Commission. The have a way of writing a series of disjointed but fascinating general proposition is indeed softened by explanations and essays disguised in the dictionary form — most encycloqualifications, by the time when young readers are thought pædic literature, of course with individual exceptions, and to be of sufficient discretion to follow them. But the quali- a considerable part of books of reference and scientific fications are all wrong too. The rule commonly taught, as

s modified by exceptions in teaching or practice, comes to one ever supposed that such books were meant to be read this. It is wrong to skip in reading a solid book. The continuously, that there was any virtue in reading them more solid the book, and the more important the matter, from beginning to end, or any vice in looking into them to the greater is the offence of skipping. It is venial to skip find particular things as wanted. Indeed, it is generally in reading poetry, and quite harmless to skip in reading admitted that the worker in any special subject on which

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much literature exists is at a disadvantage if he does not mother did what she could with her needle and her scissors know how to use books of reference properly - that is, if and her iron to increase the means of subsistence earned he is not an adept in the art of skipping. This is espe- by her husband, who plied some mysterious vocation on cially true in the profession which of all others is the most the river-side, and, when he was not engaged in that vocarigorous in requiring accurate knowledge and the least tion, performed “ odd jobs” in all parts of London. And favorable to slovenly habits. Half the practical aptitude some of them were very odd jobs. He was one of those of a lawyer, at any rate of an English lawyer, depends on men who are so very useful when you have something to his being able to use his books discontinuously, so as to get rid of, and are at your wits' end to know what to do ; pick out the very thing he is in search of, and not waste when, for instance, your little dog has died, and you don't time on its irrelevant surroundings.

know what to do with the body; or when there is a conBut if this much is conceded, why should the principle tagious disease abroad, and it seems advisable to have cerof skipping be confined to books which are manifestly and tain things disinfected or destroyed. On all such occasions on the face of them not readable? Why is it right to fit Potten was your man. He would do anything for next to from page to page of a dictionary by the help of the alpha- nothing, or at any rate for a mere tritle; anything, at least, betical order, and wrong to travel from one part of a his- that was not dishonest, for a more honest man than Potten tory or a book of travels to another by the help of the did not exist. Nor had the repulsive nature of the work index (if the book happens to be tolerably indexed), table on which he was frequently employed resulted in any corof contents, or otherwise? We can see no answer to this, responding repulsiveness in the man himself. He had a so long as the object of reading the book is knowledge sallow, gaunt face, it is true, for the lines had not fallen and not artistic pleasure. The writer can at most only unto him in pleasant places; but he smiled, when he did guess what things it will be convenient to tell; an intelli- smile, very brightly, and his manner, especially towards gent reader must know best what things he wants to be children, was gentle, and even winning. No doubt his told. It is the same with argumentative writing, essays, heart was under the softening influence of a double memand the like. You see by a glance at the first page of ory — of Dot and of the tiny graves. But Potten had cerhalf a dozen that the whole space is filled with setting tainly one unpleasant peculiarity: there were times when forth an argument with which you are quite familiar, to he looked the very incarnation of scepticism; disbelief which you will never be converted, or to which you need stood confessed in the twinkle of his eye, in the wrinkles no conversion ; by what manner of duty or reason can you

round bis nose, in the lines about his mouth, in the sound be bound to read the other five pages ? It may be an- of his snigger. Sternly admonish him, tearfully beg of swered, Because the style gives a new lustre to old matter. him, solemnly adjure him to be very careful, and to take But then you are no longer reading with the single view the greatest precautions on his own account, and his wife's, of information, and the instance is no exception to the and his children's, if he had any ; and he would answer first branch of our rule, but a confirmation of the second. impatiently : “ All right, sir ; to be sure I will, ma’am; It shows, not that it is wrong to skip when you read for don't you go for to be afraid ;” but all the while his manlearning, but that it is right not to skip when you read for ner and his laugh were as much as to say : “ Tut, tut! It's pleasure.

all a pack of rubbish ; no harm shall happen unto me." In reading what may be called literature of exposition, Thus does familiarity breed contempt. Who is it that especially in really good essays, it is often difficult to say lights his pipe over the powder-magazine ? Who is it how much of the general pleasurable impression is due to that burns a naked candle in the deadly atmosphere of the the substance of the author's meaning, and how much mine? And yet Potten was most scrupulously careful in to the form. This may be regarded as a kind of neutral all that concerned his employers; he may have laughed ground, where skipping may in some circumstances be at them in his sleeve, but, whether it were from a conallowable and expedient, in others a grave mistake. scientious sense of duty, or from fear of consequences in When we come to fiction the case is much plainer. A case of detected neglect, he performed their orders, as regood work of fiction, whether in prose or in verse, garded themselves, to the very letter. are here speaking only of good works, is a work of art, Such was the man who sat contentedly smoking his pipe and can be rightly enjoyed only by entering into sympathy in the room where Dot lay sleeping, and hugging in her with the artist's mind and accepting his work according to arms a large black doll, with merry black eyes, laughing his intention. In a perfect poem the place of every word, mouth, and grinning teeth, but without arms not a doll in a perfect novel the place, if not of every word, of every that most girls would fancy, but Dot loved it and fondled episode and of every paragraph, is important; and the it, as if it had been a paragon of beauty. In Mr. Potten's reader who skips throws away the pleasure he was meant section of society, no special smoking-room is provided, to derive from the harmony of composition, in which very and infants sleep peacefully amidst the fumes of tobacco. possibly the beauty of the whole may chiefly consist, and Perhaps that may be a reason why fever, though rampant despises the best part of the artist's labor. He might as enough, is not more rampant in certain districts. well go to see a good play, and then wilfully miss every Well, Mr. Potten sat smoking, Mrs. Potten sat sewing, alternate scene. In saying this we are no doubt setting and Dot lay sleeping. Mr. and Mrs. Potten had a deal up a high standard of light reading. We assert by im

table between them; and on the table stood a common plication the doctrine, which many will think severe, that sort of lamp, which gave a very good light by means, if a novel not worth reading continuously is not worth read. smell can be depended upon, of paraffine oil. Dot lay ing at all; and this principle would lead to the conclu- sleeping; but anybody who supposes that she occupied sion that a vast quantity of current and accepted litera- her own little cot with its snow-white coverlet, and other ture has no business to exist. And so we are perhaps accessories which make such pretty pictures of slumbering committed to a paradox worse than the first. We should childhood, would be very much mistaken. Mr. Potten's not be disinclined to do battle for it if space allowed; but humble establishment did not admit of so much luxury and the whole subject of novel-reading is too large to be dis independence. Mr. and Mrs. Potten and Dot all shared posed of in a closing sentence, and one paradox at a time the same bed, which, though by no means large, took up a is enough.

considerable portion of the apartment. The bed bad a coverlet of patchwork, old and faded. And yet it was

anything but an ugly spectacle that presented itself to the THE BLACK DOLL.

husband and wife whenev'r they looked in Dot's direction.

The bed linen was clean, though coarse ; and there, with Dor was a little girl, five years old, the only child left

her head between two pillows, lay Dot. Her fair hair, to her parents, whose other children all lay sleeping a still

very long for her age, streamed out in all directions; the sounder sleep under four tiny mounds of green turf. The long lashes of her closed eyes drooped on her cheeks; her parents were poor, and lived in one poor room “over the

smiling mouth, half open, showed a few white teeth; her water," that is, on the Surrey side of the Thames. The

chubby little arms were folded round the neck and body,

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and her little chin rested, as has been said, upon the “I don't know, darling. She was taken away by the woolly head of the black doll. And the black doll, with a

man when he took the other things." ring through its nose, a necklace of beads round its throat,

“What will he do to her, mun ? Cure her ? " and a flaring yellow frock upon its body, was gorgeous to “I

hope so, dear.” behold.

“ Then why can't I have her back when she's cured, Mr. Potten arose from his seat, and went softly up to dear mum? the bed ; and there was a moisture in his eyes when he “ Because, though she might not do you any harm, dear, returned. He resumed bis seat, and said, chuckling : it's safer, on account of other people, that we should get “ Lord love her! How happy she do look !"

rid of her altogether.” “She never had a doll afore, you know, Potten,” rejoined “ Poor Candace! I hope she'll soon get well,” murhis wife, a care-worn but cheerful, nice-looking woman, mured the invalid sleepily. “And I hope,” she added, “ bar them little halfpenny ones.”

" that she'll not make any other little girl as ill as I have “ But she's bin a-cryin',” remarked Potten, with a look been." of inquiry. “I see two little stains on her little nose.” I sincerely hope not," said the lady fervently, but in a

“ Yes," assented Mrs. Potten with a light laugh. “We very low voice, so as not to disturb the little invalid, who had a few words about the doll; she'd had it playin' with

was dozing off. all the blessed day, and I thought she'd do better without Candace, queen of the Ethiopians, was the name which it abed. But she would have dear Blackie, as she calls it ; the little invalid had given to her favorite plaything, a black and would n't even have it undressed. So I let her håve

doll. It had been included amongst a number of articles her own way, and that stopped her cryin', and made her which “the man” had carried off to be destroyed, or happy again."

“ cured,” as the little invalid would have said. The lady * What's the harm ?” growled Potten. “ Bless her lit

knew nothing of “the man,” but that he had been authortle heart."

itatively recommended as a regular practitioner in such It must have cost a lot o' money, that doll,” said Mrs. matters. She had paid him well, and had strongly advised Potten, “ what with the size on it, and the dress, and the him to destroy everything, or, at any rate, to bake, smoke, ornaments, and what not.”

steam, boil, and disinfect everything thoroughly. Unless Ah! I dare say,” observed Potten with indifference. he faithfully promised to do at least the latter, she would

“You'd never have bin able to buy one like it," con- see if she could not find some other means of riddance. tinued Mrs. Potten with much emphasis.

And “the man ” had replied : “ All right, ma'am ; don't “Not 1,” assented Potten with a short laugh.

" Ah!
you go

for to be afraid ; I know all about it.” But someit's an ill wind as blows nobody any good.”

bow his manner was a little contemptuous ; his eye twin“ But you never told me where you got it from,” re- kled, and his mouth sniggered in a by no means reassuring marked Mrs. Potten. “You only said it was given to fashion. And so he bad gone bis way ; and she did not you.”

know even his name, which was Potten. “ What's the odds ?” said Potten, yawning. “Here, And so the lady and the little invalid went to the seaI'm tired ; I'm a-goin' to bed. Come, make haste.” side ; and the latter grew strong and plump and rosy

And Mr. and Mrs. Potten were soon asleep, with Dot again. and the black doll between them.

And Candace and “the man were clean forgotten. Let us change the time and scene.

It shall be the same Meanwhile, Dot had been getting on famously with “dear day, but earlier in the evening; and the place shall be a Blackie.” No doubt Candace, queen of the Ethiopians, comfortable house on the Middlesex side of the river had fallen considerably in the social scale; but it is a quesThames, and on the borders of Tyburnia. It is early tion whether she had ever before been treated with so much spring, about an hour after sunset, and a little girl, some

Dot never did anything without consulting seven years of age, is being put to bed. She is evidently “ dear Blackie." She obtained that sable personage's peran invalid. Her pretty little face is thin and pale ; her mission before she even dared to put into her mouth a sinhands are almost transparent ; she totters if she attempts gle piece of bread and butter or a sip of milk and water. to walk alone. A lady and a maid servant are present in Nay, the maternal authority itself had to be backed up by the room, and render the necessary assistance. The little

the influence of the late Queen Candace. On the third girl has just had a bath, to judge from plain indications ; | evening of Dot's possession of her treasure “Now, Dot, and now she is being arrayed in the most dainty little it's time to go to bed ; that's a good gal,” Mrs. Potten said. night-dress, and gently laid in the most dainty litile cot, “ S'all we do to bed, dear B’ackie?” Dot asked ; and with the most dainty appliances. Otherwise, the room, then she cried exultantly : No, mother; dear B'ackie and indeed the whole house, presents an unfurnished ap- says we mustn't do to bed 'et, but wait for da." pearance; all the furniture seems to be huddled together in “You'd better ask dear Blackie again,” Mrs. Potten reout-of-the-way places, and there is a notable absence of plied, for she was a kind, patient, and judicious but firm carpets from the floors. · Wherever you turn, you see ba- mother. sins or other utensils filled with a red liquid, as if there had There was a short pause; and then Dot said, with a been a general nose bleeding throughout the house. More knowing laugh: “ Dear B'ackie says we'd better do to bed over, there is a pervading siell as of soot, from which the to-night, and sit up for da some other night.” experienced would infer disinfectants. In the little girl's “ Ah! dear Blackie's a good sort,” Mrs. Potten admitted, own room stands a table, on which are arranged, to please as she proceeded to undress her obedient little Dot. the eye and smell and taste, wall flowers, violets, primroses, And Dot, ere she closed her eyes in sleep, kissed her daffodils

, jonquils, grapes, and blood-oranges. Cheap pho- black doll, and said : “Dood night, dear B’ackie. Dod tographs and cheap picture books, which may serve to b'ess 'ou.amuse for the moment, and may be afterwards destroyed That same evening, Mr. Potten, whose avocations nearly without compunction on the score of extravagance, are always took him away from home all day, and who, consescattered about in all directions. When the little girl has quently, seldom had an opportunity of observing Dot and been made quite comfortable, the lady sits down by the side her ways, was treated by her to a little comedy, which he, of the cot, and prepares to coax the invalid to sleep. as a father, found more laughter-moving than anything ever “ Am I well now, dear mum ?” asks the invalid. performed by Liston, Wright, or Toole. Dot was restless,

Nearly well, dear,” replies mamma. “We are going to and woke up whilst her father was taking his pipe and the sea-side to-morrow, and then you will get quite strong drop of beer. and well again.”

And Dot insisted upon his sharing his pipe and beer “But if I'm not well, why can't I go on having Candace with “ dear Blackie,” who, she asserted, had always been to sleep with me?” asks the invalid.

accustomed to tobacco in “ B’ackie's land," and liked beer “ Candace has gone away, darling."

“froffed up," or, as Mr. Potten himself expressed it, “ with “ Where to, mum ? "

a head on." So “dear Blackie” was placed in a sitting

deference.

posture upon the table, was propped up against a candlestick, and in a silent language, interpreted by Dot, contrib

THE LAWS OF DU ELLING.1 uted greatly to the hilarity of the evening.

“ Lord love her little heart!” exclaimed Potten, as he It may not be generally known that just fisty years ago wiped tears of amusement from bis eyes when Dot had sunk a benevolent and enterprising Irish gentleman undertook, exhausted to sleep; "she's as good as any play; that 'ere unaided and alone, to do for duelling what the Brussels doll's a fortun' to us."

Conference has attempted to do for war. Duels, he had But the next evening Potten was not so well entertained. said to himself, could not perhaps be put an end to, but Dot, it appeared, had been seized with a shivering fit, and they could be regulated. Ile seems, however, to have enwas now sleeping heavily, breathing stertorously, and toss- tertained some hope that his code might gradually bave the ing uneasily, with a skin as hot and dry as a burning coal. effect of abolishing the custom of duelling altogether; and, But poor people shrink from the expense of a doctor ; and had he lived until now, he would doubtless have attributed the Pottens resolved to see what a night would bring forth. its comparative disuse, as far at least as England is conThe night brought forth a sore throat, 80 sore that it seemed cerned, to the influence of his well-meant little book. The as if Dot would be choked. There was no help for it; a author conceals his name; but he informs the reader, in a doctor must be called, and Potten, on his way to work, en- preliminary essay on “the point of honor," that, “ born gaged one to “ look in.” The doctor looked in, and looked and educated in a country which has been emphatically serious. He sent medicine, and word that he would look called the Land of Duel, and acquainted with several of in again in the evening. In the evening he came ; and its most cbivalrous inhabitants, a case of point-blank pistols Potten was there.

was almost his earliest boast.” “ We have sometimes," he Dot was one bright red flush, to the very whites of her adds, “selt ourselves obliged to ask the reparation of an eyes.

injury or satisfaction for an offence; but with deep, deep " What is it, sir, please ? " asked Potten, with white and gratitude we here record the fact that the controller of all trembling lips.

buman actions never saw those pistols levied at a fellow“Well," said the doctor, “it is best to tell you, in order subject, a hostile message forwarded to our address, or a that you may take precautions. It is a very bad case of single shot discharged when the counsel which we offered scarlet fever.'

was adopted.” Probably the counsel offered was to the Potten groaned heavily, dropped down by the bedside, effect that a full apology should be made. In any case, the and hid his face in the clothes.

author of The British Code of Duel ” was well qualified “Come, be a man,” said the doctor, touching him on the to deal with the question he had taken up, and he knew, shoulder ; " don't give way like that. I've known worse moreover, precisely what was to be said on both sides. cases recover.".

“ baving held directly opposing sentiments upon the subPotten got up, and stared about him like one distraught. ject.” The doctor gave his directions to Mrs. Potten ; and with From his original opinion that duelling was a necesa kind “good night,” departed.

sary evil he gradually came to believe that it was a pracThe eighth day was approaching, and Dot was in a high tice not to be tolerated. When, however, he addressed state of delirium. There were no sweet flowers, no violets, several courts in Christendom,” hoping to obtain from no primroses, no daffodils for poor little Dot, to catch her them a formal condemnation of the duel, he found it to be eye and soothe her senses ; no grapes and no blood-oranges generally held that “a practice sanctioned by time and to moisten ber poor parched lips. And whenever her precedent, which had withstood the raillery of the satirist, father drew near her pillow, she, when the delirious fit was the terror of the penal laws, and the admonition of the upon her, would turn away her face and mutter: “Do pulpit, nay, the fear of a future state, could never be abol. away, b'ack man; do away, b’ack man!”

ished." The eighth day came and passed ; and Dot passed away Sir Walter Scott wrote a letter to the author, in in the twilight.

which he says that, while doing the fullest justice to the Potten had scarcely spoken a word as long as the fever pbilanthropy of his motives, he is still afraid that the lasted; but now, as he stood looking with a ghastly face, practice of duelling is so deeply engrafted on the forms of and dry, fierce eyes, at the tiny corpse before him, he said, society that, for a length of time at least, until mankind in slow, distinct, deliberate tones : Susan, I've killed my may entertain much clearer views upon most moral subjects, child."

it will hardly fall into disuse.” Worse than that, the Duke Mrs. Potten, for a moment, hushed her sobs, and stared of Wellington, after assuring the author that he had perused at bim in blank amazement.

a manuscript copy of his code “ with great interest,” failed “ Look here,” continued Potten, in low, husky tones: “I on being provoked by Lord Winchilsea, to observe Article koowed there 'd bin fever in the house where this come VIII., which sets forth that " when a gentleman is the defrom; the lady that gave it me begged and prayed o'me positary of any public trust, it is more honorable to sacrito burn it, or, leastways, to burn the clo'es and the hair, fice his individual feelings than the general interests of and bake and scour and reg'lar disinfect the rest on it; but | society.” I was afraid o' sp’ilin' it, and — and as they was always A Mr. Brie, too," though an admirer of the code," endisinfectin' everything in that house, I never give it a sec. gaged in a duel which the code did not sanction, and which ond thought, and - and -1- give it - her;" and, with his second, by observing the principles laid down in the a sob that shook bis whole body, he threw down upon the code, might easily have avoided. patchwork counterpane the black doll.

At last, however, encouraged by experienced friends “ as Mrs. Potten had listened to him with a face that grew well as by Plato's assurance that it is truly honorable to paler and graver and more horror-stricken at every word he contrive how the worst things can be turned into better," uttered; but all ehe said was, in a voice full of awe and the promoter of the anti-duelling movement took up the agony : Oh, John!"

ground that the duel could not be absolutely done away It was the only reproach she made him; but it may be with, but that it might be surrounded by conditions and that there is more in a tone than in words.

determined by rules which would deprive it of some of its Potten walked slowly to the door, and left the room. He most objectionable features, and, in certain cases, prevent looked like a man in a dream. He did not return tbat its taking place at all. Thereupon he made it his business night; and Mrs. Potten was alarmed. He did not return to draw up a guide through all the stages of a quarrel, in the next day or night; and the neighbors were alarmed. which the views of the advocate of single combat and of They thought, too truly, that the poor man had gone dis. the Christian moralist who scruples fighting” should be tracied, was mad with grief and his sense of having bene the equally respected. cause of the death of his child. In this belief, they natu- When the first edition of the work was issued, a noblerally expected to find bim on the river-side. And there, on man and general officer, “who had fired eight shots in a the third day, they found hiin – at low-water - drowned.

66

1 The British Code of Duel. London.

1824.

countries.

one.

single duel,” subscribed for twelve copies. Captain Fot-
trell
, well known “by his desperate duel with Colonel

FOREIGN NOTES. Ross," approved of the “ Christian and philanthropic principles" on which the code was based, and the author was It is said that the late Sidney Dobell left a large quantity in hopes that his work would find favor not only with the of manuscript in verse and prose. military, but with the clergy, many of whom had recently been out," and with schoolmasters, who, it was suggested, merly occupied by the late Emperor Napoleon III., in King

Ex-MARSHAL Bazaine bas taken the apartments forwould find in the “ British Code of Duel book.

London. In fact, two boys aged sixteen, named Wetherall Sır and Moran, had recently fought in Dublin. Two boys

THE Berlin Academy of Sciences offers a prize of two of the same age, who had been expelled from Yale College, hundred dollars for the best essay recording experiments, had fought with rifles at the distance of twenty paces, in satisfactorily proving whether the changes in the hardness presence of their parents, one of whom witnessed the death

and friability

of steel are due to physical or chemical causes, of his son; and two pupils of the Polytechnic School, aged or to both. Papers are to be sent in before March, 1876, seventeen, had fought in the Bois de Boulogne, when one and the prize will be paid in July. of the seconds got mortally wounded through standing too

A NATIONAL Kaulbach Institution has been founded at near his principal.

The British Code of Duel” bears unmistakable marks Nürnberg to give assistance to talented German artists, of the opposite opinions entertained by the author at differ- without distinction of age, sex, or place of residence. The ent periods of his life. Thus in the preface, usually writ

council is composed of artists and lovers of art (Kunstten not before but after the book which it serves to intro- freunde), and the committee have already received powerduce, he disapproves of duelling altogether; whereas in the ful support, especially from Germans residing in foreign opening pages of the body of the book he maintains that duelling is as justifiable as war itself, though, like war, it It is a curious fact that Paris, with all its love of music ought never to be resorted to except in the last extremity. and amusements, and its crowds of foreigners, cannot supBut the author of the “ British Code of Duel " held that, port an opera at least the state is always called upon to though it might be impossible to put an end to mortal com- furnish subsidies in aid of the Italian and French operas, bat, there could be no reason why certain objectionable the Opéra Comique, and the Lyrique when it plays. But customs associated with duelling, such as posting, horse- even with subsidies, which have been cut down since the whipping, nose-pulling, calling names, and so on, should fall of the Empire, the business is not always a paying not be abolished. Already, we are told, “ these courses Thus in 1869 the receipts of the Italians reached are rarely resorted to by honorable men; because if their 1,200,000 but the expenditure exceeded them by over origin be traced to the form used in the degradation of $85,000. The singers cost 700,000 f., the dancers 337,000 f., knights, the individual would usurp to himself the preroga- the orchestra 137,000 f., and the other persons employed tive of the Crown; and he would, at the same time, become in the house 168,000 f. The subsidies have varied from amenable to municipal law, as for assault." In the end,

time to time, being sometimes 600,000 f., sometimes after a preface and two introductions, the author prints his 700,000 f., and sometimes' 800,000 f., and yet with this code, and in proclaiming it informs the British public that assistance the opera has always been in embarrassed “should any individual attempt to deviate from rules which circumstances. It would appear, however, that the subhave been so very highly sanctioned by the chief commander sidies have been paid, not to the inanager, but to the of the British army and others whose letters we have inserted Parisians, to enable them to have cheap music. in the introduction, his adversary will be justified in refusing to recognize him as a gentleman.”

The Times, in a review of the “Life of Louisa, Among the most remarkable articles in the code are No.

Queen of Prussia,” speaks of Kosciusko's having "fallII., which enjoins every gentleman “ to abstain from nick

en, severely wounded, with the words which became names, mimicry, offensive jokes, and what is usually termed historic, Finis Poloniæ.'” It would be interesting to

know who first started the foolish story, which was conhorse-play, as in the imprudent indulgence of such very vulgar follies irreconcilable quarrels but too frequently orig- tradicted by Kosciusko himself almost as soon as it was inate;

” No. XXVI,, which sets forth that an apology, published, but which is still repeated from time to time as with its usual accompaniment — the offer of a whip or

though its genuineness had never been called in question. switch — should always be accepted for a blow, or for any

It may be excusable to believe in the “last words attribother offence which may be considered an assault;” and

uted to the Imperial Guard at Waterloo (where they did n't No. XXVII, which qualifies the severity of the article im

“die ” and did “surrender"), because some one member mediately preceding it by allowing the tender of a horse

of the Guard, better bred than Cambronne, might really

have used the words wbich Cambronne himself was at one whip or stick to be dispensed with “at the solicitation of the offending party and upon the written plea of his

time supposed to have uttered. But Kosciusko settled the hazarding his commission, rank, pay, or family expect

" Finis Poloniæ ” question when he wrote his well-known

letter to Count Ségur, assuring him that he had not, on ance.” A gentleman who is in liquor is not to be urged or allowed falling, cried“ Finis Poloniæ" for two reasons : first,

because he was all but mortally wounded at the time and to fight; nor one who has not had suflicient time to make a proper disposition of his property and trusts for the ad

could not speak; secondly, because he could never have vantage of his family, clients, or creditors. All extrava

had the presumption to think that with his death Poland gant propositions are to be carefully rejected, such as fight disasters, the Poles had no more reason to say “ Finis Polo

must come to an end. He even added that, after all their ing across a table or at handkerchief's length ; and “

niæ" than had the French after Rosbach to say “ Finis the death of an individual may sometimes bring party feel

Galliæ.” ings into action,” all meetings must be as private as possible.

The aged poet, Runeberg, the greatest scald that Sweden In choosing the scene of action special precautions should has ever had, has been in extremely weak health for manyinvariably be used " to prevent the necessity for carrying years past. It appears that as he has lain on his sick-bed, wounded' gentlemen over walls, ditches, gates, stiles or at Helsingfors in Finland, he has occupied himself by close hedges;” and at their meeting on the ground the parties observation of the habits of birds, and specially with reshould invariably salute each other, and should, indeed, be gard to the causes of migration, and he has at last put “emulous of offering this evidence of civilization.” The sol- forward a singularly beautiful theory on the latter point. emn act of tossing up is to be performed with " three, five, He believes, in fact, that it is the longing after light, and or seven coins, after they have been carefully shaken in a that alone, that draws the birds southwards. When the hat.” No duel is to be fought on a Sunday or festival, or days shorten in the north, the birds go south, but as soon near a place of public worship.

as ever the long northern nights set in, with all their lumi

as

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