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weeks, one merchant sent two hundred thousand frogs from When working at a depth of forty-five feet, his mandrel Belgium to France, chiefly to Paris, Nancy, and Rheims. struck into a piece of shale; a frog, large but weak, leaped The price was about thirteen francs or half a guinea per out and crawled along the ground with some difficulty; the thousand. Much patience must have been shown by the eyes were full-sized, but apparently sightless; the mouth cooks; for we are told that the thighs of the frogs were seemed as if permanently closed, and the spine was twisted roasted, and eaten with white sauce, or in fricassees; the | as if it had been compelled to adapt itself to a narrow and skin and most other parts were utilized as components in ill-shaped space. The frog, when liberated, grew in size mock turtle soup. It appears to be in the spring and and weight, but could not be fed; he appeared to breathe autumn that this supply for France is obtained. In the through the skin covering the lower jaw. We certainly market-place of Milan, some few years ago, an English cannot blame Ellis, the miner, for exhibiting his prodigy sojourner saw a woman preparing frogs for cooking. She to admiring visitors at a public house in Merthyr; and had a sackful near at band : she took them one by one, considering the intensity of popular belief on this subject, placed them on her knee, skinned them expertly, and we must view indulgently his inscription : “ The greatest threw them into a dish, where the wretched little beings wonder of the world I a frog found in a stone forty feet crawled one over another skinless. Mr. Fortune describes below the surface of the earth, where it has been living a scene almost exactly similar to this, as coming under his without food for the last five thousand years !" notice at Ningpo, in China. A traveller, passing near St. The first question is, how much of these narratives to Helen's, Lancashire, saw some boys splashing about in a believe; and the second, how to account for so much as pond, catching frogs, and cutting off their bind legs. He we do believe. That frogs live to a great age; that they asked them what they did with the frogs. The answer are able to endure long abstinence; that their power of assumed this puzzling form : “ We putters um oth frying. hibernation is something extraordinary; and that the skin pon, an' then ith 'oon; an' they 're graidly good." The has the property of acting upon the atmosphere in such a meaning of which we may surmise after a little study, way as to fulfil, in some degree, the function of the lungs Most likely the hind legs were the parts thus treated. - are facts admitted by naturalists. The toad, also, when
Besides being regarded as a somewbat exceptional arti- kept in a damp place, can live several months without food cle of food, the frog is credited by many persons with of any kind. Smellie, wbile cautiously abstaining alike from medicinal virtues. A woman, when reaping in one of the positive belief and absolute incredulity, recommended rural districts, was seen to swallow some frogs; she held observant men to attend to such a possible explanation as each by its legs, put it into her mouth, and gulped it down. the following: “In the rocks there are many chinks as When questioned, she stated that it was intended as a cure well as fissures, both horizontal and perpendicular; and in for a stomach Complaint. Highland gleaners have been old trees, nothing is more frequent than holes and vacuities, seen to do the very same thing. Schoolboys were much of various dimensions. Through these fissures and vacuities addicted to this practice, and from the same motive, early the eggs of toads may accidentally be conveyed by water, in the present century. In the North Riding of Yorkshire the penetration of which few substances are capable of resistthe frog-regimen is occasionally adopted for weakness and ing; after the eggs are hatched, the animals may receive consumption. In Lincolnsbire, when infants have a mouth moisture and small portions of air through the crevices of complaint arising from, or somewhat resembling, thrush, | rocks or the channels of aged trees. But,” he modestly adds, some of the country people will take a live frog by the “ I mean not to persuade, for I cannot satisfy myself.”. hind leg, and allow it to sprawl about the mouth of the Mr. Broderip, the naturalist, does not admit the probabilchild, under the supposition that a curative influence would | ity of Smellie's conjecture concerning the conveyance of the be exercised. In some parts of Wiltshire, live frogs are frogs' eggs by water. No one now doubts that frogs, toads, given to cows when they cease to chew the cud.
snakes, and lizards really do issue occasionally from rock One of the most remarkable, and perhaps the least ex- broken in a quarry, hard stone loosened in well-sinking, plicable, facts connected with this family of reptiles, is the and coal or shale dug in a colliery ; but the question is, alleged inclosure of frogs and toads in solid rock and in whether the substances were really solid and impassable to the heart of trees, where they are supposed to have existed air and moisture. The late Dr. Buckland remarked that for unknown centuries, deprived of all access to food or “The evidence is never perfect to show that the reptiles air, and yet alive when extricated. The stories relating to / were entirely inclosed in solid rock. No examination 18 this subject are many and marvellous; men of science do ever made until the reptile is first discovered by the breaknot think it safe to believe them, but at the same time they / ing of the mass in which it was contained; and then it is are convinced that there is some truth in the matter, how. too late to ascertain, without carefully replacing every ever difficult it may be to get at. Smellie, in bis Philoso fragment (and in no case that I have seen reported has this phy of Natural History, refers to an account in the Memoirs ever been done) whether or not there was any hole or crevice of the Academy of Sciences, of a toad found alive and by which the animal may have entered the cavity from healthy in the heart of an old elm; and of another dis which it was extracted. Without previous examination, covered near Nantes in the heart of an old oak, without it is almost impossible to prove that there was no such comany visible entrance to its habitation. In this second in munication.” stance, judging from the number of rings in the wood, and Dr. Buckland, to test the matter in some degree, made the depth of the imbedding, it was inferred that the animal some remarkable experiments. He caused twelve circular must have been imprisoned there at least eighty or a hun1 cells or cavities to be cut in a large block of coarse oolitic dred years. Mr. Jesse, the naturalist, found a frog in a limestone, with provision for an air-tight glass cover to each mulberry-tree; the annular layers of wood were gradually cell. Twelve other cells were cut in a block of silicious but surely inclosing bim.
sandstone. Twenty-four live toads were put into the cells, The imprisonment of frogs and toads in stone is, however, one in each, the covers fastened down air-tight, and the much more remarkable than that in the trunks of trees, blocks of stone buried three feet deep in a garden. They even if we believe only a modicum of the narratives pub were left undisturbed for twelve months, at the end of lished on the subject. The statements are unmistakable, which time the cells were opened. All the toads in the and are made in all good faith, that living frogs and toads sandstone rock were dead; but most of those in the oölite are occasionally met with thus imbedded, and that exact | (the cells of which were larger) were still living; some impressions of their bodies, corresponding to their respec- l had lessened in weight, some had increased; but as a few tive sizes, are left in the cavities of the stone where they of the plates of glass were found cracked, it was deemed are found. Chatsworth is credited with having once had possible that minute insects might have entered. The (we do not know whether it still exists) a marble chimney living toads were left alone for another twelve months, at piece with a print of a toad in it; there was a traditionary the end of which time all were dead. Seen through the account of the place and manner in which it was found. glass covers, the poor fellows seemed to be always awake,
The Mining Journal contains an account of a discovery with open eyes. Perhaps they were marvelling what crime made by a miner at Pen-y-darran, near Merthyr Tydvil. of theirs had subjected them to å sentence of two years'
solitary confinement. A smaller experiment accompanied | real warfare as he could learn while General M'Clellan was this principal one. Dr. Buckland placed four toads in trying to defeat the Confederates by a kind of engineering three cells or holes cut for the purpose in the trunk of an whicb signified a profuse employment of spade industry. apple-tree; two were companions in the largest cell, the At Twickenham the Comte de Paris had abundant time to other two occupied a small cell each ; but though small, make himself acquainted with the reasons why the English these cells were tolerably roomy for middle-sized toads, Monarchy had succeeded and the French had failed. Seebeing about five inches deep by three inches diameter. ing the great part which trades' unions were playing in The cavities were carefully and closely plugged with wood. | England, and which they might play in France, be also All four toads were found dead and decayed at the end of specially studied the labors of the Royal Commission that the first year. In another subsidiary experiment, four investigated the doings of these institutions some years ago, small basins of plaster of Paris were scooped out, a live and the result has been two very respectable books. One, toad placed in each, and a cover luted down air tight on written while he was in England, gives a strikingly fair the top. The whole were buried underground; twelve account of the trade societies. It is totally free from that months afterwards two of the toads were dead, the other unreasoning prejudice with which they were once regarded two living, but greatly emaciated.
by most Englishmen of social position and wealth. Another To sum up; the best naturalists now agree that, however was written aster he returned to France, and it was inwonderful the ascertained phenomena.really are, frogs and tended to supply a Commission of the National Assembly toads cannot live one year wholly without air, nor probably with information which it had solicited from him. It pretwo years wholly without food.
sents the same tone of fairness as the first account, but it is much more minute. It is, in fact, a sort of blue-book, the first perhaps ever written by a man of his rank. We
are bound to add that both works, if conspicuously free THE COMTE DE PARIS.
from the prejudices of France, are equally free from her
liveliness. They are, indeed, rather dull. If they are a We have not read the volumes that the Comte de Paris fair specimen of the Prince's literary powers, he will never bas published on the American Civil War; but we have be a brilliant writer, although he should study Voltaire all little doubt that their literary merits are more than respect the days of his life, and write as much. Like the Duc able, and still less doubt that they will make the doors of d'Aumale, however, he must bave a strong passion for the the French Academy fly open at the next vacancy, even if exercise of the literary craft ; because he has toiled at the such plebeian men of letters as M. Taine or M. About composition of a large history, amid all the turmoil of should be bowed away with a cold sneer. The Academy | French politics, during the last two years. likes titles more than it likes style. It is proof against the The Comte de Paris has other advantages. His friends literary fascinations of Renan, but it cannot resist the ad praise the calmness and the sureness of bis judgment. M. vances of any Royal Highness who writes passable French. | Hervé, tbe editor of the Journal de Paris, and therefore The “ reception ” of the Comte de Paris will be a red the official eulogist of the Orleanist House, breaks out into letter day in the calendar of the second-rate aristocracy | ecstasies over his youthful wisdom. He asks us to believe and the first-rate bankers to whom the reign of Louis that the Comte de Paris unites “the meditative and proPhilippe was the golden age of France. If the Comte de found spirit of William of Orange to the good grace and Paris were to be officially welcomed to the Academy by the charm which were absent from the melancholy founder bis uncle, the Duc d'Aumale, the literary festival of the of constitutional monarchy in England.” It is easy to Orleanists would be complete. Much might be hinted smile at 80 preposterous a compliment, and yet to admit about the political glory and the domestic virtues of a | that the Comte de Paris is a very sensible young man. If King who always contrived to desert his friends in the l he were not a very sensible young man, he would be no nick of time to save himself from sharing their ruin, until I grandson of Louis Philippe. He seems indeed a paragon the impatience of Paris forced him to fly from the Tuileries 1 of good sense when compared with his Quixotic cousin. in a cab. Something might also be said about the healthy | All that cousin's talks about Divine Right, the White Flag, wish of the old monarch that his sons should be well ed and the Church seem as absurd to the Comte de Paris as ucated, and about the boldness with which he sent them to they do to an ordinary Englishman. The present writer a public lycée. An eloquent and pathetic passage might te bad the advantage of talking with him about the Comte de delivered on the untimely death of the Duc d'Orleans, the Chambord's pretensions at the very time when one of the father of the Comte de Paris : and the Duc d'Aumale might | White Flag letters spread confusion through the whole skilfully suggest that if Providence had not thus cut short camp of the Royalists; and it is no breach of confidence to a noble life, France might bave been spared from the mis. | say that the young Prince could not have dismissed his eries amid which she has been drifting ever since she cut I cousin's semi-supernatural claims with more polite conherself loose from the anchor of constitutional monarchy. / tempt if he had been an English member of Parliament. Then might come a glowing description of the virtues and | He said that he and his relative differed so widely on funthe talents which the father had transmitted to the son. damental questions as to make it useless for them to discuss His dignity in exile, the part that he had taken in the their positions. He held fast by the Louis Philippe, or American war, the military talents that he might display | rather by the English idea that a limited and hereditary if the field lay open, the literary powers that would suffice | monarchy was the best form of government, because it by themselves to build an honorable name, the industry of united the strength of tradition to the force of the popular a toiling politician, the thirst for the accumulation of facts will. He recognized his cousin as the head of the royal that he had learned in the land which is the home of or- | house, because it was important to keep the hereditary dered freedom, the wisdom and the foresight which were | claim unbroken ; but the distinctive claims of Legitimacy proof against the temptations of political excess, might all were bowed aside with polite and silent scorn. It is true be woven into a subile prediction of the beatitudes that that he afterwards went to see his cousin, and did him would come to France with Louis Philippe II.
some kind of homage; but, it is said, he went against his A good deal of the eulogy would be strictly true. The own will. Strictly construed, the visit may have meant Comte de Paris is a young man of high personal character merely that he admitted his cousin to be older than himand considerable talents. He is unstained by the frivolities, self, and hence, in the ordinary course of events, the near. far less by the vices, which might almost seem to be insep est heir to the throne; but the multitude do not draw prearable from the princely state. He has not lived a life of cise legal inferences, and M. Thiers correctly anticipated the laborious idleness which is filled up by the thing called what they would say when, on hearing of the interview, he “ sport.” From his youth he has been a student, and he rubbed his hands, and declared the Orleanists to be undone. has carefully fitted himself to do the work of a constitu- | It was instantly said that they had abandoned the princitional King, not by shooting pheasants, but by mastering | ples of constitutional government, and the Comte de blue-books. He has travelled, and he has seen as much of Chambord has lost no opportunity of assuming in the face of France that such is the fact. A Radical paper said that nifies merely the subtile, complex, and ever-shifting maone of the manifestoes was like a family vault, large enough chinery by which the nation exercises its will. That mato bury the whole House of Bourbon. The last effort to chinery is never the same in two successive generations, or form à fusion showed, it is true, that the breach between | indeed in two successive years. A strong King, an imthe two families was as wide as ever ; but on the other | perious Prime Minister, a House of Commons lifted on the hand, the Orleanist Princes ostentatiously proclaim that wave of popular enthusiasm, a House of Lords strengthened they are not pretenders to the throne. Their journal by momentary popularity, fervent political or religious states that they will make no step towards the crown with convictions among the people, may at any moment change out the consent of the Comte de Chambord. This means the political centre of gravity. What the text-books that they would be very happy if he would abdicate. But describe is not the Constitution, but merely the husk of he does not show the slightest disposition to betray the power, and the busk is all that the Orleanists can import. trust of Providence by banding the White Flag to a prince But they might as well attempt to revive the monastic life who would stain its purity with two ugly bars of red and of the fourteenth century by building a few abbeys, by copy. blue. A more prosaic cause than loyalty prevents the ing the mediæval architecture, and by exactly following Comte de Paris from becoming a pretender to the throne. the old monkish rules, as to give France the constitutional He dare not offer to take it, because if he did he would life of England by erecting a copy of the English constita. split up the Royalist party, and destroy even his small tional machine. The mere fact that they believe in the chances. The Royalists are strong only so long as the possibility of such a feat betrays a fatal lack of that comLegitimists and the Orleanists act together, but they mon-sense which is the basis of all real statesmanship. would be overpowered if they were to fight singly. The The Orleanist family have traded on their respectability, Comte de Paris, then, is no pretender, for the all-sufficient and it must be confessed that their lives have, on the whole, reason that he dare not be.
been almost oppressively decorous. Nothing worse was The most sensible of men have usually some craze, and said of Louis Philippe than that he loved money. His sods that of the Comte de Paris is the form of political insanity and his grandsons have lived up to the standard of English which will be called Louis Philippism when the mad-doc- respectability. Louis Philippe's court was pure, and so tors shall have had time to push their classifications into would be that of the Comte de Paris. A decorous tone affairs of state. He is smitten with the belief that he can has also been spread through the ranks of the Orleanist import the British Constitution whole. He and his party party. Speaking and acting like educated gentlemen, they act as if they fancied the British Constitution to be kept in seem to be paragons of propriety in comparison with the the Tower along with the crown jewels, or as if they Bonapartists, whose press betray the swashbuckler tone of thought that the Lord Chancellor took it home every night a hired bravo, whose oratory is as loud and bullying as the along with the great seal. They seem to fancy that they invectives of a barrack-room, and whose statesmen have the can lay the British Constitution on the table, make draw pushing insolence of intellectual lackeys, clad in their ings of it, copy sections of it, form duplicates of it, and take master's clothes, but ready to shrink into abject servility them across the Channel in a carpet-bag. And they think at the glance of a master's eyes. The Bonapartists are the that France would be forever cured of the pestilent stings rowdies of France. They are to France what the planters of recurring revolutions if they could only set up the British of Virginia were to the United States before the civil war, Constitution, like another brazen serpent in the wilderness. which forever broke the pride that was based on organized
That strange political superstition reminds us of a story crime. which is told of some Japanese merchants who bought an It is easy to understand the reason why the Republicans English steamer, and had it sent to Yeddo, under the care regard the Orleanists with a certain measure of respect, of English engineers as well as sailors. The proud Japa- and the Bonapartists with mingled hatred and disgust. nese fancied, however, that they themselves could manage | The Orleanists are respectable, but we repeat that they without the insolent foreigners, and so the engineers were have traded on their character. Their Princes gave out dismissed. Away went the steamer on its trial trip, that they would keep clear of all intrigues, and never seek worked solely by native talent, and all seemed to go well, to wear the crown unless the nation should offer it to until the Japanese engineer came to the captain, and con them; and no doubt they would have been very glad to be fessed with a long face that he could not stop the engines. wooed on such terms. But the na
wooed on such terms. But the nation has treated them Nothing could be done, then, but to port the helm, and with silent disdain, and the Legitimists have never forgiven make the steamer go round and round in the spacious har- | Louis Philippe for proving false to Charles X. They have bor until the fires burnt low and the engines were out of punished his calculating selfisbness by jealously watching breath. The Japanese bad got the British Constitution, the Duc d'Aumale and by looking coldly on the Comte de but they found it a tremendous white elephant, ungoverna- | Paris. Such adversity, soon broke do
Paris. Such adversity soon broke down the proud reserve ble without its British keeper. The Orleanists have been l of these Princes, and their house in the Rue Faubourg St. in precisely the same position, although they do not know | Honoré has notoriously been the centre of political intrigue. it. During the reign of Louis Philippe, they had a thing To the Republic they have been more dangerous than the that they fancied to be like the British Constitution, and it Comte de Chambord himself, because they have been more was entrusted to the most skilful of native engineers, in the subtle; and they have not, like him, the excuse of fanatperson of M. Guizot. But M. Guizot could not stop the licism. Their principles would not forbid them to aid in terrible machine, and unlike his Japanese brothers, he was the organization of the Republic; and in truth, the Duc too proud to confess that the cranks and the valves had be. d'Aumale said in his election address that although he precome unmanageable, and that the oil which he intended to ferred an hereditary Monarchy, he would accept & Repour upon the binges always got into the fire, and would public if it were the choice of France. They might have blaze up with such a flame as to drive him out of the en organized the Republic and made it stable if they had flung gine-room. So the ship went straight ahead and struck on | aside their wretched dynastic contention, and acted like the reef of revolution." M. Guizot and the Comte de Paris patriots. Nay, they might have been the first citizens of have never learned that, even if they could import the the Republic if they had thus preferred their country to British Constitution, it would be worse than useless unless their little family cravings for the pomp of kingly state. they could also import Englishmen. The British Consti- | But behind the rampart of their respectability they have tution works admirably in England because the country is preferred to weave a web of family intrigues. They are peopled by Englishmen, and because Englishmen have | keeping France in a turmoil, although they could give her been made what they are by the political discipline of a peace. All the respectability in the world cannot outweigb thousand years.
such an offence against the state; and we venture to preAnd there is another difficulty that the Comte de Paris dict that, among the personages who now influence the and his friends have never been able to see. There is no political forces of France, there are none that history will British Constitution to import. The British Constitution judge more severely than the able, lettered, decorous band has never been seen by any human eye. The phrase sig- of Princes who are represented by the Comte de Paris.
their turn they might trample upon the rights of others; THE WHITE NILE.
where, as they had been plundered, they could now plunder;
where they could reap the harvest of another's labor, and In speaking at the Royal Institution upon the subject of where, undisturbed, they might indulge in the great enterhis late expedition, Sir Samuel Baker gives the following prise of slave-hunting. picturesque, but at the same time powerful, description of 1. Having passed through the deserted country from Berthe White Nile :
ber, I arrived at Khartoum. Notbing was ready for my exI bave stopped the slave trade, but the traffic may and pedition ; but I found that the Governor-General had just will be resumed should European commanders be with- prepared a squadron of eleven vessels, with several comdrawn. Even should the White River remain pure, the panies of regular troops, to form a settlement at the copper slaves will be conveyed across the desert viâ Darfur and | mines on the southern frontier of Darfur. This expedition Kordofan. Large markets will be established to which the had been placed under the command of a man named traders will concentrate from all parts of Africa to pur- | Kutchuk Ali, who was one of the most notorious ruffians cbase slaves. These will be dispersed in gangs, and be and slave-traders of the White Nile. Thus, at the same distributed through all the slave-dealing countries of the time that the Khedive of Egypt had employed me to supEast.
press the slave trade of the Nile, a government expedition The governors of Egyptian provinces are to a man in bad been entrusted to the command of a well-known slavefavor of the slave trade; thus the prohibition of slavery is hunter. to them a mine of wealth. The law gives to them the This was only one peculiarity in the policy of the Soudan power to seize and confiscate all slaves in the hands of authorities. The great outcry for money had caused an indealers. Thus the arrival of a caravan with 500 slaves crease of taxation, which, as has been already shown, bad would be tantamount to a present of £1000 or more to the caused the flight of large numbers of the population to the government official, who would receive a toll of £2 a head White Nile slave parties. and let them pass free.
The Governor-General of the Soudan now bethought There is a simple method in attacking this great evil | himself: “By what right do these people make fortunes that would, I am convinced, be eminently successful. It is in unknown lands beyond the Upper Nile ? " 'It was easy the European influence alone that will effectually suppress to understand that they had no right. This was a golden the slave trade; and this same influence will alone save opportunity for the Governor, who accordingly established Turkey and Egypt from irretrievable ruin.
& tax upon every trader to the White Nile, in the peculiar In a former work, “ The Nile Tributaries of Abyssinia,” | form of a lease. According to the position and importance I fully exposed the depredations of the soldiery when em of each trader, a lease was made out, by which the governployed as tax collectors in the Soudan. By over-taxation ment let to him for a certain term of years an undefined and pillage by officials the peasantry are literally eaten up. | portion of Central Africa which did not belong to Egypt, Thousands upon thousands have forsaken the country, and and over which the Khedive bad neither right nor authorhave commenced a life of brigandage as slave-hunters ity. These leases enabled the traders, for the annual payamong the negro tribes. Nine years ago, when I was de ment of several thousand pounds, to establish stations, and scending the Nile from Khartoum to Berber, a distance of engage in their so-called trade in distant lands belonging 200 miles by river, the fertile soil on either bank was in the to individual tribes, where no government was represented, highest state of cultivation. This valuable extent of coun and where an armed and organized Arab force would be try was watered by 4000 sakyeers, or water-wheels. By able to commit any atrocity at discretion. There is no day and night the irrigation was continued, and the discord doubt that the actual wording of the lease was admirable, ant bum and creaking of the machines, if disturbing a inculcating moral precepts, and warning adventurers night's rest, nevertheless assured the traveller that indus against a participation in the slave trade; but if the Govtry was wide awake, and that prosperity would be the re ernor-General or any other authority should presume to ward of labor. When I returned to that same country in declare himself ignorant that the real object of the enterJanuary, 1870, I looked for the past scene in vain.
prise was slave-hunting, he is simply stating that which is A steamer and a diabbiah were awaiting me at Berber. false. As we steamed against the strong current for 200 miles to Khartoum I looked with astonishment and dismay upon the country. Now and then & tuft of neglected date palms might be seen ; but the river banks, formerly verdant with
SPONGE-FISHERIES. heavy crops, had become a wilderness. Villages, once crowded, bad entirely disappeared. The population was | SPONGES, to speak of them in a general way, are zogone. The night, formerly discordant with the creaking ophytes, half-animal, half-vegetable. They grow on rocks of the water-wheels, was now silent as death. There was in the sea, and fishing for them is a regular trade on the not a dog to bowl for a lost master. The discord of a coast of Greece, Syria, the West Indies, and elsewhere. water-wheel would to my ears have been harmony. Indus In some instances they are secured by diving, and in others try had vanished ; oppression had driven the inhabitants by being pulled up by a pronged instrument. Some new from the soil; the most fertile land on earth had been and interesting information respecting the Syrian spongeabandoned to byenas. This was Egyptian rule, and I was fisheries is condensed as follows in the Pall Mall Budget, op my path to conquer fresh lands for Egypt !
from the commercial Report of a British vice-consul at This terrible desolation was caused by the Governor- Beyrout for 1873 : “ The total value of the sponges fished General of the Soudan, who, although bimself an honest on the coast of Syria is from twenty to twenty-five thouman, was a fanatical Mohammedan, who left his territory sand pounds. The production is, however, falling off to the sole care of God. He simply increased the taxes through excessive fishing, and the consequent exhaustion and trusted in Providence. In one year he sent to the de of the fishery.grounds. About two hundred and fifty to lighted Khedive bis master, at Cairo, more than £100,000 three hundred boats are at present employed in this inin dollars wrung from the poor peasantry of the Soudan. dustry on the coast of Syria, manned by about fifteen In the following year it was difficult to get change for a hundred men. The centres of production are Tripoli, sovereign. It must be borne in mind that a tax suddenly Ruad, Lattakia, and Batroun on the coast of Mount Lebimposed in the Soudan that would produce £100,000 sur. anon. The best qualities are found in the neighborhood plus revenue, would be in real fact a tax of £200 000, as an of Tripoli and Batroun; but the boats visit all parts of the equal amount is always extorted from the peasantry by the coast, from Mount Carmel in the south, to Alexandretta in collectors.
the north. The majority of the boats used are ordinary The population of the richest portions of the Soudan thus fishing-boats, three parts decked over, and carrying one abandoned the country, and the greater portion betook | mast with an ordinary lug-sail. They are from eighteen themselves to the slave trade of the White Nile, where in to thirty feet in length, and are manned by a crew of four or five men, one of whom is specially engaged for the pur- Count BLUCHER, son of the present prince of that pose of hauling, while the rest are divers. In some cases, | name, and great-grandson of the renowned marshal, bas the men own their own boats, but generally they are hired addressed to Colonel Chesney an official letter of thanks, for the season, which extends from June to the middle of on behalf of himself and his father, in special acknowledg. October. No wages are paid; the remuneration consists in ment of the attention paid by the English author, in his an equal share of the produce of the fishing. The profits Waterloo Lectures," to the elucidation of their ancestor's of a good diver reach as high as forty pounds a season. share in the success of the campaign of 1815, and more Diving is practised from a very early age up to forty years, particularly of the recent vindication, in a new edition of beyond which few are able to continue the pursuit. It the work, of Blucher's name from a charge of supposed does not appear, however, that the practice bas any ten- | carelessness in connection with the defeat of Ligny. dency to shorten life, although, as the diver approaches forty, he is less able to compete with his younger and
The Belgian Government, conjointly with the town of more vigorous brother. The time during which a Syrian
Antwerp, are in treaty for the purchase of the house of the diver can remain under water depends, of course, on his
celebrated Antwerp printer Plantinus, with its contents, age and training. Sixty seconds is reckoned good work,
portraits, MSS., printing-press, wood blocks, and books still but there are rare instances of men who are able to stay
belonging to the Moretus family. B. Moretus was the im. below eighty seconds. The men on the coast, however,
| mediate successor of Plantin. Among the MSS. in this make extraordinary statements as to the length of time
collection there are several which were brought away from their best bands are able to remain under water, and
All Souls College, Oxford, by one of the fellows wbo gravely assert that eight and ten minutes are not impossi
would not acknowledge the Royal Supremacy in matters bilities. The manner of diving is as follows: the diver, —
spiritual. It is possible that these might be got back now; naked, of course, — with an open net around his waist for
but when once the collection passes into the hands of the the receptacle of bis prizes, seizes with both hands an Government it would be impossible. oblong white stone, to which is attached a rope, and It is well known that the exploration of the French plunges overboard. On arriving at the bottom, the stone
caves of the reindeer period bas brought to light, within is deposited at his feet, and keeping hold of the rope with the last few years, abundant evidence of the existence of one hand, the diver grasps and tears off the sponges the arts of sculpture and engraving among the early stonewithin reach, which he deposits in his net. He then, by using folk of Gaul. Our knowledge of the fine arts of a series of jerks to the rope, gives the signal to those these primitive people has recently been extended by the above, and is drawn up. In former years, the Syrian discovery of a prehistoric musical instrument. M. E. coast was much frequented by Greek divers from the isl- Piette has, indeed, found what he describes as “ une fûte ands of the Archipelago. Their number is now restricted néolithique." This flute, which is formed of bone and to five or six boats annually, the skill of the Syrian, com pierced with two well-made holes, was discovered in a layer bined with his superior knowledge of the fishing-grounds, l of charcoal and cinders in the cavern of Gourdan (Hauteenabling him to compete successfully with his foreign Garonne), where it was associated with fint implements of opponent. Although they vary much in quality and size, neolithic types. The cave was discovered by M. Piette in sponges may be generally classified as — 1. The fine white
1871. bell-shaped sponge, known as the toilet sponge ;' 2. The large reddish variety, known as 'sponge de Vénise,'
A very interesting and instructive exhibition is now
taking place in Paris, and attracts crowds. By means of or bath-sponges ; ' 3. The coarse red sponge used for household purposes and cleaning. Two thirds of the prod
a most artistic application of photo sculpture, the spectacle uce of the Syrian coast are purchased by the native mer
of Pompeii as it was eighteen centuries ago, and is now, chants, who send it to Europe for sale; while the remainder
is splendidly represented; the comparison is really curiis purchased on the spot by French agents, who annually
ous; to complete the idea an eruption of Mount Vesuvius visit Syria for the purpose. France takes the bulk of the
is exhibited, full of reality. It must have cost much study finest qualities, while the reddish and common sponges are
and labor to thus materially construct, as it were, a city sent to Germany and England. The revenue derived by
and its life lost so many ages ago. The Forum appears as government from this industry is a tenth of the value of
it must have been; the street of the Tombs; the tragie the produce." The annual import of sponges from all
theatre; the amphitheatre, the temples and baths, the countries into the United Kingdom amounts in value to
villas and mansions of historical citizens, etc. In thus about one hundred and twenty-five thousand pounds.
promenading among those imposing monuments, you with difficulty can believe in the illusion.
Tule difficulty of lighting railway carriages with gas has hitherto been found insurmountable - at least for journeys
of great length. In the first place the ordinary gas reserFOREIGN NOTES.
voir was too cumbrous, and even if this defect had been
met by pumping the gas into strong retorts under pressure, A “MILK club" is to be established in Paris to pro so as to carry it in a smaller space, the lighting power mote sobriety. The association will probably degenerate would have been considerably impaired. Herr Julias into a milk-punch and become a success.
Pintsch, of Berlin, has now mastered the difficulty. He
abandons coal gas altogether, and makes his gas from oil. A NEW weekly literary paper has been issued in Lon. He packs it in iron retorts at a pressure of 90 lbs. to the don. It is entitled Journal Général des Beaux Arts et square inch, and supplies it to the lamps through an ingendes Arts Industriels. The special feature of the paper is ious regulator. Some few of the Continental railways its polyglot character, as it contains articles on all artistic
ins articles on all artistic have already adopted this system of lighting. In Eogland topics, including music and the drama, in French, English, an experimental carriage has been fitted with it on the and German.
London and North Western Railway. The Engineer states M. Henry recently exhibited to the Biological Society
that it carries gas enough in a receiver made of wrought of Paris photographs of hands of the upper classes of the
| iron gin. thick, 5ft. 10in. long, and ift. 4fin. in diameter, Annamites characterized by the long finger-nails esteemed
to run over 1000 miles. as a mark of gentility. One of the photographs repre. APROPOS of the attempt to assassinate Prince Bismarck, sented nails 40 to 50 centimètres in length®(15 to 20 | a singular theory is advanced to the effect that excessive inches !) and very curiously carved in fantastic patterns heat increases the homicidal tendency against which every like some of the claws depicted in ancient illuminations. man has sometimes to contend. In illustration of the Notwithstanding their length these nails were not hyper- theory, a patient professor of Breslau has brought together trophied.
instances of some of the more celebrated cases of regicide,