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was the method of Darwin." He made himself acquainted startling facts of this description. Take the marvellous with what could, without any manner of doubt, be done in observation which he cites from Dr. Crüger, where a bucket the way of producing variation. He associated himself with an aperture, serving as a spout, is formed in an orchid. with pigeon-fanciers — bought, begged, kept, and observed Bees visit the flower : in eager search of material for their every breed that he could obtain. Though derived from a combs they push each other into the bucket, the drenched common stock, the diversities of these pigeons were such ones escaping from their involuntary bath by the spout. that “a score of them might be chosen which, if shown to Here they rub their backs against the viscid stigma of the an ornithologist, and he were told that they were wild flower and obtain glue; then against the pollen masses, birds, would certainly be ranked by him as well-defined which are thus stuck to the back of the bee and carried species.” The simple principle which guides the pigeon- away. * When the bee, thus provided, flies to another fancier, as it does the cattle-breeder, is the selection of flower, or to the same flower a second time, and is pushed some variety that strikes his fancy, and the propagation of by its comrades into the bucket, and then crawls out by the this variety by inheritance. With his eye still upon the passage, the pollen-mass upon its back necessarily comes particular appearance which he wishes to exaggerate, he first into contact with the viscid stigma," which takes up selects it as it reappears in successive broods, and thus the pollen; and this is how that orcbid is fertilized. Or adds increment to increment until an astonishing amount take this other case of the Catasetum. “ Bees visit these of divergence from the parent type is effected. Man in flowers in order to gnaw the labellum ; on doing this they this case does not produce the elements of the variation. inevitably touch a long, tapering, sensitive projection. He simply observes them, and by selection adds them to- This, when touched, transmits a sensation or vibration to a gether until the required result has been obtained. “No certain membrane, which is instantly ruptured, setting free man,” says Mr. Darwin, "would ever try to make a fantail a spring, by which the pollen-mass is shot forth like an till he saw a pigeon with a tail developed in some slight arrow in the right direction, and adheres by its viscid exdegree in an unusual manner, or a pouter until he saw a tremity to the back of the bee.” In this


the fertilizing pigeon with a crop of unusual size.” Thus nature gives pollen is spread abroad. the hint, man acts upon it, and by the law of inheritance It is the mind thus stored with the choicest materials of exaggerates the deviation.

the teleologist that rejects teleology, seeking to refer these Having thus satisfied himself by indubitable facts that wonders to natural causes. They illustrate, according to the organization of an animal or of a plant (for precisely him, the method of nature, not the "technic” of a manthe same treatment applies to plants), is to some extent like Artificer. The beauty of flowers is due to natural seplastic, he passes from variation under domestication to lection. Those that distinguish themselves by vividly convariation under nature. Hitherto we have dealt with the trasting colors from the surrounding green leaves are most adding together of small changes by the conscious selection readily seen, most frequently visited by insects, most often of man. Can Nature thus select ? Mr. Darwin's answer fertilized, and hence most favored by natural selection. is, “ Assuredly she can." The number of living things Colored berries also readily attract the attention of birds produced is far in excess of the number that can be sup- and beasts, which feed upon them, and spread their manured ported ; hence at some period or other of their lives there seeds abroad, thus giving trees and shrubs possessing such must be a struggle for existence ; and what is the infallible berries a greater chance in the struggle for existence. result? If one organism were a perfect copy in regard to With profound analytic and synthetic skill, Mr. Darwin strength, skill, and agility, external conditions would de investigates the cell-making instinct of the hive-bee. His cide. But this is not the case. Here we have the fact of method of dealing with it is representative. He falls back variety offering itself to nature, as in the former instance it from the more perfectly to the less perfectly developed inoffered itself to man; and those varieties which are least stinct — from the hive-bee to the humble-bee, which uses competent to cope with surrounding conditions will in- its own cocoon as a comb, and to classes of bees of interfallibly give way to those that are most competent. To mediate skill, endeavoring to show how the passage might use a familiar proverb, the weakest comes to the wall. But be gradually made from the lowest to the highest. The the triumphant fraction again breeds to overproduction, | saving of wax is the most important point in the economy of transmitting the qualities which secured its maintenance, i bees. Twelve to fifteen pounds of dry sugar are said to be but transmitting them in different degrees. The struggle needed for the secretion of a single pound of wax. The for food again supervenes, and those to whom the favorable quantities of nectar necessary for the wax must, therefore, quality has been transmitted in excess will assuredly tri- be vast; and every improvement of constructive instinct umph. It is easy to see that we have here the addition of which results in the saving of wax is a direct profit to the increments favorable to the individual still more rigorously insect's life. The time that would otherwise be devoted to carried out than in the case of domestication ; for not only the making of wax is now devoted to the gathering and are unfavorable specimens not selected by nature, but they storing of honey for winter food. He passes from the are destroyed. This is what Mr. Darwin calls “ Natural humble bee with its rude cells, through the Melipona with Selection," which “ acts by the preservation and accumu- its more artistic cells, to the hive-bee with its astonishing arlation of small inherited modifications, each profitable to chitecture. The bees place themselves at equal distances the preserved being.” With this idea he interpenetrates apart upon the wax, sweep and excavate equal spheres and leavens the vast store of facts that he and others have round the selected points. The spheres intersect, and the collected. We cannot, without shutting our eyes through planes of intersection are built up with thin laminæ. Hexfear or prejudice, fail to see that Darwin is here dealing, agonal cells are thus formed. This mode of treating such not with imaginary, but with true causes; nor can we fail questions is, as I have said, representative. He habitually to discern what vast modifications may be produced by retires from the more perfect and complex, to the less perfect natural selection in periods sufficiently long. Each indi- and simple, and carries you with bim through stages of vidual increment may resemble what mathematicians call a perfecting, adds increment to increment of infinitesimal “ differential” (a quantity indefinitely small); but definite change, and in this way gradually breaks down your relucand great changes may obviously be produced by the tance to admit that the exquisite climax of the whole could integration of these infinitesimal quantities through prac- be a result of natural selection. tically infinite time.

Mr. Darwin shirks no difficulty ; and, saturated as the If Darwin, like Bruno, rejects the notion of creative subject was with his own thought, he must have known, power acting after human fashion, it certainly is not be- better than his critics, the weakness as well as the strength cause he is unacquainted with the numberless exquisite of his theory. This of course would be of little avail were adaptations on which this notion of a supernatural artificer bis object a temporary dialetic victory instead of the estabhas been founded. His book is a repository of the most lishment of a truth which he means to be everlasting. But

he takes no pains to disguise the weakness he has discerned; 1 The first step only towards experimental demonstration has been taken

nay, he takes every pains to bring it into the strongest Experiments now begun might, a couple of centuries hence, furnish data of incalculable value, which ought to be supplied to the science of the future. light. His vast resources enable him to cope with objec

tions started by himself and others, so as to leave the final quests of the comparative anatomist and physiologist, reimpression upon the reader's mind that, if they be not vealing the structure of every animal, and the function of completely answered, they certainly are not fatal. Their every organ in the whole biological series, from the lowest negative force being thus destroyed, you are free to be in- zoophyte up to man. The nervous system had been made fluenced by the vast positive mass of evidence he is able to the object of profound and continued study, the wonderful bring before you. This largeness of knowledge and readi- and, at bottom, entirely mysterious, controlling power ness of resource render Mr. Darwin the most terrible of which it exercises over the whole organism, physical and antagonists. Accomplished naturalists have levelled heavy mental, being recognized more and more. Thought could and sustained criticisms against him — not always with not be kept back from a subject so profoundly suggestive. the view of fairly weighing his theory, but with the ex- Besides the physical life dealt with by Mr. Darwin, there press intention of exposing its weak points only. This is a psychical life presenting similar gradations, and asking does not irritate him. He treats every objection with a equally for a solution. How are the different grades and soberness and thoroughness which even Bishop Butler orders of Mind to be accounted for? What is the princimight be proud to imitate, surrounding each fact with its ple of growth of that mysterious power which on our planet appropriate detail, placing it in its proper relations, and culminates in Reason? These are questions which, though usually giving it a significance which, as long as it was kept not thrusting themselves so forcibly upon the attention of isolated, failed to appear. This is done without a trace of the general public, had not only occupied many reflecting ill-temper. He moves over the subject with the passion- minds, but had been formally broached by one of them beless strength of a glacier; and the grinding of the rocks is fore the “ Origin of Species appeared. not always without a counterpart in the logical pulveriza- With the mass of materials furnished by the physicist tion of the objector. But though in handling this mighty and physiologist in his hands, Mr. Herbert Spencer, twenty theme all passion has been stilled, there is an emotion of years ago, sought to graft upon this basis a system of psythe intellect incident to the discernment of new truth chology; and two years ago a second and greatly amplified which often colors and warms the pages of Mr. Darwin. edition of his work appeared. Those who have occupied His success has been great; and this implies not only the themselves with the beautiful experiments of Plateau will solidity of his work, but the preparedness of the public remember that when two spherules of olive-oil, suspended mind for such a revelation. On this head a remark of in a mixture of alcohol and water of the same density as Agassiz impressed me more than anything else. Sprung the oil, are brought together, they do not immediately unite. from a race of theologians, this celebrated man combated Something like a pellicle appears to be formed around the to the last the theory of natural selection. One of the drops, the rupture of which is immediately followed by the many times I had the pleasure of meeting him in the coalescence of the globules into one. There are organisms United States was at Mr. Winthrop's beautiful residence whose vital actions are almost as purely physical as that of at Brookline, near Boston. Rising from luncheon we all these drops of oil. They come into contact and fuse them. halted as if by a common impulse in front of a window, selves thus together. From such organisms to others a and continued there a discussion which had been started stage higher, and from these to others a shade higher still, at table. The maple was in its autumn glory ; and the and on through an ever ascending series, Mr. Spencer conexquisite beauty of the scene outside seemed, in my case, ducts his argument.

There are two obvious factors to be to interpenetrate without disturbance the intellectual ac- here taken into account — the creature and the medium in tion. Earnestly, almost sadly, Agassiz turned, and said to which it lives, or, as it is often expressed, the organism and the gentlemen standing round, “I confess that I was not its environment. Mr. Spencer's fundamental principle is, prepared to see this theory received as it has been by the that between these two factors there is incessant interacbest intellects of our time. Its success is greater than I tion. The organism is played upon by the environment, could have thought possible.”

and is modified to meet the requirements of the environIn our day great generalizations have been reached. The ment. Life he defines to be “a continuous adjustment of theory of the origin of species is but one of them. internal relations to external relations." Another. of still wider grasp and more radical significance, In the lowest organisms we have a kind of tactual sense is the doctrine of the Conservation of Energy, the ultimate diffused over the entire body; then, through impressions philosophical issues of which are as yet but dimly seen from without and their corresponding adjustments, special that doctrine which binds nature fast in faith” to an ex- portions of the surface become more responsive to stimuli tent not hitherto recognized, exacting from every antece- than others. The senses are nascent, the basis of all of cent its equivalent consequent, from every consequent its them being that simple tactual sense which the sage Democequivalent antecedent, and bringing vital as well as physi- ritus recognized 2300 years ago as their common progenical phenomena under the dominion of that law of casual tor. The action of light, in the first instance, appears to connection which, as far as the human understanding 'has be a mere disturbance of the chemical processes in the ani. yet pierced, asserts itself everywhere in nature. Long in mal organism, similar to that which occurs in the leaves of advance of all definite experiment upon the subject, the plants. By degrees the action becomes localized in a few constancy and indestructibility of matter had been affirmed; pigment-cells, more sensitive to light than the surrounding and all subsequent experience justified the aflirmation. tissue. The eye is here incipient. At first it is merely Later researches extended the attribute of indestructibility capable of revealing differences of light and shade produced to force. This idea, applied in the first instance to inor- by bodies close at hand. Followed as the interception of ganic, rapidly embraced organic nature. The vegetable the light is in almost all cases by the contact of the closely world, though drawing almost all its nutriment from invis- adjacent opaque body, sight in this condition becomes a ible sources, was proved incompetent to generate anew kind of " anticipatory touch.” The adjustment continues ; either matter or force. Its matter is for the most part a slight bulging out of the epidermis over the pigmenttransmuted air ; its force transformed solar force. The granules supervenes. A lens is incipient, and, through the animal world was proved to be equally uncreative, all its operation of infinite adjustments, at length reaches the permotive energies being referred to the combustion of its fection that it displays in the hawk and eagle. So of the food. The activity of each animal as a whole was proved other senses; they are special differentiations of a tissue to be the transferred activities of its molecules. The mus- which was originally vaguely sensitive all over. cles were shown to be stores of mechanical force, potential With the development of the senses the adjustments beuntil unlocked by the nerves, and then resulting in mus- tween the organism and its environment gradually extend cular contractions. The speed at which messages fly to in space, a multiplication of experiences and a correspondand fro along the nerves was determined, and found to ing modification of conduct being the result. The adjustbe, not as had been previously supposed, equal to that of ments also extend in time, covering continually greater inlight or electricity, but less than the speed of a flying | tervals. Along with this extension in space and time the eagle.

adjustments also increase in specialty and complexity, passThis was the work of the physicist: then came the con- ing through the various grades of brute life, and prolong


ing themselves into the domain of reason. Very striking By myriad blows (to use a Lucretian phrase), the image are Mr. Spencer's remarks regarding the influence of the and superscription of the external world are stamped as sense of touch upon the development of intelligence. This states of consciousness upon the organism, the depth of the is, so to say, the mother tongue of all the senses

, into which impression depending upon the number of the blows. they must be translated to be of service to the organism. When two or more phenomena occur in the environment Hence its importance. The parrot is the most intelligent invariably together, they are stamped to the same depth of birds, and its tactual power is also greatest. From this or to the same relief, and indissolubly connected. And sense it gets knowledge unattainable by birds which cannot here we come to the threshold of a great question. Seeing employ their feet as hands. The elephant is the most sa- that he could in no way rid himself of the consciousness of gacious of quadrupeds — its tactual range and skill, and Space and Time, Kant assumed them to be necessary the consequent multiplication of experiences, which it owes “ forms of thought,” the moulds and shapes into which our to its wonderfully adaptable trunk, being the basis of its intuitions are thrown, belonging to ourselves solely and sagacity. Feline animals, for a similar cause, are more without objective existence. With unexpected power and sagacious than hoofed animals, — atonement being to some success Mr. Spencer brings the hereditary experience theextent made, in the case of the horse, by the possession of ory, as be bolds it, to bear upon this question. “ If there sensitive prehensile lips. In the Primates the evolution of exist certain external relations which are experienced by intellect and the evolution of tactual appendages go hand all organisms at all instants of their waking lives — relain hand. In the most intelligent anthropoid apes we find tions which are absolutely constant and universal — there the tactual range and delicacy greatly augmented, new ave- will be established answering internal relations that are nues of knowledge being thus opened to the animal. Man absolutely constant and universal. Such relations we have crowns the edifice here, not only in virtue of his own ma- in those of Space and Time. As the substratum of all nipulatory power, but through the enormous extension of his other relations of the Non-Ego, they must be responded to range of experience, by the invention of instruments of pre- by conceptions that are the substrata of all other relations cision, which serve as supplemental senses and supplemen- in the Ego. Being the constant and infinitely repeated tal limbs. The reciprocal action of these is finely de- elements of thought, they must become the automatic elescribed and illustrated. That chastened intellectual ments of thought — the elements of thought which it is emotion to which I have referred in connection with Mr. impossible to get rid of - the forms of intuition.' Darwin is, I should say, not absent in Mr. Spencer. His Throughout this application and extension of the “ Law illustrations possess at times exceeding vividness and force; of Inseparable Association,” Mr. Spencer stands on totally and from his style on such occasions it is to be in ferred that different ground from Mr. John Stuart Mill, invoking the the ganglia of this Apostle of the Understanding are some- registered experiences of the race instead of the experientimes the seat of a nascent poetic thrill.

ces of the individual. His overthrow of Mr. Mill's restricIt is a fact of supreme importance that actions the per- tion of experience is, I think, complete. That restriction formance of which at first requires even painful effort and ignores the power of organizing experience furnished at deliberation, may by habit be rendered automatic. Wit- the outset to each individual; it ignores the different deness the slow learning of its letters by a child, and the sub- grees of this power possessed by different races and by difsequent facility of reading in a man, when each group ferent individuals of the same race.

Were there not in letters which forms a word is instantly, and without effort, the human brain a potency antecedent to all experience, a fused to a single perception. Instance the billiard-player, dog or cat ought to be as capable of education as a man. whose muscles of hand and eye, when he reaches the per- These predetermined internal relations are independent of fection of his art, are unconsciously coördinated. Instance the experiences of the individual. The human brain is the the musician, who, by practice, is enabled to fuse a multi- “ organized register of infinitely numerous experiences retude of arrangements, auditory, tactual and muscular, into ceived during the evolution of life, or rather during the a process of automatic manipulation. Combining such facts evolution of that series of organisms through which the huwith the doctrine of hereditary transmission, we reach a man organism has been reached. The effects of the most theory of instinct. A chick, after coming out of the egg, uniform and frequent of these experiences have been sucbalances itself correctly, runs about, picks up food, thus cessively bequeathed, principal and interest, and have showing that it possesses a power of directing its move- slowly mounted to that high intelligence which lies latent ments to definite ends. How did the chick learn this very in the brain of the infant. Thus it happens that the Eurocomplex coördination of eye, muscles, and beak? It has pean inherits from twenty to thirty cubic inches more of not been individually taught; its personal experience is brain than the Papuan. Thus it happens that faculties, as nil; but it has the benefit of ancestral experience. In its of music, which scarcely exist in some inferior races, beinherited organization are registered all the powers which come congenital in superior ones. Thus it happens that it displays at birth. So also as regards the instinct of the out of savages unable to count up to the number of their hive-bee, already referred to. The distance at which the fingers, and speaking a language containing only nouns and insects stand apart when they sweep their hemispheres and verbs, arise at length our Newtons and Shakespeares.” build their cells is “ organically remembered." Man also At the outset of this Address it was stated that physical carries with him the physical texture of his ancestry, as theories which lie beyond experience are derived by a procwell as the inherited intellect bound up with it. The de- ess of abstraction from experience. It is instructive to note fects of intelligence during infancy and youth are probably from this point of view the successive introduction of new less due to a lack of individual experience than to the fact conceptions. The idea of the attraction of gravitation was that in early life the cerebral organization is still incom- preceded by the observation of the attraction of iron by a plete. The period necessary for completion varies with magnet, and of light bodies by rubbed amber. The polarthe race, and with the individual. As a round shot out- ity of magnetism and electricity appealed to the senses ; strips a rifled one on quitting the muzzle of the gun, so the and thus became the substratum of the conception that lower race in childhood may outstrip tbe higher. But the atoms and molecules are endowed with definite, attractive, higher eventually overtakes the lower, and surpasses it in and repellent poles, by the play of which infinite forms of range. As regards individuals, we do not always find the crystalline architecture are produced. Thus molecular precocity of youth prolonged to mental power in maturity ; force becomes structural. It required no great boldness of while the dullness of boyhood is sometimes strikingly con- thought to extend its play into organic nature, and to rectrasted with the intellectual energy of after years. New- ognize in molecular force the agency by which both plants ton, when a boy, was weakly, and he showed no particular and animals are built up. In this way out of experience aptitude at school; but in his eighteenth year he went to arise conceptions which are wholly ultra-experiential. Cambridge, and soon afterwards astonished his teachers by The origination of life is a point lightly touched upon, if his power of dealing with geometrical problems. During his at all, by Mr. Darwin and Mr. Spencer. "Diminishing gradquiet youth his brain was slowly preparing itself to be the ually the number of progenitors, Mr. Darwin comes at organ of those energies which he subsequently displayed. | length to one “primordial form;” but he does not say, as


far as I remember, how he supposes this form to have been means easy to combat such notions. For when I say I see introduced. He quotes with satisfaction the words of a you, and that I have not the least doubt about it, the recelebrated author and divine who had “gradually learnt to ply is that what I am really conscious of is an affection of see that it is just as noble a conception of the Deity to be my own retina. And if I urge that I can check my sight lieve He created a few original forms, capable of self-de- of you by touching you, the retort would be that I am velopment into other and needful forms, as to believe that equally transgressing the limits of fact : for what I am He required a fresh act of creation to supply the voids really conscious of is, not that you are there, but that the caused by the action of his laws.” What Mr. Darwin nerves of my hand have undergone a change. All we hear, thinks of this view of the introduction of life I do not know. and see, and touch, and taste, and smell are, it would be Whether he does or does not introduce his “primordial urged, mere variations of our own condition, beyond which, form" by a creative act, I do not know. But the question even to the extent of a hair's breadth, we cannot go. That will inevitably be asked, “ How came the form there?” anything answering to our impressions exists outside of With regard to the diminution of the number of created ourselves is not a fact

, but an inference, to which all validforms, one does not see that much advantage is gained by ity would be denied by an idealist like Berkeley, or by a it. The anthropomorphism, which it seemed the object of sceptic like Hume. Mr. Spencer takes another line. Mr. Darwin to set aside, is as firmly associated with the With him, as with the uneducated man, there is no doubt creation of a few forms as with the creation of a multitude. or question as to the existence of an external world. But We need clearness and thoroughness here. Two courses he differs from the uneducated, who think that the world and two only are possible. Either let us open our doors really is what consciousness represents it to be. Our states freely to the conception of creative acts, or abandoning of consciousness are mere symbols of an outside entity which them let us radically change our notions of Matter. If we produces them and determines the order of their succession, look at matter as pictured by Democritus, and as defined but the real nature of which we can never know. In fact for generations in our scientific text-books, the absolute the whole process of evolution is the manifestation of a impossibility of any form of life coming out of it would be Power absolutely inscrutable to the intellect of man. sufficient to render any other hypothesis preferable ; but little in our day as in the days of Job can man by searchthe definitions of matter given in our text-books were in- ing find this Power out. Considered fundamentally, it is tended to cover its purely physical and mechanical proper by the operation of an insoluble mystery that life is ties. And taught as we have been to regard these defini- evolved, species differentiated, and mind unfolded from tions as complete, we naturally and rightly reject the their prepotent elements in the immeasurable past. There monstrous notion that out of such matter any form of life is, you will observe, no very rank materialism here. could possibly arise. But are the definitions complete ? The strength of the doctrine of evolution consists, not in Everything depends on the answer to be given to this an experimental demonstration (for the subject is hardly question. Trace the line of life backwards, and see it ap- accessible to this mode of proof), but in its general harmony proaching more and more to what we call the purely phys- with the method of nature as hitherto known. From conical condition. We reach at length those organisms which trast, moreover, it derives enormous relative strength. On I have compared to drops of oil suspended in a mixture of the one side we have a theory (if it could with any proalcohol and water. We reach the protogenes of Haeckel, priety be so called), derived, as were the theories referred in which we have “ a type distinguishable from a fragment to at the beginning of this Address, not from the study of of albumen only by its finely granular character.” Can we nature, but from the observation of men — a theory which pause here? We break a magnet and find two poles in converts the Power whose garment is seen in the visible each of its fragments. We continue the process of break- universe into an Artificer, fashioned after the human model, ing, but, however small the parts, each carries with it, and acting by broken efforts as man is seen to act. On though enfeebled, the polarity of the whole. And when the other side we have the conception that all we see around we can break no longer, we prolong the intellectual vision us, and all we feel within us — the phenomena of physical to the polar molecules. Are we not urged to do something nature as well as those of the human mind — have their similar in the case of life? Is there not a temptation to unsearchable roots in a cosmical life, if I dare apply the close to some extent with Lucretius, when he affirms that term, an infinitesimal span of which only is offered to the “ Nature is seen to do all things spontaneously of herself investigation of man. And even this span is only knowwithout the meddling of the gods ?" or with Bruno, when able in part. We can trace the development of a nervous he declares that Matter is not that mere empty capacity system, and correlate with it the parallel phenomena og which philosophers bave pictured her to be, but the univer- sensation and thought. We see with undoubting certainty sal mother who brings forth all things as the fruit of her that they go hand in hand. But we try to soar in a vacown womb?” The questions here raised are inevitable. uum the moment we seek to comprehend the connection They are approaching us with accelerated speed, and it is between them. An Archimedean fulcrum is here required not a matter of indifference whether they are introduced which the human mind cannot command ; and the effort with reverence or with irreverence.

Abandoning all dis- to solve the problem, to borrow an illustration from an guise, the confession that I feel bound to make before you illustrious friend of mine, is like the effort of a man trying is that I prolong the vision backwards across the boundary to lift himself by his own waistband. All that has been of the experimental evidence, and discern in that Matter, bere said is to be taken in connection with this fundawhich we in our ignorance, and notwithstanding our pro- mental truth. When“ nascent senses” are spoken of, when fessed reverence for its Creator, have hitherto covered with "the differentiation of a tissue, at first vaguely sensitive opprobium, the promise and potency of every form and all over,” is spoken of, and when these processes are quality of Life.

associated with the modification of an organism by its The “ materialism ” here enunciated may be different environment,” the same parallelism, without contact, or from what you suppose, and I therefore crave your gra- even approach to contact, is implied. There is no fusion cious patience to the end. “ The question of an external possible between the two classes of facts no motor energy world,” says Mr. J. S. Mill, " is the great battle-ground of in the intellect of man to carry it without logical rupture metaphysics."! Mr. Mill himself reduces external phe- from the one to the other. nomena to“ possibilities of sensation.” Kant, as we have Further, the doctrine of evolution derives man, in bis seen, made time and space “ forms" of our own intuitions. totality, from the interaction of organism and environment Fichte, having first by the inexorable logic of his under through countless ages past. The Human Understanding, standing proved himself to be a mere link in that chain of for example — that faculty which Mr. Spencer has turned eternal causation which holds so rigidly in nature, violently so skilfully round upon its own antecedents — is itself broke the chain by making nature, and “all that it in. a result of the play between organism and environment herit,” an apparition of his own mind.2 And it is by no through cosmic ranges of time. Never surely did pre

scription plead so irresistible a claim. But then it comes 1 Examination of Hamilton, p. 154. • Bestimmung des Menschen.

to pass that, over and above his understanding, there are


many other things appertaining to man whose prescriptive moral force to whip it into action, the achievements of the rights are quite as strong as that of the understanding it- intellect would be


indeed. self. It is a result, for example, of the play of organism It has been said that science divorces itself from literaand environment that sugar is sweet and that aloes are ture: the statement, like so many others, arises from lack bitter, that the smell of hen bane differs from the perfume of knowledge. A glance at the less technical writings of of a rose. Such facts of consciousness (for which, by the its leaders — of its Helmholtz, its Huxley, and its Du way, no adequate reason has ever yet been rendered), are

Bois-Reymond — would show what breadth of literary quite as old as the understanding itself; and many other culture they command. Where among modern writers things can boast an equally ancient origin. Mr. Spencer can you find their superiors in clearness and vigor of literat one place refers to that most powerful of passions


ary style ? Science desires not isolation, but freely comamatory passion – as one which, when it first occurs, is bines with every effort towards the bettering of man's antecedent to all relative experience whatever; and we

Single-handed, and supported not by outward may pass its claim as being at least as ancient and as valid

sympathy, but by inward force, it has built at least one as that of the understanding itself. Then there are such great wing of the many-mansioned home which man in his things woven into the texture of man as the feeling of Awe, totality demands. And if rough walls and protruding Reverence, Wonder – and not alone the sexual love just rafter-ends indicate that on one side the edifice is incomreferred to, but the love of the beautiful, physical and plete, it is only by wise combination of the parts required moral, in Nature, Poetry, and Art. There is also that with those already irrevocably built that we can hope for deep-set feeling which, since the earliest dawn of history, completeness. There is no necessary incongruity between and probably for ages prior to all history, incorporated what has been accomplished and what remains to be done. itself in the Religions of the world. You who have es- The moral glow of Socrates, which we all feel by ignition, caped from these religions into the high-and-dry light of has in it nothing incompatible with the physics of Anaxthe understanding may deride them; but in so doing you agoras which he so much scorned, but which he would deride accidents of form merely, and fail to touch the im, hardly scorn to-day. And here I am reminded of one movable basis of religious sentiment in the emotional

amongst us, hoary, but still strong, whose prophet-voice nature of man. To yield this sentiment reasonable satis

some thirty years ago, far more than any other of this age, faction is the problem of problems at the present hour. unlocked whatever of life and nobleness lay latent in its And grotesque in relation to scientific culture as many of most gifted minds; one fit to stand beside Socrates or the religions of the world have been and are — - dangerous, the Maccabean Eleazar, and to dare and suffer all that nay, destructive, to the dearest privileges of freemen as they suffered and dared ; fit, as he once said of Fichte, some of them undoubtedly have been, and would, if they “ to have been the teacher of the Stoa, and to have discould, be again — it will be wise to recognize them as the coursed of beauty and virtue in the groves of Academe.” forms of a force, mischievous, if permitted to intrude on With a capacity to grasp physical principles which his the region of knowledge, over which it holds no command, friend Goethe did not possess, and which even total lack but capable of being guided by liberal thought to noble of exercise has not been able to reduce to atrophy, it is issues in the region of emotion, which is its proper sphere. the world's loss that he, in the vigor of his years, did not It is vain to oppose this force with a view to its extirpation. open his mind and sympathies to science, and make its What we should oppose, to the death if necessary, is every conclusions a portion of his message to mankind. Marattempt to found upon this elemental bias of man's nature

vellously endowed as he was, equally equipped on the a system which should exercise despotic sway over bis in- side of the Heart and of the Understanding, he might tellect.

have done much towards teaching us how to reconcile the I do not fear any such consummation. Science has

claims of both, and to enable them in coming times to already to some extent leavened the world, and it will

dwell together in unity of spirit and in the bond of

peace. leaven it more and more. I should look upon the mild And now the end is come. With more time, or greater light of science breaking in upon the minds of the youth strength and knowledge, what has been here said might of Ireland, and strengthening gradually to the perfect day, have been better said, wbile worthy matters here omitted as a surer check to any intellectual or spiritual tyranny might have received fit expression. But there would have which might threaten this island, than the laws of princes been no material deviation from the views set forth. As or the swords of emperors.

Where is the cause of fear ? regards myself, they are not the growth of a day; and as We fought and won our battle even in the Middle Ages : regards you, I thought you ought to know the environment why should we doubt the issue of a conflict now?

which, with or without your consent, is rapidly surrounding The impregnable position of science may be described in you, and in relation to which some adjustment on your a few words. All religious theories, schemes, and systems, part may be necessary. A hint of Hamlet's, however, which embrace notions of cosmogony, or which otherwise teaches us all how the troubles of common life may be reach into its domain, must, in so far as they do this, sub- ended; and it is perfectly possible for you and me to pur mit to the control of science, and relinquish all thought of chase intellectual peace at the price of intellectual death. controlling it. Acting otherwise proved disastrous in the The world is not without refuges of this description; nor past, and it is simply fatuous to-day. Every system which is it wanting in persons who seek their shelter and try to would escape the fate of an organism too rigid to adjust persuade others to do the same. I would exhort you to itself to its environment, must be plastic to the extent ihat refuse such shelter, and to scorn such base repose; to acthe growth of knowledge demands. When this truch has cept, if the choice be forced upon you, commotion before been thoroughly taken in, rigidity will be relaxed, exclu- stagnation, the leap of the torrent before the stillness of the siveness diminished, things now deemed essential will be swamp. In the one there is at all events life, and theredropped, and elements now rejected will be assimilated. fore hope; in the other, none. I have touched on debatThe litting of the life is the essential point; and as long as able questions, and led you over dangerous ground; and dogmatism, fanaticism, and intolerance are kept out, vari- this partly with the view of telling you, and through you ous modes of leverage may be employed to raise life to a the world, that as regards these questions science claims higher level. Science itself not unfrequently derives mo- unrestricted right of search. It is not to the point to say tive power from an ultra-scientific source. Whewell speaks that the views of Lucretius and Bruno, of Darwin and of enthusiasm of temper as a hindrance to science; but he Spencer, may be wrong. I concede the possibility, deemmeans the enthusiasm of weak heads. There is a strong ing it indeed certain that these views will undergo modifiand resolute enthusiasm in which science finds an ally ; cation. But the point is, that, whether right or wrong, and it is to the lowering of this fire, rather than to a dimi- we claim the freedom to discuss them. The ground which nution of intellectual insight, that the lessening productive they cover is scientitic ground; and the right claimed is ness of men of science in their mature years is to be as. one made good through tribulation and anguish, inflicted cribed. Mr. Buckle sought to detach intellectual achieve- and endured in darker times than ours, but resulting in the ment from moral force. He gravely erred; for without immortal victories which science has won for the human

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