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swer, as a matter of state beyond his comprehension, the the whole the best disciplined which England had ever king pressed for bis opinion. He still evaded the general known, was unbearable. And when this army was maquestion, but said he had no doubt the king could take his nipulated by fanatics, who had all Oliver's ambition ari brother bishop's money since he offered it.
none of his administrative talents, it is no wonder that i In law, nothing is or can be undefined. The existence the restoration of Charles men really saw, as the parlis of a monarchial form of government was understood to ment of the restoration expressed it, a relief from thru imply that the king's prerogative was capable of a legal dom, oppression, and misery. Had Selden been listened limitation, and that the rights of the subject were co-exis- to, he would have reformed the constitution, not have a tent with it. An absolute monarch is the negation of tempted its reconstruction. Had even the cavaliers forolaw, for such a personage must be supposed to absorb seen the reign of Charles, they would not have been, it every ordinance, statute, or charter in his personal will. probable, an exception to the rule, that if men could one Life, property, the rights and duties of husband and wife, forecast the coming ten years of their life, they would lox father and child, could not really exist if the private en- all energy of purpose in view of the coming evil. Selden joyment or fulfilment of each could be suspended, with did not quite foresee it. But there is a sentiment of big drawn, or confiscated at the king's pleasure. It seems uttered when he was more than ordinarily vexed at the that some such despotism was actually realized under the din of sectarian strife. “ Those two words, Search the Bagdad Khalifat, when the commander of the faithful was Scriptures,” he said, “ have undone the world.” Few er. also Sheyk-ul-Islam, at once chief of the military, civil, pressions are more sad than this, few are such a concentra and religious organization, and all his subjects were at his tion of disappointment. mercy. Even the obedience of the monk was deference to All the work, however, which these men did was not the will of a superior, who was himself subject to the rule | lost. For first, no honest work is utter waste, still less is of the order.
solid work. Next, there is no true reaction from a real Every Englishman felt that no such theory of govern- progress. A counter-revolution always adopts much of ment had ever existed in England, that no monarch had that revolution from which it is a rebound. Tbe France ever assumed or exercised an exhaustive prerogative, that of 1815 was not the France of 1789. The great Europeat even in the earliest times the king sat in a council, the movement of 1848, with its mad dream of violent equality, members of which were his peers, and joint assessors with and its attempt to make the cities a paradise for artisans, him. It was universally understood that towns had their whose schemes should be fed by the forced contributions franchises and charters, and that even in the feudal manor, of every one else, was sternly repressed. But Europe bas which had a jurisdiction independent of the sovereign, there not gone back to the theory of the Holy Alliance, nor was a counterpart of parliament in the court baron, and strengthened the hands of absolutism. So in 1660. The of the view of frank-pledge, in the court roll and the court church was restored with the monarchy, but the High leet. All lawyers knew, and some lawyers ventured to as- Commission Court was suffered to lie dead. The law sert, that the great charter, the first statute in order of time, courts were revived, and the law administered, perhaps by and the first also in importance, was an acknowledgment the most infamous judges that ever sat on the bench, but of existing right, an averment of standing law and custom, the arbitrary procedure of the Star Chamber was not reand not a mere concession of new privileges extorted from suscitated. Free speech in parliament was accorded, and the fears or necessities of a baffled and deserted ruler. members of the two Houses were no longer in peril of F From the days of the first Edward too, the people had their liberty when they uttered the sentiments which they be been summoned to discuss and advise on the most impor- were called together to express. The legislature, to be tant business of the kingdom. Nor had the acknowledg- sure, was bribed ; but bad as this policy was, it was an ment of the subjects' rights ceased with the confirmation admission that the reign of violence was past; for despotof the charters. Statute upon statute, precedent upon ism is restrained when it condescends to corruption. precedent, an unbroken series of legal records and de- When Selden was yet a young man, the Earl of Kent
, cisions, had recognized the fact, that the law was above Baron Grey de Ruthin, made him his steward. After the the king, and that the office of the monarch was inchoate earl died in 1639, he resided with the countess, a daughter till such time as he had made oath to maintain the laws by and co-heiress of Gilbert Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury. which he governed his people. Now a statute-book and a The earl was childless, and his title passed to a very disdespotism are incompatible. The monarch's power must tant kinsman. The house of the countess was in White itina be limited if a subject's rights are real
. Nor could the friars, at the east end of the Temple, built on a site where I king claim any prerogative, except by appealing to those a generation before all the thieves and footpads in London, 1: very precedents from which the lawyers inferred their enjoying the sanctuary which a past superstition had actheory of the royal office and discretion. When the in- corded, lived in a diabolic republic. The gossips of the dustry of Noy discovered what the judges conceived to be time said that Selden was married to the countess
, and a justification of ship-money, the authority of the records had one or two daughters by her. But there seems to was necessarily held to be more absolute than the will of have been no foundation for the story beyond the intimacy the monarch. Now the admission that the crown could which existed between him and the lady proceed only by law, as it controlled the executive in the which in those days involved no scandal. When the first instance, so it ultimately transferred all the functions countess died she bequeathed the house to him, and here of government to those forces and that assembly from he lived till he died on the 30th of November, 1654. He which law itself emanates. The very claim to dispense had been made Keeper of the Rolls in 1643 ; and when with the law in particular cases was an indirect acknowl- the Admiralty was put into commission in 1645, he was edgment of its general authority.
one of those to whom the administration of the navy was The benefits which the publicists of Charles the First's entrusted. How those commissioners managed the busireign conferred on English liberty, and thereafter on the ness in their hands was proved by the war with the Dutch. English nation, and ultimately on the civilized world, Selden's company and conversation were courted by all were enormous. They collected a mass of authorities his contemporaries, though his habits and sentiments were wbich could not be wholly set aside. They awakened a a puzzle to the age in which he lived. An Erastian in spirit which could not be quenched. It is true that the church politics, a moderate in secular politics
, he was the violence of the civil war induced a reaction. Men found most learned theologian of his age, but was unnaturally the discipline of the Puritan clergy intolerable. Oliver, ) indifferent to dogmas. Some thought him a scoffer, an baffled in his attempts to found a constitutional monarchy, esprit fort, and detected his scepticism in the unsparing felt constrained, or thought he was constrained, to govern wit with 'which he treated ecclesiastical questions. He the country by military adventurers, and to tamper with was charged with friendship towards Hobbes, while others the courts of law. The government of the army, the ex- said that he had an infinite distaste for the Malmesbury istence of a standing
army, with its harsh stern hand sceptic. That he did not sympathize with the theory of everywhere, though this army was the strongest, and on government which Hobbes promulgated is clear, for Sel
-- an intimacy
den's public career was in distinct opposition to the abso- age was not nice in its analogies, and Selden was no nicer lution which Hobbes commended. Besides the adage than his times. A generation later — that of the Restorawhich he wrote in every book of his library, “ Liberty in tion – was simply nasty. To the Rochesters and Grameverything," was designed by him to indicate that com- monts and Sedleys Selden would bave seemed prudish. plete toleration for all innocent opinions and all innocent An enemy to clerical pretensions, Selden was equally practice is and should be a fundamental rule of social life. hostile to clerical disabilities, to the jealousy which makes
A tall, handsome man, with oval face, gray eyes, small the clergy a separate caste, and debars them from underhead, prominent nose, with lines of strong humor about taking secular functions. He held them, to use a modern the mouth ; Selden was always reading, or writing, or phrase, to be a very important branch of the civil service, talking, for he was very accessible, and always ready to which might be supremely useful, but was apt to be singuillustrate any topic on which people conversed in those larly mischievous, never more mischievous than when they days by his wit and experience. He had his Boswell (not are conceived to be beings with other duties and other purindeed a personage so unique as the Scotchman who de
poses than the rest of Christians. " It is a foolish thing," he voted his life to Johnson, and who was at once so supremely argued, “ to say that a minister should not meddle with secridiculous and so signally successful) in an amanuensis, ular matters." “ It is a foolish thing," he said, “ to love a one Richard Milward, whom he engaged during the last man who damns us." He wished to steer a middle course few years of his life, and who noted down some of his between the restraint which encouraged a sacerdotal spirit patron's comments on men, things, and social institutions. and the democratic theory of church government. He felt The collection was published some years after Milward's as strongly as Milton did that “new presbyter is but old death, under the name of " Selden's Table Talk," the title priest writ large.” He thought the Anglican hierarchy a being taken from that voluminous folio in which Luther's convenient form of church government, but he did not think conversations are said to be recorded. The book has its it fit to rule at its own discretion. To his mind, the best defects as well as its merits. The notes are often taken way in wbich it could work out its ends was by forcing a hurriedly and even carelessly. Some of the memorabilia considerable amount of secular duty on the clergy. By have no point, a few are almost unintelligible. But, on enlarging their labors he believed he could modify their the other hand, all are genuine attempts to reproduce con- pretensions. versations which Selden never thought would be recorded. Most indirect autobiographies are suggestive of posture. Johnson knew what Boswell was about. Pope wrote every THE EARLY HISTORY OF PHOTOGRAPHY. letter under the conviction that it would be published. The people whom Senior met knew all about his journal, Now that the beautiful art of photography has reached and occasionally, it seems, talked to order. But Selden's its present high state perfection, it may be interesting conversation was impromptu.
to relate to the generation which has sprung up since its By far the largest part of the ana of Selden's “ Table discovery, the struggles of its first founders in the difficul. Talk” bear on ecclesiastical questions, naturally, for they ties and perplexities which beset their paths — those paths were the topics of the age. But his sayings are strangely which are now comparatively smooth and easy. unlike what we might expect from such a time. “Every We undertake the task because it will enable us to give, man,” said he, “has his own religion; we differ only from personal knowledge, a nuinber of illustrations of a about the trimming." “ If there be any superstition, phase in the scientific life of Sir David Brewster, which are properly so called, it is observing the Sabbath after the not recorded in any of the biographies which have apJewish manner.” “ Put laymen into every synod of the peared since, full of years and honors, he passed away. clergy, just as a woman puts a cat into the dairy to kill Shortly after M. Daguerre made his great discovery, mice, and sends a maid to look after her, lest she eat up and succeeded in fixing the images formed by a lens in the the cream.” “Many men look after religion as a butcher camera obscura, it occurred to an English gentleman, Mr. does after his knife, when he has it all the while in his Fox Talbot, that the same thing could be done by a differmouth." When priests come into a family, they do as ent process, though the 'principle in both processes was a man who wishes to set fire to a house. He does not put the same. it to a brick wall, but thrusts it into the thatch. So they Daguerre had succeeded in producing a surface so senleave men alone, and work on the women.” , “ Enjoy life, sitive that a picture could be impressed upon it by the and be pot melancholy and wish thyself in heaven. If a rays of light, by subjecting a perfectly smooth and clean king should give you the keeping of a castle and grounds, surface of metallic silver to the fumes of iodine. The conand bid you use them, promising in twenty years' time to tact of the two elements produced the iodide of silver, make you a privy councillor, do not neglect the castle, which was the substance impressible by the action of light. refuse the fruits, and sit down, whine and wish yourself a In thinking over the rationale of the process, the happy privy councillor.” “A great place strangely qualifies. thought occurred to Mr. Talbot that the same thing could There was one Jack Read, groom of the chamber to the be done by employing a sheet of paper instead of the unEarl of Kent. On the death of Attorney-General Noy he yielding metallic plate. said, ' Any man can execute his place. • How? could Without entering into details, his process consisted in you?' said the earl. •Let the king make me attorney,' saturating the pores of a sheet of paper with a weak solu. answered Jack, and I would fain see the man who durst tion of iodine, and then floating it upon a pretty strong tell me there's anything I understand not.'"
solution of nitrate of silver. The silver and iodine were is infallible, when he hath the power to be obeyed, like thus brought in contact, and the iodide of silver was proany other prince. To stretch his infallibility further is to duced in the tissues of the paper. The pictures thus prodo you know not what.” “ There never was a merry duced by Mr. Talbot were far inferior in sharpness and world since the fairies left off dancing and the parson left beauty of details to those produced by M. Daguerre, but
“ To bave no ministers but presbyters is it was found that they had a grand advantage, namely, the same as having no officers but constables.” “Cere- from the original picture produced in the camera an indefmony (good breeding) is like a penny glass to a rich spirit, inite number of copies could, by an easy process, be taken, without it the spirit were lost.” Perhaps the following without the original being injured. hardly satisfies modern notions of gallantry.
“ A hus
Mr. Talbot immediately communicated his discovery to band,” said Selden, “ should be made to pay for his wife's Sir David Brewster, then the head of the optical world. trinkets. If a man will keep a monkey, he should pay for At the time he received the interesting communication, the glasses it breaks."
Sir David was the guest of Lord Kinnaird, at his beautiful The above are illustrations of Selden's “Table Talk.” residence, Rossie Priory. The communication was read Some of his wittiest parallels will not bear quotation, for to a scientific party there assembled, the pictures forwarded very plain speaking was the fashion of the seventeenth to Sir David exhibited, and the prospects of the new art century, in the pulpit, in the senate, in common life. The freely discussed.
- The pope
With his characteristic enthusiasm, Lord Kinnaird re- of nitrate of silver. After the superfluous moisture bad solved to go in for the new art. Sir David kindly agreed been removed by blotting-paper, they were laid in a large to get an apparatus constructed for his lordship, and to vessel of rain-water to soak for twelve hours, in a darkene procure the requisite chemicals; and a party was arranged room, and were then hung up by their corners to drė. to commence operations when these should arrive. In due and dry in the dark, after which they were placed between time they made their appearance, the party assembled, the leaves of a blotting-book for future use. and, in beautiful summer weather, operations began. But ture was to be taken, one of these iodized sheets, which how shall we describe the anxiety with which the first had become of a beautiful straw color, was taken, an results were looked for, and the disappointment which fell placed with the prepared side uppermost, on a sheet on all hearts and faces, when the blurred and hazy outline blotting-paper, and rapidly brushed over with a solution of an old lady, who had sat for twenty minutes in full of ammonia-nitrate of silver, no more light being used sun-light appeared ? We had expected great things, and than would allow the operator to see what he was doing such a result was hard indeed to bear. But it became The sheet was then rapidly blotted between the folds manifest, after a few attempts, that we were nevertheless perfectly clean blotting paper, and, while wet, placed is at the peristyle of that temple which none of us doubted the dark side of the camera, and, as speedily as possible would in time be filled with gems which no artist, however exposed to the action of light in the instrument. When exquisite, could rival.
taken out of the dark slide, and again laid with the side Sir David was our teacher. He alone, in those early which had been exposed uppermost, no trace of a picture days, knew anything of the process or of its philosophy; could be seen. Certain parts bad undergone a greater and a most patient and painstaking teacher he was, show- chemical change than others, in proportion to the amount ing us how the different parts of the manipulation were to of light which had fallen on them through the lens; but be performed, and taking bis full share of all the dirty and they required to be developed in order that the picture disagreeable work.
might appear. The developing solution consisted of equal Know, ye modern photographers, who have manipulated parts of aceto-nitrate of silver and saturated solution of nothing but the clean and comfortable working collection, gallic acid, to which four or five bulks of water were added. and who can buy almost everything requisite prepared and The surface was rapidly brushed over with this, when the ready to hand, that a quarter of a century ago you could picture gradually appeared, one part after another coming do nothing of the kind. In those days it was expedient into view, like the phantoms in a phantasmagoria : the deto divest yourself of your coat, and invest yourself in a velopment was continued until the lights threatened to blouse or old greatcoat, to save your garments from the become yellow, at which stage the process was arrested by greenish-black stains and smudgings they were sure other- the sheet being plunged into clean water and thoroughly wise to receive. All available tubs, buckets, foot-pails, washed. It was then laid in a solution of hypo-sulphate wash-band basins, and every sort of vessel which would of soda, which removed the undecomposed silver from the contain water, were laid hold of for the frequent washings tissues of the paper, and so fixed the picture, preventing and soakings which were required. Every room which light from having any further action on it. It was again could be darkened was needed for the drying in the dark. soaked and washed for several hours to remove the hypoThe region of every domestic in a household was invaded, sulphate, and finally pressed and dried. This, then, was and servants were kept. running perpetually with pails of the negative picture in which, as in a collodion negative, hot and cold water, warm smoothing-irons, etc.
the lights were reversed, and from which any number of whole establishment was turned topsy-turvy while its ositives or proofs could be printed by light being transsuperiors were bent on photographic studies. Rossie mitted through it in much the same way as at present. Priory is one of the largest houses in Scotland, yet we The proofs obtained were called calotypes, or more frehave often seen moved from one end to another, and all quently Talbotypes, from the discoverer of the process. in it, from its noble owner to the humblest domestic, in a When the paper was thin and close-grained, and free fever of excitement.
from any metallic impurities, these negatives were ex. It was delightful to see Sir David, then a lithe and ac- tremely beautisul, and capable of giving proofs of wonder tive old man, engaged, with all the eagerness of youth, in ful delicacy and beauty. The writer has by him several the fascinating pursuit; for it was a most fascinating study, landscapes, which, after an interval of more than twenty because, coarse and brown and poor though the pictures years, still discover a clearness and beauty of detail which produced were, when compared with those now obtained is astonishing by the improved process, the operator was irresistibly The first great improvement in these negatives was satdrawn onward by the conviction that experience and care urating them with pure white wax, which greatly increased would lead to much more satisfactory results. Generally, their transparency, without impairing their sbarpness
. each picture was an improvement upon its predecessor, | Many of the delicate sbadings, which were formerly lost because the time of exposure in the camera, the proper through the coarseness of the paper, were thus easily amount of development, and the due strength of the solu- rendered in the proof. The negative, also, was rendered tions were being ascertained. The art manifestly had leathery, and tough, and less liable to be dirtied or injured. great capabilities, and the operator was pleased with the Still, however, it was felt that a much more transparent hope of being able to succeed in bringing them out. and homogeneous material than paper was required to im
For several weeks the interesting operations were car- press the exquisitely beautiful pictures painted by the ried on at Rossie Priory, while as yet few or none knew pencils of light, ere the much-desired perfection could be anything about the art — hearing only of it as a new thing obtained. Many a long conference the venerable philoswhich was beginning to attract notice. Meanwhile the opher, Lord Kinnaird, and the writer had on the subject
, pictures steadily improved in quality, through increasing and many a substance was experimented with. After the experience, and the ample supply of the best materials long interval, it is curious to remember that the glutinous which could be procured. Lord Kinnaird not only fur- slime exuded by snails was tried, but alas ! it was found nished these, but wrought himself from morning till night that, however transparent, it had the great drawback with unflagging energy, and discovered a dexterity of (which most substances we tried had) – it was too easily manipulation which none of us could surpass. To those soluble in water. The film of it, which was spread on the unacquainted with the early processes, a few words of ex- glass, would not endure the manipulation and frequent planation may be given, as this will convey the best idea washings necessary to complete the picture. of the progress which has been made, and will better What was requisite was a thin, transparent film, which enable the reader to understand what we have to state. would absorb water, and yet not be soluble in it. At last
A few sheets of thin, close-grained writing paper were some one (whose name we forget) bit upon the happy idea taken, and cut up into pieces the size of the intended pic- of employing the wbite of an egg. This substance is tures. There were brushed over (in the dark) on one side nearly pure albumen. As it is taken from the egg, it is with a solution of iodine of potassium, having in it a trace perfectly soluble in water, but when it has been exposed
to a temperature approaching that of boiling water, it be- that he could work during the greater part of the daycomes insoluble. It had, therefore, the requisites sought. light in taking pictures, and then could, after dinner, retire
On the discovery being made known to Sir David, he to his room, and write for hours, carrying on his controagain visited Rossie Priory, and operations with the new versy with Wheatstone, and keeping himself up with all medium were eagerly commenced. Lord Kinnaird bad that was going on in the scientific world. He must often provided himself with a large four-inch object-lens camera, have sat till far in the morning preparing his papers for by Ross of London; tbe, weather was beautiful, eggs the different journals to which he contributed, and carryabundant, and we were soon all engrossed in our experi- ing on bis large correspondence. Probably he then laid ments.
the foundation in even his well-strung and wiry frame of The modus operandi was simply this. The whites of a the neuralgia, from which he suffered so severely in his dozen eggs were turned into a large basin, an equal bulk latter days. But at the time of which we write he was of rain water was added, a few grains of iodide of potas- ever the first ready for operations, always having some sium were flung in, and the whole was whisked up into a new phase of the work to suggest. white froth like snow. The basin and its contents were When the stereoscope bad, by his improvements, become set aside in a place free from dust, and in a few hours a very much what it now is, the albumen process furnished beautiful transparent fluid, the color of pale sherry, was exquisite pictures for the display of its powers. It opened found at the bottom. It was decanted into a wide-mouthed up, as it were, a new world to many, enabling them to see, stoppered bottle, and was immediately fit for use. This with all the reality of nature, some of those scenes in was the new material, for which the inventor deserves im- which all that is grand and beautiful is combined, and mortality. It has not yet been surpassed, and must be re- which they could never hope to visit. At a very early sorted to when pictures of ordinary delicacy are required. stage in the history of the stereoscope, some French arThe material baving been thus prepared, a sheet of glass, tists sent Sir David some most beautiful slides, containing the size of the intended picture, was made perfectly clean, views in Switzerland, which, through his published comthe albumen was poured over its surface, and drained off munications, they had managed to produce.
He was at one corner, and the glass, with the still wet film upon it, greatly gratified by their reception, and exhibited them was then beld vertically before a clear red fire, when the with no little pride. albumen was immediately coagulated and rendered insol- It is not our purpose to follow the history of photography uble. The sheet of glass when cool was dipped into a further. At this point its connection with Sir David to a strong solution of nitrate of silver for two or three minutes, great extent ceased. It was taken up by a rapidly increasby which means it became sensitized. It was then put in ing multitude of professional artists, who established thema dark slide, and carried to tbe camera. After being ex- selves in all parts of the country. Many of them have posed to the light, it was developed by a mixed solution of risen to eminence, and produced works of great beauty. aceto-nitrate of silver and gallic acid.
Since the introduction of collodion, the art has had, in By this method pictures far surpassing the talbotype different countries, able expositors, and well-conducted process were produced; indeed, they left almost nothing journals, specially devoted to its advancement. io be desired except rapidity.
It is pleasing to look back, and to think of the wonderAlmost immediately after the discovery of the albumen ful progress which has been made since the first attempts; process, the application of collodion was suggested, and it above described, were undertaken, but it is melancholy to was found to give such beautiful results, to be so friendly think how the once joyous and happy party which u-ed to in its workings, and so high in its sensitiveness, that it has assemble at Rossie Priory has been broken up by the taken precedence of all other methods. In the Ordnance ravages of death. The scions of that noble house are in Office, however, albumen, from the clear, sharp details it the grave, and the grand and good old man, who shed gives, is still employed for the enlargement or reduction of light and joy over all our amusements, has followed these the ordnance maps, etc.
bright ones to a better world. During the albumen epoch, Sir David was actively engaged in perfecting bis invention of the refracting stereoscope, one of the most beautiful instruments of modern times, which, by its wonderful creations, has conferred
A PROFESSOR EXTRAORDINARY. pure and refining pleasure upon millions. As it was of the highest importance for displaying the powers of the instrument that the pictures to be united should be perfect representations of the same scene or object from slightly
“ The whole Art of Success in music, painting, and light different points of view, Sir David early saw the value of literature, taught in one or two lessons by a Professor of photography to his instrument, and zealously prosecuted the greatest experience. Terms reasonable. Apply_by it, well knowing that it would give the exquisite drawing, letter first, and stating full particulars, to · Tityrus,' Post and chiar-oscuro, indispensable to that perfection which his
Officemind saw to be attainable. It was amid the labors and Strange, even for an advertisement. But such are the researches at Rossie that he fixed upon the form of the
curiosities of literature in which the outer sheet of the instrument - the focal length of its prismatic lenses, the
Times is rich, that the above paragraph would hardly have size of its pictures, and many other details in regard to it, detained my attention, but for the signature “ Tityrus.” which have now long characterized the instrument. How- Long years ago, I had been at school with one Thomas ever simple these may appear to the stereoscopist, they Everard, nicknamed mad Everard, and not without cause, were all the result of patient thought and lengthened ex.
by the boys — a general favorite, good at everything, very periment. The first stereoscope with which he experi- good for nothing, bating trouble, and shunning it as his mented was a clumsy, ill-made thing, somewhat like a ghostly enemy; a boy all promise, but rather like a box of demented opera-glass, which some unhandy tin-smith in samples, promising too much, too cheaply, and in too many St. Andrews had made for him. Misshapen and unsightly departments; the unfailing spring of laughter in and out of though it was, it served the purpose, and led ultimately to season, and of all jokes practical and ideal; the comic genthe elegant and effective instrument with which every one
ius of the school. There he and I fell in friendship, we is 80 familiar. The first stereoscopic photographs were swore by each other, we were the closest chums possible,taken for the St. Andrews tin-smith's affair, which, wretched shared pocket money, hampers, studies, and sports. Morethough it was, served to show what glorious reproductions over, after the wont of school-boys, we invented a language of all that is beautiful and grand in nature and art were
for the convenience of confidential intercourse, and correabout to arise, through the genius of the grand old man, sponded in it under the classical pseudonyms of Tityrus and and as the reward of his interesting labors.
Melibæus. When we left school our paths separated, and It was a striking illustration of Sir David's wonderful I had now lost sight of him for ten years. pbysical vigor, as well as of the versatility of his mind, But Tityrus had been his private signature to me in our
BY BAYARD TAYLOR.
boybood, and in that extraordinary advertisement there was
your own. But now, after having devoted ten years to the a something that strongly reminded me of Thomas Everard. diligent study of failure in all its branches, I have acquired , Curious to ascertain, I answered it as follows:
thanks to a long and painful training, so intimate a know). “A gentleman of average intelligence and the usual ac- edge of the obstacles that beset the road to renown as at quirements, but who finds his education deficient in the least to qualify me thoroughly for a professor in the art of science • Tityrus’ professes to teach, offers himself as a pu- getting on; and it is in treating success as one of the Fine pil. Wishes more especially for hints on success in the Arts, that I have met with a first, a triumphant succes lighter departments of literature. Address, Melibæus,' myself. So, let all my friends flourish.” Post Office
“ Will you be serious ?” I urged. By return of post came the reply I had anticipated in two He took letter from his pocket and handed it to me. lines :
“So you won't believe me serious. Possibly you will be“ My dear old fellow, is it, can it be you?"
lieve that -- a perfectly serious fifty pound note. Read: I wrote back, establishing my identity beyond a doubt, • In grateful acknowledgment of services rendered,' and so and requesting an answer to my former letter. He sent me forth. From Fogson, the artist — received this morning." an invitation to breakfast with him the next morning, at What, Fogson, the celebrated author — I won't say his residence, “ The Laurels," in one of the suburbs.
painter — of those color-pieces that have excited so much I accepted of course. After much wandering among the notice lately?” forest of villas, lodges, and cottages, I at last hit upon “The " Exactly. That man and his fortune were made by me. Laurels,” a sınall house standing apart from the road, in a He allows it himself. His pictures command any price shady grove of the tree whence it took its auspicious name. already."
The garden was pleasantly and significantly planted with “Well, I saw his last - a study of sky, water, and forbays, the dining-room window edged with parsley in pots, get-me-nots. In the Blues,' he called it. I should call it and the entrance led through a miniature conservatory full an art aberration." of bending palms. A very odor of victory wbich was quite “ Very likely; but he errs to his pecuniary advantage at exhilarating pervaded the spot. The internal decorations least. Color without form a peculiar style I recomwere similarly appropriate; the ball clock, even the barome- mended to him — and, as you see, he finds it answer very ter, set in frames of carved olive and ivy leaves ; the walls well indeed.” hung with pictures representing triumphant scenes in the “ Such pictures serve no true purpose of art that I can lives of modern art competitors : a prima donna buried in bouquets; a painter honored by a sitting from royalty; a “ But that is not the artist's object,” he persisted. « Do poet receiving his badge of knighthood. My spirits rose as I even profess to show the high road to excellence? For. I crossed the threshold. This was the House of Fame in- son comes to me, and says: Sir, what shall I do to be deed.
known?' It was evident that he would never shine in In the library, a small room, but exquisitely furnished, I competition with others in treating ordinary subjects, so I found my old friend Everard, and here we renewed our sus- suggested Chaos as a field for art he might have to him. pended acquaintance over as free a breakfast-table as even self. Now, if any students are so foolish as to follow his an Englishman could desire to see.
lead, he rises at once to the height of a founder of a new Ten years! They had worked but small change in him. style — the Chaotic School.” Yet it was not for nothing that his hair was streaked with “ Still at a loss ?” he resumed, laughing at my dubious gray, and his brow lined at seven-and-twenty; for that in- expression of countenance, “ or do you wilfully shut your yeterate propensity to see the ludricrous everywhere - to eyes to the rationale of my theory ? Listen: I expect several look at everything, so to speak, in the bowl of a spoon visitors this morning. Would you like to be present at amiable weakness in the thoughtless school-boy, turns to the consultation, unseen of course
say behind the curtain bitterness in manhood, when applied to what are called the in the recess?" stern realities of life.
“ Certainly I should," I replied, with alacrity; " I feel He avoided talking of himself. The conversation turned the strongest curiosity to see your disciples, or patients I chiefly on me and my affairs. I was perfectly unreserved, ought to say." drew a picture more faithful than flattering of my first ex- “ I can rely on your discretion,” he said, as he placed me periences in the literary career I had embraced — of certain where I was effectually concealed, yet able to observe. effusions so warmly praised beforehand by dear literary “ Understand, none of my visitors are strangers to me, for friends, summarily despatched by a few words of blame I undertake no one without careful preliminary inquiries. from the critics, unnoticed by the world at large, and of the A short correspondence is usually enough, and I have an uninefficiency of the consolation administered afterwards by erring diagnosis of the particular case ready before I conprivate admirers, that these, my works, were
“ too good to
sent to prescribe or fix an interview. Incurables I decline. ed.” My children, it appeared, were all too good to Such are the radically obstinate, the constitutionally inane. live.
But with average material and strict obedience I have This reminded me of what I had almost forgotten — that worked wonders." ridiculous advertisement; and I begged to know what He had scarcely settled himself in his chair when his might have been his object in putting it in, and attempting servant threw open the door, announcing – to play off so transparent a hoax.
" Mademoiselle Annetta Solferino." Hoax?” he repeated, in apparent surprise.
Everard's visitor was a young lady of about nineteen or “ Perhaps the advertisement was not a hoax,” said I, twenty, extremely good-looking by nature, though not laughing.
enough to satisfy herself, as appeared from the symmetrical Perhaps this house is a hoax," he returned ; “perhaps curve of her pencil-arched eyebrows and those heavy, imthe coffee and hot rolls are false shows; the cabinets, tables, possible coils of rich dark hair. She was well, but showily and chairs, vain and airy appearances; the pianoforte a dressed, and held a roll of music in her hand. Love mere wbim of fancy - an unknowable phenomenon. But self-love – in her eyes sat playing, and whatever one thing if these, my household gods, are substantial objects, so was she might have lacked, it was certainly not assurance. the advertisement genuine that caught the eyes that stood She entered into conversation at once, and went to the in the heads that pertained to the men who owned the point without the slightest embarrassment. purse that held the fees that paid for them.”
“ You have heard from me, Mr. Everard, and how I was Pray explain,” said I, “and in language adapted to the recommended to consult you by Marterton, the ballad singer understanding of a gentleman of average intelligence - of the season. He declares you have been the making of mind, average."
him. Can you do anything for me? I am most anxious to “ I so be difficult to name the branch of art I have not taken up, d'Allow me to refer to my notes, " said Everard, taking meeting everywhere, however, with no better fortune than up an album with a list of names alphabetically arranged.