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tion of mildness, “ without the slightest constraint of the her promise respecting the garlands, renewed the oaths to gehenne," - the appropriate name by which judicial tor- secrecy of the unhappy ribald, and imposed another to the ture was known, — "she confessed all that she had ever effect that she would bring as many customers as she could practised of philtre or witchcraft.”
to the tavern. Then she whispered that the garlands Four months, or thereabouts, before, she and Marion la would be ready on the Sunday, when Marion would receive Dayme, a Fleming, and a daughter of sin like herself, them, along with ample directions for their use. “ being together drinking and discoursing of their lovers," Here, as often in the course of this report, the dull, dry she, l'Estallée, held forth in praise of Hainsellin as the greffer becomes a most attractive story-teller. It is unin. dearest, tenderest, most lovable sweetheart in the world. tentionally indeed; he merely gives the more important La Dayme was equally warm in eulogizing one Jehan de | items of the evidence in the usual matter-of-fact style of Savoy, who held the honorable post of tailor to the such people. But the details, like all those into which Duchess of Touraine. As thus they conversed, the Flem. human feeling enters deeply, possess an interest of their ing communicated a secret whereby a lover might be made own which needs no aid from the artifices of style. more loving. The greffier has given it at full length, and The confession went on to relate how on the morning like other such secrets it is perfectly vile and disgusting. / of the Sunday, when her amie was to wed, Marion rose But l'Estalléa was a daughter of sin, and besides infatuated early; how, sitting sadly by her lattice, she saw Hainto insanity with Hainsellin. She therefore put it immedi- sellin pass, and saluted him; how, when the marriage ately in practice, though with the utmost fairness, since hour drew nigh, she felt constrained to go and witness the she applied it to herself also. Thus she gave good proof procession on its way to church; how she followed it of the excess of passion that possessed her — by desiring | thither, and remained, with what feeling we shall not to render it still more excessive. The utter worthlessness attempt to guess, until the ceremony was over ; how, of the stuff was soon apparent. In a day or two it came when it was over, she stepped forward before the company, to her knowledge that Hainsellin was affianced to another; with that stoicism which intensest passion can so strangely and worse still, that the wedding-day was at hand. Then assume, and saluted the pair, “bien et doucement"; how she hastened to la Barre - the prime confidante of this, afterwards she accompanied the party back to the hostelry the amour of her life — in a state of frenzy. The bag of Alençon, where it was to spend the day in revelry; attempted to soothe her with old saws, dwelling especially | and how, quitting it at the door of the hostelry, she reon one which said that no good ever came of a marriage turned to her lonely chamber. between two ribalds,1 from which it would seem that To Marion that day was emphatically the day of darkHainsellin had promised to wed his amie. As usual, wise ness which, according to Old-World superstition, everybody saw failed to curb wild passion, and the tavern-keeper was is compelled to undergo at least once in life; a miserable compelled to resort to another device. Binding the furious day, a terrible day, a day of impotent fury, hopeless sorrow, woman by oath on oath never to breathe à syllable of and withering remorse, every one of whose incidents burns the secret about to be disclosed, she whispered that she its impression deep into the memory. was well acquainted with an art greatly dreaded in those In her chamber l'Estallée remained for hours, broodstrange times. She went on to mutter that she was willing ing over guilty woes, and writhing under the lashes of the to exercise it in Marion's favor, somewhat in pity, but more Furies. There, in the very focus of human suffering, she in friendship, and, as it proved, a little for reward. Be sat, the realization of the picture so powerfully painted in fore, however, proceeding to such an extremity, Margot | the “ Giaour":advised her client to try a mode of recalling truant lovers
Darkness above, despair beneath, to their allegiance, which, as she asseverated, she had
Around her flame, within her death. never known to fail. It consisted of a powder, absurdly composed, part of which was to be mixed with wine, and “ Two hours after midday” she bethought her of the part wrapt up in a down pillow. Of the wine the lovers I promise of la Barre, and hurried to the Rue Froidmantel, were to partake. As to the pillow, it was to be reserved where she conducted herself as one possessed, wringing for Hainsellin's use alone, for the touch of a female cheek | her hands, gesturing wildly, rending her hair and her garwould quite dispel its virtues. L'Estallée observed the ments, and sending forth fierce complaints which were not directions very exactly. And Hainsellin gave her full altogether without foundation. From the evidence it opportunity : for, with utterable meanness, this consum appears that Hainsellin dealt with her as such scoundrels mate sneak kept up his acquaintance with the ribald to deal with such women. He had used her money as unthe very last. " But,” sighed the impassioned girl, “this scrupulously as her affections. He was even indebted to philtre proved as useless as the other. I saw very clearly her for his life. In a dangerous illness, wherein he had no that Hainsellin loved just as ever, and not a particle more one else to look to and no other shelter for his head, she fondly."
had conveyed him to her lodging and nursed him herself Then l'Estallée went on to speak of the wreath — or carefully and tenderly back to health. Poor l’Estallée ! rather wreaths, for there had been two. Visiting the wicked she was, and immoral in the extreme, but still market on the eve of St. John to purchase some roses thoroughly devoted and self-sacrificing, excellent in that d'oultre mer, and some other flowers, “ wherewith to deco- which makes the most excellent quality of woman; who rate her person, as was the custom of young women at that. does not pity her ? season,” she bought, among the rest, a bunch of that weed Having subsided into something like composure, Marion of dark repute, shepherd's-purse. On her return from the was again sworn to secrecy by the beldame, and the garmarket she called, as usual, at the tavern. Then Margot | lands were produced. “Holding them in her left hand," observed the shepherd's-purse, and said that, by its means, narrated the unfortunate, “she crossed them with her she could work in such form as should cause Hainsellin to right, while she muttered over them some words too low abandon the wife he was about to wed, and return to for me to hear. Then she banded them to me with these Marion. The weed we need hardly say at once changed directions : •Go to the hostelry where the marriage feast hands, and a bargain was struck. The beldame promised is held, and when you see the married couple join in the to weave the shepherd's-purse into two garlands, one for dance, make some excuse — such as stooping to tie your the bridegroom and the other for the bride, which would shoe, or to pick up something you have dropped — which certainly effect the purpose which l'Estallée had so much will enable you to place the garlands in their way without at heart.
exciting attention. If you so manage that they shall tread At last arrived the week preceding Hainsellin's wedding. upon them, I promise you that your wish shall be accomIt was fixed for the Sunday, and on the Thursday or plished.'” Friday before, she could not-well remember which, Marion | Here, as Marion asserted, she was seized with a scruple. called on her friend. Margot bade her hope on, repeated | She, whose life was one round of mortal sin, actually 1 "Peu de gents ont espouse des amies, qui ne s'en soyont repentis." —
shrank from imperilling her precious soul by following the Montaigne.
instructions of the ogress. That the scruple was real we do not doubt ; over and over again have we witnessed the on condition that you plague Hainsellin and his wife in like. But when Margot answered her that the garlands such a way that Marion shall have full reparation for the were, and would remain, perfectly harmless to every one wrongs they have done her.' Then the enemy departed, but the bridegroom and the bride, her scruples evaporated, | bearing with him the little garland. I saw him fly out and she consented to go through with the sorcery.
through a window that was open in the chamber, with a Concealing the things beneath her dress, Marion hast- noise like a whirlwind, and I was much airaid." ened to the festive scene. There she found the company Being questioned still further of the invocation of fiends, footing it with plebeian vigor. And there, thanks to the – a matter concerning which the judges displayed an exeasy manners of the period, she found no difficulty in join- | tremely puerile curiosity, — she replied by relating a ciring the dance, having a partner whom the greffier has cumstance which had occurred some twenty-four years benot forgotten to describe with excruciating precision as fore. “Being in the fields under Montmartre, with a one-eyed Thomas, a familiar servant of the Duke of Tou- daughter of sin like myself, we began to tell of our lovers. raine. And here we must pause to protest against that | Then this girl, who was a Fleming, but whose name I bave habit peculiar to the law, which will persist in taking ad- forgotten, taught me how to invoke the devil. And then vantage of the trial of a thorough-paced scoundrel, to con- and there did I invoke him as she instructed, crying out, sign to immortality all the more unpleasant peculiarities of Devil, guard and aid me and my lover (whom I named), respectable people.
so that he may never love any but myself I' When I bad In the course of the evening, Marion managed to deposit spoken, somebody, whom I could not see, replied, and in her garlands. Having no further business there, she went | my terror I ran and hid myself in a little but that we had home to supper; and after supper she hastened to the tav constructed with turf and brambles." ern to report progress, and be again assured of success. Concerning the Satanic portion of the old tavern-keeper's
The Monday and Tuesday following “ the unfortunate” confession, it is but right to remark that her judges bad spent in an excursion to Monmartre. There some gossip | evidently made up their minds that something of the kind respecting the newly married led her to think that the must have occurred, and that they were as evidently despell had failed. She returned, therefore, to Paris ex termined to tear that something from her lips, even though ceedingly downcast, to be reassured by a report --- a true they should rack her asunder in the process. The victim one, as it happened - that bride and bridegroom were ill, of her own cunning and sordidness saw clearly that her the latter alarmingly. This, with the addition of a conver fate was decided, and, to preserve her wretched limbs from sation in which the ogress continued to laud her nostrums unnecessary suffering, she concocted the stories whose outand to encourage the hopes of her dupe, was the end of this lines we have given. unparalleled confession.
On Sunday, Margot was reexamined alone; and on Margot was confronted with Marion, whose depositions Monday, in company with Marion. She was found to adwere read over to her. To everything contained therein here steadily to her confession; nor did her companion rethe crone gave the most unqualified contradiction. “And | call aught that she had said. saying and affirming upon her oath that the deponent had | Finally, on Thursday, the 9th of August, the pair were lied most maliciously and foully, she challenged the said brought up for judgment. The court was a full one, num. Marion to single combat, and threw down her gage.”
bering full twenty members. They were unanimous in Here it may be remarked that the peculiar form of trial condemning la Barre to be exposed in the pillory, and then termed by battle was then in full swing. Not quite four burned as a witch. With respect to l'Estallée, there was years before, all Paris had witnessed the celebrated duel a difference of opinion. Five of her judges would fain bare between Carouge and Legris; and though it was usual for substituted banishment for the fatal penalty ; but, as three women who challenged, or accepted challenge, to appear in fourths of the assembled sages voted for death, the merci. the lists by deputy, they were at full liberty, as many in ful intentions of the minority were frustrated. The sen. stances show, to refuse championship, and do battle in tence was executed on the instant. Years had yet to person.
elapse before the exertions of a great penitent, who in his In this instance the duel was at once refused. Then day had been a mighty sinner, Pierre Craon, could succeed Margot attempted to prove an alihi with respect to the in procuring for criminals condemned to death the solace events which told most heavily against her, but managed offered by religion. The two, therefore, were hurried from merely to elicit further proof thereof. This, however, was the judgment-hall to the pillory, and thence to the stake not yet considered convincing; and, to procure what was and their long account, — needed, it was determined to torture both the prisoners
Unhouseled, unanointed, unaneled : once more. They began with Marion, who adhered to her
No reckoning made, last confession. She, therefore, was soon released from the
With all their imperfections on their head. rack, which closed the proceedings for that day.
On Saturdav the prisoners were reëxamined. Marion | As to Hainsellin Planete, who repaid the sacrifices and confirmed her confession, and attributed her early denials rid himself of the importunities of a devoted mistress by to the oaths which the ogress had induced her to take, and doing her to death, no further mention is made of him. also to the persuasions of the latter during their confinement together. She added that her tortured and weakened limbs had given her good cause to regret her obstinacy. Margot was now ordered to be questioned by water; and
HUXLEY'S ADDRESS here, like her predecessor, she gave way before a single BEFORE THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION AT BELFAST (TUESdrop of the fluid could be employed. Her confession was
DAY, AUGUST 25, 1874). as ample as could be desired; it was in great part a recapitulation of that of l'Estallée. What was new therein re- I SHALL go no further back than the seventeenth cenferred exclusively to matters of sorcery, and ran as follows: tury, and the observations which I shall have to offer you When about to deliver the garland to Marion, she de. | will be confined almost entirely to the biological science of scribed herself as calling up the demon in these words : | the time between the middle of the seventeenth and middle “ Enemy, I conjure thee, in the name of the Father, and of of the eighteenth centuries. I propose to show what great the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, that thou come hither to ideas in biological science took their origin at that time, in me !” “ Then,” said she, “I made a third and smaller what manner the speculations then originated have been garland, which I threw on a bench behind me. Immedi- developed, and in what relation they stand to what is now ately afterwards, when I was about to cross the larger gar understood to be the body of scientific biological truth. land, I saw, at my elbow, an enemy of the form and fash- The middle of the sixteenth century is one of the great ion of the enemies who appear in the passion plays, with epochs of biological science. It was at that time that an the exception that this one had no horns. He asked what | idea arose that vital phenomena, like all other phenomena I wanted with him. I replied, “I give you yonder garland of the physical world, are capable of mechanical explanation, that they are reducible to law and order, and that the that molecular change is propagated at a certain velocity study of biology is an application of the great science of which has been measured from the central apparatus to the physics and chemistry. Harvey was the first clearly to muscle. Modern physiology has measured the rate of the explain the mechanism of the circulation of the blood, and change to which I have referred. by that remarkable discovery of his he laid the foundation Next, Descartes says that, ander ordinary circumstances, of a scientific theory of the larger part of the processes of this change in the contents of a nerve, which gives rise to living beings — those processes in fact which we now call the contraction of a muscle, is produced by a change in the processes of sustentation - and by his studies of develop- central nervous apparatus, as, for example, the brain. We ment he first laid the foundation of a scientific knowledge say at the present time exactly the same thing. Descartes of reproduction. But besides these great powers of living said that the animal spirits were stored up in the brain, beings there remains another class of functions, those of and flowed out from the motor nerve. We say that a mothe nervous system, with which Harvey did not grapple. lecular change takes place in the brain that is propagated It was indeed left for a contemporary of his, René Des- | along the motor nerve. Further, Descartes stated that the cartes, to play a part in relation to the phenomena of the sensory organs which give rise to our feelings, gave rise to nervous system which is precisely equal in value to that a change in the sensory nerves, to a flow of animal spirits Harvey played in regard to the circulation. You must rec along those nerves, which flow was propagated to the brain. ollect that this man Descartes was not merely, as some had | If I look at this candle before us, the light falling on the been, a happy speculator. He was a working anatomist retina of my eye gives rise to an affection of the optic and physiologist, conversant with all the anatomical and nerve, which affection Descartes described as a flow of the physiological law of his time. A most characteristic anec animal spirits to the brain; but the fundamental idea is dote of him, and one which should ever put to silence those the same. In all our notions of the operations of nerve shallow talkers who speak of Descartes as a hypothetical we are building upon Descartes's foundation. He says and speculative philosopher, is that a friend once calling that when a body which is competent to produce a sensaupon him in Holland begged to be shown his library. tion touches the sensory organs, what happens is the proDescartes led him into a sort of shed, and drawing aside a duction of a mode of motion of the sensory nerves. That curtain displayed a dissecting room full of the bodies of mode of motion is propagated to the brain. That which animals in course of dissection, and said, “ There is my takes place in the brain is still nothing but a mode of molibrary.”
tion. But in addition to this mode of motion, there is, as The matters with which we shall treat are such as to re every body can find by experiment for himself, something quire no extensive knowledge of anatomy. I need only else which can in no way be compared to motion, which is premise that what we call the nervous system in one of the utterly unlike it, and which is that state of consciousness higher animals consists of a central apparatus, composed of which we call a sensation. Descartes insists over and the brain, which is lodged in the skull, and of a cord pro- over again upon this total disparity between the agent ceeding from it, which is termed the spinal marrow, and which excites the state of consciousness and the state of which is lodged in the vertebral column or spine, and that consciousness itself. He tells us that our sensations are then from these soft white masses — for such they are not pictures of external things, but that they are symbols there proceed cords which are termed nerves, some of or signs of them; and in doing that he made one of the which nerves end in the muscle, while others end in the greatest possible revolutions, not only in physiology but in organs of sensation. The first proposition that you find philosophy. Till his time it was the notion that visible definitely and clearly stated by Descartes is the view that bodies, for example, gave from themselves a kind of film the brain is the organ of sensation, of thought, and of emo- which entered the eye and so went to the brain, species intion, using the word “organ” in this sense, that certain tentionales as they were called, and thus the mind received changes which take place in the matter of the brain are the an actual copy or picture of things which were given off essential antecedents of those states of consciousness which from it. In laying down that proposition upon what I imwe term sensation, thought, and emotion. If your friend agine to be a perfectly irrefragable basis, Descartes laid the disagrees with your opinion, runs amuck against any of foundation of that form of philosophy which is termed your pet prejudices, you say, “Ah! poor fellow, he is a idealism, which was subsequently expanded to its utterlittle touched here,” by which you mean that his brain is most by Berkeley, and has taken all sorts of shapes since. not doing its business properly — that he is not thinking But Descartes noticed not only that under certain conproperly — thereby implying that his brain is some way | ditions an impulse made by the sensory organ may give affected. It remained down to the time of Bichat a ques rise to a sensation, but that under certain other conditions tion whether the passions were or were not located in the it may give rise to motion, and that this motion may be abdominal viscera. In the second place, Descartes lays effected without sensation, and not only without volition, lays down the proposition that all the movements of the an- | but even contrary to it. I know in no modern treatise of imal bodies are affected by the change of form of a certain a more clear and precise statement than this of what we part of the matter of their bodies, to which he applies the understand by the automatic action of the brain. And general term of muscle. That is a proposition which is what is very remarkable is that in speaking of these movenow placed beyond all doubt whatever. If I move my ments which arise by a sensation being as it were reflected arm, that movement is due to the change of this mass in from the central apparatus into a limb — as, for example, front called the biceps muscles; it is shortened till it be when one's finger is pricked and the arm is suddenly comes thicker. If I move any of my limbs the reason is drawn up, the motion of the sensory nerve travels to the the same. As I now speak to you the different tones of my spine and is again reflected down to the muscles of the arm voice are due to the exquisitely accurate adjustments and — Descartes uses the very phrase that we at this present adjusted contractions of a multitude of such particles of time employ. And the last great service to physiology of flesh; and there is no considerable and visible movement the nervous system which I have to mention as rendered of the animal body which is not, as Descartes says, resolv- by Descartes was this, that he first, so far as I know, able into these changes in the form of matter termed mus- sketched out the physical theory of memory. What he cle. But Descartes went further, and he stated that in the tells you in substance is this, that when a sensation takes normal and ordinary condition of things these changes in place, the animal spirits travel up the sensory nerve, pass the form of muscle in the living body only occur under cer- to the appropriate part of the brain, and there, as it were, tain conditions ; and the essential condition of the change find their way through the pores of the substance of the was, says Descartes, the motion of the matter contained brain. And he says that when the particles of the brain within the nerves, which go from the central apparatus to have themselves been shoved aside a little by the single the muscle. Descartes gave this moving material a par passage of the animal spirits, that the passage is made ticular name - the animal spirits. Nowadays we should easier in the same direction for any subsequent flow of aninot say that the animal spirits existed, but we should say mal spirits, and that the repetition of this action makes it that a molecular change takes place in the nerve, and that easier still, until at length it becomes very easy for the an
imal spirits to move these particular particles of the brain, you put him on a table, and put a book between him and the motion of which gives rise to the appropriate sensa- the light, and give him a little jog behind, he will jumption, until at length the passage is so easy that almost any. | take a long jump very possibly - but he won't jump thing, especially an associated flow which may be set against the book; he will jump to the right or to the left, going, allows the animal spirits to flow into these already | but he will get out of the way, showing that although be is open pores more easily than they would flow in any other absolutely insensible to ordinary impressions of light, there direction; and in this way a flow of the animal spirits re- is still a something which passes through the sensory calls the image — the impression made by a former sensory nerve, acts upon the machinery and his nervous system, act. That, again, is essentially, in substance, at one with and causes it to adapt itself to the proper action. all our present physical theories of memory. In one re I need not say that since those days of commenciog apaspect Descartes proceeded further than any of his contem | tomical science when criminals were handed over to the poraries, and has been followed by very few of his suc doctors, we cannot make experiments on human beings, cessors in later days. Descartes reasoned thus: “I can but sometimes they are made for us, and made in a very account for many such actions, many reflex actions taking | remarkable manner. That operation called war is a great place without the intervention of consciousness, and even series of physiological experiments, and sometimes it hapin opposition to the will." So far these occur, as, for ex pens that these physiological experiments bear very reample, when a man in falling mechanically puts out his markable fruit. A French soldier, & sergeant, was hands to save himself. “In these cases,” Descartes said, wounded at the battle of Bareilles. The man was shot in “I have clear evidence that the nervous system acts me what we call the left parietal bone. The bullet, I presume, chanically without the intervention of consciousness, and glanced off, but it fractured the bone. He had enough without the intervention of the will, it may be in opposi. vigor left to send his bayonet through the Prussian who tion to it.” Why, then, may I not extend tbis idea further? shot him. Then he wandered a few hundred yards out of As actions of a certain amount of complexity are brought the village, where he was picked up and taken to the bos. about in this way, why may not actions of still greater pital, where he remained some time. When he came to complexity be so produced ? Why, in fact, may it not be himself, as usual in such cases of injury, he was paralyzed that the whole of man's physical actions are mechanical, on the opposite side of the body, that is to say, the right his mind living apart, like one of the gods of Epicurus, but | arm and the right leg were completely paralyzed. That unlike them occasionally interfering by means of his voli- state of things lasted, I think, the better part of two years, tion ?
but sooner or later he recovered from it, and now he is And it so happened that Descartes was led by some of able to walk about with activity, and only by careful meashis speculations to believe that beasts had no soul, and urement can any difference between the two sides of his consequently, according to his notion, could have no true body be ascertained. At present this man lives two lives, mental operation, and no consciousness; and thus, his two | normal life and an abnormal life. In his normal life be is ideas harmonizing together, he developed that famous perfectly well, cheerful, and a capital hospital attendant, hypothesis of the automation of brutes, which is the main does all his work well, and is a respectable, well conducted subject of my present discourse. What Descartes meant man. That normal life lasts for about seven and twenty by this was that animals are absolutely machines, as if days, or thereabouts, out of every month ; but for a day of they were mills or barrel organs; that they have no feel | two in each month — generally at intervals of about that ings; that a dog does not hear, and does not smell, but time – he passes into another life, suddenly, and without that the impression which thus gave rise to those states of warning or intimation. In this life he is still active, goes consciousness in the dog gave rise, by a mechanical reflex about just as usual, and is to all appearance just the same process, to actions which correspond to those which we man as before ; undresses himself and goes to bed, gets perform when we do smell, and do taste, and do see. Sup- up, makes his cigarette and smokes it, and eats and drinks. pose an experiment. Suppose that all that is taken away But in this condition he neither sees, nor hears, nor tastes, of the brain of a frog is what we call the bemisphere, the nor smells, nor is he conscious of anything whatever, and has most anterior part of the brain. If that operation is prop only one sense organ in a state of activity - Damely, that erly performed, very quickly and very skilfully, the frog | of touch, which is exceedingly delicate. If you put an obmay be kept in a state of full bodily vigor for months, or stacle in his way he knocks against it, feels it and goes to it may be for years; but it will sit forever in the same spot. the one side. If you push him in any direction he goes It sees nothing; it bears nothing. It will starve sooner straight on, illustrating, as well as he can, the first law of than feed itself, although if food is put into its mouth it, motion. You see I have said he makes his cigarettes, but swallows it. On irritation it jumps or walks ; if thrown you may make his tobacco of sbavings or of anything else into the water it swims. But the most remarkable tbing you like, and still he will go on making his cigarettes as that it does is this — you put it in the flat of your hand, usual. His action is purely mechanical. As I said, be it sits there, crouched, perfectly quiet, and would sit there feeds voraciously, but whether you give him aloes or assa. forever. Then if you incline your hand, doing it very | fætida or the nicest thing possible, it is all the same to him. gently and slowly, so that the frog would naturally tend The man is in a condition absolutely parallel to that of to slip off, you feel the creature's fore paws getting a the frog, and, no doubt, when he is in this condition the little slowly on to the edge of your hand until he can just functions of his cerebral hemisphere are at any rate largely bold himself there, so that he does not fall; then, if you annihilated. He is very nearly - I don't say wholly, but turn your hand, he mounts up with great care and deliber very nearly – in the condition of an animal in which the ation, putting one leg in front and then another, until he cerebral hemispheres are not entirely extirpated, but very balances himself with perfect precision upon the edge of largely damaged. And this state is wonderfully interestyour hand; then if you turn your hand over he goes ing to me, for it bears on the phenomena of mesmerisin, of through the opposite set of operations until he comes to sit which I saw a good deal when I was a young man. In this in perfect security upon the back of your hand. The state he is capable of performing all sorts of actions on doing of all this requires a delicacy of coördination and mere suggestions - as, for example, he dropped his cane, an adjustment of the muscular apparatus of the body and a person near him put it into his hand, and the feeling which is only comparable to that of a rope-dancer among of tbe end of the cane evidently produced in him those ourselves; in truth a frog is an animal very poorly con molecular changes of the brain which, had he possessed structed for rope-dancing, and on the whole we may give consciousness, would have given rise to the idea of bis him rather more credit than we should to a human dancer. rifle ; for he threw himself on his face, began feeling about These movements are performed with the utmost steadiness for his cartouche, went through the motions of touching his and precision, and you may vary the position of your gun, and shouted out to an imaginary comrade, “ Here they hand, and the frog - so long as you are reasonably slow in are, a score of them ; but we will give a good account of your movements will work backward and forward like a them." This paper to wbich I refer is full of the most clock. And what is still more remarkable is this, that if I remarkable examples of this kind, and what is the most remarkable fact of all is the modifications which this brain molecular changes which answer to what Haller called injury has made in the man's moral nature. In his normal “vestigia rerum," and which that great thinker, David Hartlife he is one of the most upright and honest of men. In ley, termed “ vibratiuncles,” which we might term sensigbis abnormal state, however, he is an inveterate thief. He enous molecular, and which constitute the physical foundawill steal everything he can lay his hands upon, and if he tion of memory. Those same changes gave rise naturally cannot steal anything else, he will steal his own things and to conditions of pleasure and pain, and to those emotions hide them away. Now, if Descartes had had this fact be- | which in ourselves we call volition. I have no doubt that is fore him, need I tell you that his theory of animal autom the relation between the physical processes of the animal atism would have been erroneously strengthened ? He and his mental processes. "In each case it follows inevitably would have said, “ Here I show you a case of a man per that these states of consciousness can have no sort of relaforming actions evidently more complicated and mostly tion of causation to the motions of the muscles of the body. more rational than any of the ordinary operations of ani. The volition of animals will be simply states of emotion mals; and yet you have positive proof that these actions which precede their actions. The only conclusion, then, are merely mechanical. What, then, have you to urge at which there seems any good ground for arriving is that against my doctrine that the whole animal world is in that animals are machines, but that they are conscious macondition, and that — to use the very correct words of Father Malebranche- Thus in dogs, cats, and other ani- ! I might with propriety consider what I have now said mals there is neither intelligence nor spiritual soul as we as the conclusion of the observations which I have to offer understand the matter commonly; they eat without pleas- concerning animal automatism. So far as I know the ure, they cry without pain, they sorrow without know- | problem which we have hitherto been discussing is an ening it ; they desire nothing, they know nothing; and if tirely open one. I do not know that there is any reason they act with dexterity and in a manner which indicates on the part of any person, whatever his opinions may be, intelligence, it is because God, having made them with the | that can prevent him, if he be so inclined, from accepting intention of preserving them, has constructed their bodies the doctrine wbich I have just now put before you clearly. in such a manner that they escape organically, with So far as we know, animals are conscious automata. That out knowing it, everything which could injure them, and doctrine is perfectly consistent with any view that we may wbich they seemed to fear.'”
choose to take on a very curious subject of speculation But I must say for myself, looking at the matter on whether animals possess souls or not, and whether, if they the ground of analogy, taking into account that great possess souls, those souls are immortal or not; the doctrine doctrine of continuity which forbids one to suppose that to which I have referred is not inconsistent with the perany natural phenomena can come into existence suddenly fectly strict and literal adherence to the Scripture text and without some precedent, gradual modification tending | concerning the beast that perisheth, nor on the other hand, toward it - taking that great doctrine into account (and so far as I know, does it prevent any one from entertaining everything we know of science tends to confirm it), and the amiable convictions ascribed by Pope to his untutored taking into account, on the other hand, the incontrovertible | savage, that when he passed to the realms of the blessed fact that the lower animals which possess brains at all his faithful dog should bear bim company. In fact, all possess, at any rate, in rudiments à part of the brain, these accessory questions to which I have referred, involve which we have every reason to believe is the organ of problems which cannot be discussed by physical science as consciousness in ourselves, then it seems vastly more prob Buch, as they lie not within the scope of physical science, able that the lower animals, although they may not possess but come within the scope of that great mother of all scithat sort of consciousness which we have ourselves, yet | ence, philosophy. Before any direct answer can be given bave it in a form proportional to the comparative develop- | upon any of these questions, we must hear what philosophy ment of the organ of that consciousness, and foreshadow bas to say for and against the views that may be held. 1 more or less dimly those feelings which we possess our have now laid these facts before you. I do not doubt that selves. I think tbat is, probably, the most rational con- that fate will befall me which has befallen better men, and clusion that can be come to. It has this advantage, that it I shall have to bear in patience the reiterated assertion relieves us of the very terrible consequences of making any that doctrines such as I have put before you have very evil mistake on this subject. I must confess that, looking at tendencies. I should not wonder if you were told that my that terrible struggle for existence which is everywhere intention in bringing this subject before you is to lead you going on in the animal world, and considering the frightful to apply the doctrine I have stated to man as well as quantity of pain which must be given and received in every | brutes, and it will then certainly be further stated that the part of the animal world, I say that it is a consideration logical tendency of such a doctrine is Fatalism, Materialwhich would induce me wholly to adopt the view of Des ism, and Atheism cartes. I must confess I think it on the whole much better Now let me ask you to listen to another product of that to err on the right side, and not to concur with Descartes long experience to which I have referred. The logical on this point. But let me point out to you that, although consequences are very important; but in the course of my we may come to the conclusion that Descartes was wrong experience I have found that they were the scarecrows of in supposing that animals are insensible machines, it does fools and the beacons of wise men. Logical consequences not in the slightest degree follow that they are not sensi can take care of themselves. The only question for any tive and conscious automata; in fact, that is the view | man to ask is this : “Is this true or is it false ? ” No other which is more or less clearly in the minds of every one of question can possibly be taken into consideration until that us. When we talk of the lower animals being provided one is settled. Undoubtedly I do hold that the view I have with instinct, and not with reason, what we really mean is, taken of the relations between the physical and mental that although they are sensitive, and although they are con faculties of brutes, applies in its fulness and entirety to scious, yet they do act mechanically, and that their indiffer man ; and if it was true that the logical consequences of ent states of consciousness, their sensations, their thoughts that belief must land me in all these terrible things, I do (if they have them), their volitions (if they have them), are not hesitate in allowing myself to be so landed. I should the products and consequences of the mechanical arrange conceive that if I refused I should have done the greatest ments. I must confess tbat this popular view is to my and most abominable violence to everything which is deepmind the only one which can be scientifically adopted. est in my moral nature. But now I beg leave to say that, We are bound by everything we know of the operations of in my conviction, there is no such logical connection as is the pervous system, to believe that when a certain molecu- pretended between the doctrine I accept and the conselar change is brought about in the central part of the nerv quences which people profess to draw from it. Many years ous system that that change, in some way utterly unknown | ago I had occasion, in dealing with the philosophy of Desto us, causes that state of consciousness that we term a sen cartes, and some other matters, to state my conviction sation. It is not to be doubted tbat the impression excited pretty fully on those subjects, and, although I know by exby those motions which give rise to sensation leaves in the perience how futile it is to endeavor to escape from those