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thought of you. I don't reproach you, for even now I feel was to be, how I would have avoided you, and never seen
that the ignorant and cold darkness that I should have you, and heen deaf to you. I tell you all this, but what do
lived in if you had not attracted me by that letter- valen- you care ? You don't care.”
tine you call it — would have been worse than my knowl- She returned, silent and weak denials to his charges, and
edge of you, though it has brought this misery. But, I say, swayed her head desperately, as if to thrust away the words
there was a time when I knew nothing of you, and cared as they came showering about her ears from the lips of the
nothing for you, and yet you drew me on.

And if you say

trembling man in the climax of life, with his bronzed Royou gave me no encouragement I cannot but contradict man face and fine frame. you."

“Dearest, dearest, I am wavering even now between the What you call encouragement was the childish game two opposites of recklessly renouncing you, and laboring of an idle minute. I have bitterly repented of it - aye, humbly for you again. Forget that you have said No, and bitterly, and in tears. Can you still go on reminding let it be as it was. Say, Bathshebă, that you only wrote

that refusal to me in fun come, say it to me!” “I don't accuse you of it - I deplore it. I took for “ It would be untrue, and painful to both of us. You earnest what you insist was jest, and now this that I pray overrate my capacity for love. I don't possess half the to be jest you say is awful, wretched earnest. Our moods warmth of nature you believe me to have. An unprotected meet at wrong places. I wish your feeling was more like childhood in a cold world has beaten gentleness out of mine, or my feeling more like yours! Oh, could I but have

me.” foreseen the torture that trifling trick was going to lead He immediately said with more resentment: " That may me into, how I should have cursed you ; but only having be true, somewhat; but ah, Miss Everdene, it won't do as been able to see it since, I cannot do that, for I love you a reason ! You are not the cold woman you would have too well! But it is weak, idle drivelling to go on like this me believe. No, no. It isn't because you have no feeling .... Bathsheba, you are the first woman of any shade or in


don't love me. You naturally would have nature that I have ever looked at to love, and it is the hav- me think so — you would hide from me that you have a ing been so near claiming you for my own that makes this burning heart like mine. You have love enough, but it is denial so hard to bear. How nearly you promised me ! turned into a new channel. I know where." But I don't speak now to move your heart, and make you The swift music of her heart became hubbub now, and grieve because of my pain ; it is no use, that. I must bear she throbbed to extremity. He was coming to Troy. He it; my pain would get no less by paining you."

did then know what had transpired! And the name fell “ But I do pity you

deeply — oh, so deeply!” she from his lips the next moment. earnestly said.

“ Why did Troy not leave my treasure alone ?" he "Do no such thing - do no such thing. Your dear asked, fiercely. " When I had no thought of injuring him love, Bathsheba, is such a vast thing beside your pity that why did he force himself upon your notice! Before he the loss of your pity as well as your love is no great addi- worried you your inclination was to have me; when next I tion to my sorrow, nor does the gain of your pity make it should have come to you your answer would have been sensibly less.

Oh sweet-how dearly you spoke to me be- Yes. Can you deny it - I ask, can you deny it?" hind the spear-bed at the washing-pool, and in the barn at She delayed the reply, but was too honest to withhold it. the shearing, and that dearest last time in the evening at “ I cannot,” she whispered. your home! Where are your pleasant words all gone “I know you cannot. But he stole in in my absence your earnest hope to be able to love me? Where is


and robbed me. Why didn't he win you away before, firm conviction that you would get to care for me very when nobody would have been grieved ? when nobody much? Really forgotten ? — really ?”

would have been set tale-bearing. Now the people sneer She checked emotion, looked him quietly and clearly in at me — the very hills and sky seem to laugh at me till I the face, and said in her low firm voice, " Mr. Boldwood, blush shamefully for my folly, I have lost my respect, I promised you nothing. Would you have had me a my good name, my standing — lost it, never to get it again. woman of clay when you paid me that furthest, highest Go and marry your man compliment a man can pay a woman – telling her he loves « Oh sir - Mr. Boldwood !" ber? I was bound to show some feeling, if I would not be “ You may as well. I have no further claim upon you. a graceless shrew. Yet each of those pleasures was just As for me, I had better go somewhere alone, and hide, for the day — the day just for the pleasure. How was I and pray. I loved a woman once. I am now ashamed. to know that what is a pastime to all other men was death When I am dead they'll say, miserable love-sick man that to you? Have reason, do, and think more kindly of me!”

Heaven — heaven — if I had got jilted secretly, Well, never mind arguing — never mind. One thing and the dishonor not known, and my position kept ! But is sure : you were all but mine, and now you are not no matter, it is gone, and the woman not gained. Shame nearly mine. Everything is changed, and that by you upon

him shame!"
alone, remember. You were nothing to me once, and I His unreasonable anger terrified her, and she glided
was contented; you are now nothing to me again, and how from him, without obviously moving, as she said, I am
different the second nothing is from the first! Would to only a girl — do not speak to me so !”
God you had never taken me up, since it was only to throw * All the time you knew


knew me down !'

that your new freak was my misery. Dazzled by brass and Bathsheba, in spite of her mettle, began to feel unmis- scarlet oh, Bathsheba — this is woman's folly indeed !” takable signs that she was inherently the weaker vessel. She fired up at once.

“ You are taking too much upon She strove miserably against this femininity which would yourself !” she said, vehemently.“ Everybody is upon insist upon supplying unbidden emotions in stronger and me — everybody. It is unmanly to attack a woman sol I stronger current. She had tried to elude agitation by fix- have nobody in the world to fight my battles for me, but no ing her mind on the trees, sky, any trivial object before mercy is shown. Yet if a thousand of you sneer and say her eyes, whilst his reproaches fell, but ingenuity could things against me, I will not be put down!” not save her now.

“ You'll chatter with him doubtless about me. Say to "I did not take you up — surely I did not !” she answered him, · Boldwood would have died for me.' Yes, and you as heroically as she could. “ But don't be in this mood have given way to him knowing him to be not the man for with me. I can endure being told I am in the wrong, if you.

He has kissed you — claimed you as his. Do you you will only tell it me gently ? Oh, sir, will you not kindly hear, he has kissed you. Deny it!” forgive me, and look at it cheerfully ?"

The most tragic woman is cowed by a tragic man, and Cheerfully! Can a man fooled to utter heartburning although Boldwood was, in vehemence and glow, nearly find a reason for being merry? If I have lost, how can I her own self rendered into another sex, Bathsheba's be as if I had won? Heavens, you must be heartless cheek quivered. She gasped, " Leave me sir - leave me! quite! Had I known what a fearfully bitter sweet this I am nothing to you. Let me go on!”

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“ Deny that he has kissed you.”

eastward, in the shape of indecisive and palpitating stars. " I shall not."

She gazed upon their silent throes amid the shades of space, “Ha -- then he has !" came hoarsely from the farmer. but realized none at all. Her troubled spirit was far away

“ He has," she said, slowly, and in spite of her fear, with Troy. defiantly. “I am not ashamed to speak the truth.”

(To be continued.) “ Then curse him ; and curse him !” said Boldwood, breaking into a whispered fury. “Whilst I would have given worlds to touch your hand you have let a rake come in without right or ceremony and -- kiss you! Heaven's

JOHN SELDEN. mercy — kiss you! ... Ah, a time of his life shall come when he will have to repent — and think wretchedly of the When some one, who had just been reading the lives pain he has caused another man ; and then may he ache, of Izaak Walton, was commending their idyllic freshnese and wish, and curse, and yearn

- as I do now !'

to Arnold of Rugby, the schoolmaster answered, “ He was " Don't, don't, oh, don't pray down evil upon him !" she an odious fellow; he fished through the civil wars." implored in a miserable cry. " Anything but that -- any- There is no more singular contrast in history than Eng. thing. Oh, be kind to him, sir, for I love him dearly!' land in the first half of the seventeenth century and Eng.

Boldwood's ideas had reached that point of fusion_at land in the second half. In the first half almost everybody which outline and consistency entirely disappear. The was a partisan, and alternately a confessor and a persecuimpending night appeared to concentrate in his eye. He tor. There was no place for a neutral. Half the nation did not hear her at all now.

was pitted against the other half, and the struggle was car“I'll punish him — by my soul that will I! I'll meet ried on in the parliament, in the church, in the family. him, soldier or no, and I'll horsewhip the untimely strip- Sects which have generally been characterized by their ling for this reckless theft of my one delight. If he were a toleration or their non-resistance were, during this fierce hundred men I'd horsewhip him " He dropped his time, aggressive. The sect of Independents has generally, voice suddenly and unnaturally. “ Bathsheba, sweet lost and justly, boasted that it has from its foundation maincoquette, pardon me. I've been blaming you, threatening tained liberty of conscience, and the right of free speech. you, behaving like a churl to you, when he's the greatest It had little respect for either during the last five years of sinner. He stole your dear heart away with his unfath- the Long Parliament. The Quakers of the earlier time omable lies ... It is a fortunate thing for him that he's were wholly different from the men who, after the Restogone back to his regiment — that he's in Melchester, and ration, gradually won concession and admiration by their not here! I hope he may not return here just yet. I pray patience and benevolence. Fox and his followers were inGod he may not come into my sight, for I may be tempted trusive fanatics, who dressed in leather, or went about beyond myself. Oh, Bathsheba, keep him away — yes, naked, who rebuked the parson in the midst of his conkeep him away from me!”

gregation, who railed at steeple-bouses, mocked the liturgy, For a moment Boldwood stood so inertly after this that and were zealous even unto slaying. his soul seemed to have been entirely exhaled with the The literature of the time was as characteristic. The breath of his passionate words. He turned his face away, drama was not reformed, it was proscribed. The age and withdrew, and his form was soon covered over by the its poet, some of whose best poems were written, but lying twilight as his footsteps mixed in with the low hiss of the in manuscript, for the activity of Milton's genius was susleafy trees.

pended during the great struggle. There were no newsBathsheba, who had been standing motionless as a model papers, but a prodigious crop of pamphlets. The chief all this latter time, flung her hands to her face, and wildly works of that time, however, were huge folios of sermons, attempted to ponder on the exhibition which had just and equally massive volumes of constitutional history. passed away. Such astounding wells of fevered feeling The industry of authors was prodigious. The titles of the in a still man like Mr. Boldwood were incomprehensible, books written by Prynne (who provoked the anger of Hendreadful. Instead of being a man trained to repression he rietta by an unlucky paragraph in the index of one among was — what she had seen him.

those vast volumes), would fill a good-sized pamphlet. The force of the farmer's threats lay in their relation to The writer did not spread out his matter over his pages by a circumstance known at present only to herself ; her lover spaced printing and broad margins, but resolutely filled was coming back to Weatherbury the very next day. Troy hundreds upon hundreds of sheets with closely packed had not returned to Melchester Barracks as Boldwood and type. If one wonders at the industry of the author, one others supposed, but had merely gone for a day or two to is wholly puzzled in guessing where the readers came visit some acquaintance in Bath, and had yet a week or from. Who could have bought Prynne's books? No man more remaining to his furlough.

ever wrote so many. And no man ever wrote anything so She felt wretchedly certain that if he revisited her just arid and uninviting. at this nick of time, and came into contact with Boldwood, After the Restoration all is changed. All seriousness a fierce quarrel would be the consequence:

She panted

passes away. The reign of the second Charles is one long, with solicitude when she thought of possible injury to Troy. obscene, delirious revel, uninterrupted from the day when The least spark would kindle the farmer's swift feel- he landed at Dover to the Sunday night when, surrounded ings of rage and jealousy; he would lose his self-mastery by gamblers and courtesans, he was stricken with mortal as he had this evening ; Troy's blitheness might become sickness. The drama revived – but such a drama! It is aggressive ; it might take the direction of derision, and wholly devoid of decency, and at first almost of wit. It Boldwood's anger might then take the direction of re- mocked all virtue, honor, truth. If it was a picture of

manners, the Englishman of the Restoration was a filthy With almost a morbid dread of being thought a gushing baboon, whom Swift has hardly caricatured in his sketch girl, this guideless woman too well concealed from the of the Yahoo. Swift himself was thoroughly impregnated world under a manner of carelessness the warm depths of with the nastiness of the age. The plays of Dryden her strong emotions. But now there was no reserve. as coarse and as hateful as those of any among his contem. her distraction instead of advancing further, she walked poraries. The languor which succeeded to the violence of up and down, beating the air with her fingers, pressing her the seventeenth century was a reeking, sodden orgy. brow, and sobbing brokenly to herself. Then she sat down During the reign of Charles the First, the English nation on a heap of stones by the wayside to think. There she had much to occupy its attention at home and abroad. It remained long. The dark rotundity of the earth approached fought one religious war, and it witnessed another. Gerthe foreshores and promontories of coppery cloud which many was desolated by the Thirty Years' struggle. Eng. bounded a green and pellucid expanse in the western sky; land was divided into two factions. The victorious party amaranthine glosses came over them then, and the unrest- overthrew monarchy, church, and aristocracy. The ing world wheeled her round to a contrasting prospect

mature death of Cromwell interrupted the restoration of all





three under a new dynasty, a new ecclesiastical constitu- | compact parliamentary majority, when he advocated the tion, and a new nobility ; for the Protector would have constitutional theory. But his argument was strengthened overcome the political difficulties which bindered the ful- by the precedents, on which he professed to rely, when he filment of his projects, had his days been prolonged. put the royal assent into a commission, the head of which

Selden lived during the age of Shakespeare and down was Thurlow, and baffled Carlton House. There never to the time of the Protectorate. In his youth he cultivated perhaps was a time in which partisans were more angry, the friendship of Raleigh and Ben Johnson, and probably perfidy was more imminent, and Pitt was more calm. of the great poet, the obscurity of whose life is so remark. There are two kinds of historical criticism. One, which able a part in his history. He was a friend of Laud and is characteristic of our age, discusses premises or authoriWilliams, the rival prelates at the court of Charles, of ties. The other, which was cultivated in Selden's time, Hyde, of Falkland, of Fairfax, of Juxon. After the death accepts authorities and examines inferences. Both procof Coke, he was the greatest master of constitutional law esses have their advantages and their defects. The former and parliamentary procedure in his age. Like every other supplies general rules of credibility, taste, art; but is apt man of eminence in that time, he was a confèssor when he to destroy all credibility, all taste, all art. Its tendencies became obnoxious to his political adversaries. Unlike are cleverly parodied in Whately's “ Historic Doubts," and every other man of eminence in that time, he was an ad- exaggerated in all Sir George Lewis's writings. Its weakvocate of the broadest toleration. To his mind the perse- ness consists in the habit, which the critics of such a school cation of Laud was as indefensible as the imprisonment of constantly exhibit, of setting up their standard of likelihood Eliot. Such a politician is the rarest of phenomena, for as a measure of the unlikelihood of what others have rethe chief practical mischief of persecution is, that it makes corded. Historical critics of this kind seem to forget that its victim intolerant when his turn comes for the mastery. if two witnesses, equally truthful and disinterested, were Strafford knew this, and advocated under the phrase of to narrate the same set of facts, they would be certain to thorough” the extermination of his political enemies. differ in their relation, owing to the different manner in Narvaez knew it, and had the courage to practice it, if the which two such independent minds observe and interpret story told of him is true; for it is said that when, on his what they see. If two such persons watch intently what death-bed, his confessor urged him to forgive his enemies, they see, the discrepancy increases. Philosophers tell us he answered that he had none, for he had executed them that the rainbow which one man notices is a different all. Laud amputated Prynne's ears, and imprisoned him. refraction from that which another spectator of the same In his prison Pryone wrote a fresh libel on the English familiar phenomenon discerns. But what rainbow is equal, hierarchy, and the roots of the cartilage were grubbed out for variation, complexity, and interest, to the drama of by a second sentence. When Pryone was released by the human action, when expectation is intense and observation Long Parliament, and after Laud's committal to the Tower sustained ? was entrusted with the task of examining the primate's The other kind of criticism accepts the authorities, and papers, he had the satisfaction of discovering the diary applies itself to the inference. One of the best illustrawhich is now preserved as a relic of the Anglican martyr tions of such a method is to be found in Machiavelli's in St. John's College, Oxford, and which has formed the “ Comments on the first Decade of Livy.” It is more than subject of much laughter. Extracts from it were published probable that, historically, the authority on which the in one of Prynne's huge volumes, which is known by the Florentine secretary discourses, is a mere romance, destiominous name of " Canterbury's Doom," and which cer- tute of all historical certainty. But the political sagacity tainly had not a little to do with the primate's condemna- of the great Italian publicist is not disparaged by the tion and death.

weakness of the premises on wbich he founds bis reason1 Selden was the only son of a Sussex yeoman, and was ing. Livy may have recorded a set of myths. But Livy

born in very humble circumstances. He had a sister, who was a man of letters, living under the full influence of the married a person of her own station. In his old age Sel- most compact and organized government which the world den used to say that his nearest relation was a milkmaid, ever knew. His narrative — whatever was its other merand to tell a story of Bishop Grostete, whose brother its — took inevitably the color of the life which surrounded begged bis interest, as suggesting his own line of conduct. him, since it is the rarest gift imaginable for a man to be “ Brother,” said the bishop, “ if your plough be broken, I able to abstract his habit and his thoughts from the facts will give you another. If your ox be dead, I will buy you which surround him and control him, and project himself a second. But a ploughman I found you, and a plough into a different set of facts. As far as we know, no person man I will leave you.” During his life, Selden amassed a but Shakespeare has always been able to do this, and it is fortune of £40,000, a large sum in those days, which he in this singular gift that the dramatic power, and even the left to certain friends, among them Chief Justice Vaughan, philosophy of Shakespeare consists. The story of Livy, and Hale. His great library came to the University of then, colored by an experience gathered from the reign Oxford. It seems that when he received a visit, he used of Augustus, was precisely what Machiavelli wanted in to put his spectacles into the book on which he was en- order to inculcate his theory of Italian politics. gaged, to serve as a marker. He must have bought these Selden was a critic of the latter school. The former aids of sight by the gross, for they were found by dozens had not yet been developed, and indeed in the seventeenth in his books when the university received them. It is century very moderate scepticism would have been signally worth while thinking whether the art of printing would | dangerous. Criticism, even though it was based on an have made progresso had not spectacles been invented a authority to which all paid reverence, was perilous work little before the time when printing became general. under the first Stuarts. A man might easily be too learned

Selden was an eminent historical critic, in an age when for his own safety. For this offence Selden was three all leading statesmen were such critics. The progress of times imprisoned. Sir Robert Cotton was supposed to the English Constitution in the seventeenth century was have supplied him with materials out of his vast library, derived from the precedents of the fourteenth and fifteenth. and in 1630 Cotton was debarred the use of his own books. The same expedients have even been adopted in later D'Ewes went to see him when he was suffering under this times. When Pitt framed the Regency Bill of 1790, he peculiarly malignant form of imprisonment, and found him bafiled the intrigues of the Prince of Wales, Fox, and stricken to death. The bale and ruddy old man was made Burke by precedents, drawn especially from parliamentary pallid and shrunken under the refined cruelty to which he procedure during the insanity of Henry the Sixth. Fox, was subjected. “ They have broken my heart,” he said, who argued that the Prince of Wales was, de jure, invested “ because they have locked my library from me." Among with the regency during the incapacity of the king, was the many strange delusions which occupied the mind of unable to give a single historical precedent for his position, Charles, even to the last, the oddest was his belief that while Piti could overwhelm him by evidence of the su- when he had causelessly and mercilessly outraged and preme authority of parliament in such a crisis. No doubt of his subjects, he had still possession of their ardent any the beaven-born statesman was a good deal assisted by a dutiful allegiance. He imagined when he wrote to Henri


etta Maria, that he hoped to fit the rogues with a halter, found out that the allegiance of the clergy was a rope of that he could count on the duty of those who had disarmed sand, as soon as ever he invaded their privileges and inand imprisoned him, and who did not trust him the more sulted their independence. So, in the election of the Long when they intercepted bis correspondence. He fancied, Parliament, Selden must have appeared to the Oxfor and said so, that he had as great an interest in the army' electors as the friend of Pym, Holles, Eliot — now dead. as Cromwell had, when the army was meditating the trag- or rather murdered Kimbolton, Strode, Hampden, ani edy of the 30th of January.

the political foe of Laud, Wentworth, and the tribe of The critics of Selden's day often sought for precedents Finches and Westons an iconoclast of all which Oxford in very doubtful authorities. They traced parliamentary had hitherto worshipped and upheld. In the heat of the privilege back to the times of the Saxon witan. They reaction they elected such a representative. even cited the deposition of Vortigern as a proof that the When the “ History of Tithes " was published, the hie law and the parliament were above the king. They sup- rarchy did not see that it was to their advantage that the ported their constitutional theories out of the Old Testa- settlement of their estate on a legal instead of a supernatment, just as the advocates of divine right relied on the ural basis, on a parliamentary authority instead of being somewhat perilous example of the Hebrew monarchy. put upon the interpretation of the Jewish Scriptures, was They never doubted that Alfred the Great was the founder the best confirmation which could be given of their title of the English constitution. They were convinced that in those days no one dreamed of a separation between the polity of the Jews was an infallible guide for the mod church and state. The mischief was that successive sects ern statesman. The more heady among them called their strove to make their tenets the creed and discipline of the adversaries Philistines, Canaanites, and the like, and took church. It should never be forgotten what were the conJoshua for the hero whose deeds they were bound to imi- sequences of this action. The Puritan laity brought about

the revolution of 1649, the Puritan clergy provoked the Selden plunged into the records of the Tower, studying restoration of 1660. But no one was willing to accept Selthe rolls of parliament, the documents which told of that den's advice in the crisis which he foresaw, when he uttered strange time when parliaments rebuked, controlled, deposed, his adage, “ Chain up the clergy on all sides.". elected kings, and constituted themselves a co-ordinate The hierarchy denounced and persecuted the antiquary. power with the monarch. Whatever the advocates of di- Selden was willing to be a confessor, as he afterwards vine right might allege, now, it was clear that the doctrine showed. But it is probable that even martyrs would like of passive obedience was not held by the parliaments of the to select the tenets for which they would suffer, and will fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. The nation acquiesced seldom be content to sacrifice themselves for a trivial artiin the despotism of the first four Tudors, at the beginning, cle. So Selden made his apology in the High Commission because it wished to escape from the intolerable evils of Court, “ humbly acknowledging his error in interpreting anarchy: in that of the last, because Elizabeth's life, even Scripture, the fathers, councils, and canons in such a way with bir parsimony, her caprices, and her irresolution, was as might seem to challenge the divine right of the ministers the guarantee of the new settlement. In the latter years to their benefices," and having expressed his sorrowful of the queen's reign the nation became restive. They were penitence, prayed forgiveness. In later days, when the no longer afraid of reaction within or conquest from with- revolution came, Selden was gratified to find that his book out, after the Reformation had thoroughly traversed the was quoted by those who had attacked him. It is very English nation, and the Spaniard bad been baffled. The seldom the case that those who suffer the penalty of being pretensions, therefore, of James, put forward more arro. wiser than their age have the satisfaction, when another gantly and sustained more ludicrously than by any other age has come up to their level, of finding their claims acEnglish monarch, were at once irritating and contemptible. knowledged. It was with pardonable pride that he comThe cold nature of Charles and the violence of his minis- pared his book, when the retribution came, to the spear ters were more irritating still. An organized parliamentary of Achilles, which gave the wound and supplied the remopposition to the court was started in the Lords as well as edy. in the Commons, and the opposition appealed to prece- If Selden had lived a generation or two later, he would dents. Selden was imprisoned for having called attention have been called a Trimmer. He was wholly averse to to such facts, and for having claimed the dormant privi- violence, always an advocate of moderate measures. He leges of the House in which he sat.

wished to degrade or remove the counsellors of Charles, Noihing indicates the temper of the English nation in not to proscribe and destroy them. Hence he was one that parliament which met on the 3d of November, 1640, of the minority of fifty-nine who voted against Strafford's which many at first thought would never have a beginning, attainder. He wrote the answer, as was supposed to the and which very soon the same persons thought would never king's declaration on the commission of array, but he was have an end, than the return of Selden for the University opposed to the retaliatory action of parliament in the orof Oxford. In almost every parliament that ancient, dinance of militia, which was the immediate cause of the famous, and occasionally learned university has been rep- civil war. In his early career he wished to save the conresented by the narrowest partisans whom it could select. stitution against the king; in his later years he sought to Twice it has quarrelled with and dismissed its member, save the constitution for the king. He would have saved because he has shown some sympathy with a generous pol the church from the bishops in the days of Neale, Laud, icy. In 1640, it had been under the discipline of Laud for Montague, and Mainwaring. When the storm came, and ten years, and Laud had been weeding it of malcontents. the Scotch Covenanters demanded the abolition of episcoIts convocation bad solemnly averred, in a rebuke which pacy as the price of their support, he strove to save the it administered to a preacher who had declared that there bishops for the church. “ If," he was always telling the not to defend her virtue if she were assailed by the king greater.” And yet, though he was always counselling

prelates, “you were willing to be less, you would be But now the whole people was roused, and the Oxford moderate measures, till his voice was lost in the din, he clergy returned, as one of their members, Selden, who had was a universal favorite. Clarendon said of him that no been imprisoned on behalf of public liberty, and who had character could Aatter him, that no expressions could suffidared to print a book in which he disputed the divine ori- ciently describe his learning and virtue. Seventy years gin of tithes. But, in fact, the most energetic advocates after his death, when his works were collected and edited of passive obedience were more busy in urging

it upon by Williams, everything was carefully and exactly printed, others than in following the tenet themselves. The Eng- even those matters which the editor thought erroneous

, lish hierarchy, in undertaking the labor of demonstrating since “ the omission would insult the memory of a dead the divine right of the king, intended to substantiate as lion.” After his death, Bathurst, the President of Trinity fully the divine right of their own order. The first and second Stuart knew this , and encouraged the largest pre- of Roundheads, wrote laudatory verses to his memory. In

College, Oxford, an ardent Royalist, and a keen hater tensions of the clergy. The fourth Stuart forgot it, and 1646, parliament, which had grown remarkably suspicious


of lukewarm partisans, voted him five thousand pounds, in shared the national antipathy, heightened in his case by consideration of the sufferings which he had undergone in literary rivalry. He relished his attack on Grotius. The 1629. Cromwell offered him a pension. But he graciously last literary labor of his life was a republication of his declined the offers of the parliament and the Protector. work on the narrow seas, with an additional defense of his

When the violence of political passions made his attend- position against the Dutch lawyer, Graswinkel. “To ance in parliament infrequent, he took part in the assembly quote a Dutchman," he says, “when I may use a classic of divines, which met in 1643, and contained ten peers, author, is as if I had to justify my reputation, and theretwenty members of parliament, twenty Episcopalian di- upon neglected all persons of note and quality who knew vines, and a hundred others. Clarendon rails at this as- me, but brought up the testimonial of the scullion from the sembly; Baxter

said it was as excellent as any gathering kitchen.” At last the rivalry and hostility of the two of men since the days of the Apostles. The censure and nations broke out into war. "The bitterest attacks upon the praise are in all likelihood equally extravagant. Selden the English republic proceeded from the printing-presses made fun of it in his dryest way. He ridiculed the theo- of Holland. Hundreds of broadsides, inviting attention to logians who sat there, he says, with their little gilt-edged the merits of the royal martyr, and repudiating the leaders Bibles, and without possessing any knowledge of Hebrew of the great rebellion, were printed in the States for circuor Greek, affected to settle everything out of their own lation in England. Charles the Second found an asylum fancies. When the House of Commons, he said, had tired there, when Cromwell compelled his exclusion from France. him with their new law, these men refreshed him with Then the Dutch had to bow to the superiority of the great their mad gospel. But he was eventually obliged to sub- Protector and his lieutenant, only to recover their reputascribe to the solemn league and covenant; for Baillie, the tion under the disgraceful administration of Charles the Scotch commissioner, from whose journal we learn so much Second, when they burnt the English fleet in the Medway, about the minor politics of the time, dwells with peculiar and insulted the city of London. But Charles spent the satisfaction on Selden's gnashing bis teeth over the process. funds provided for the national defense on his concubines

At the crisis of the revolution Selden did great service and their children, and when these were squandered, beto the two universities. He was appealed to by Reynolds, came the pensioner of France, bargaining, in return for the the Vice-Chancellor and Dean of Christ Church, and he job, to curtail

, as far as possible, the liberties of the counsaved Oxford from the grip of Bradshaw, the President of try which had restored him. the High Court of Justice, and a man who would have It has been stated that the hostility of the two nations shown no more mercy to a malignant city and university was developed, or at least strengthened, by commercial than he did to the king. He had influence enough to pre- rivalry. The Dutch had their East India Company, and vent the molestation of any person in Oxford who showed the English had theirs. In the latter half of the sevenordinary prudence, before Oliver was strong enough to teenth century the profits of this trade were enormous. tolerate those who dissented from the new establishment. The origin of many an English estate and title is to be He saved Laud's Arabic professorship, and got Bancroft's traced back to these profits. The indirect influence of the and Abbot's books to Cambridge, after the downfall of the company was freely exercised in order to protect the mohierarchy, and the secularization of Lambeth. After the nopoly of the traders. It contrived to keep itself pretty Restoration these books were restored to Juxon, and form safe at home by lavishing bribes on those who could manpart of that Lambeth library which we are told, forsooth, age political influence, and they knew whose palm was the Archbishop of Canterbury is too poor to preserve. He open. Their wiliest agent was Osborne, the Yorkshire assisted meritorious scholars out of his own fortune. He baronet, whom history knows as Danby, Carmarthen, protected Usher, supplied Casaubon with money, sub- Leeds, who rose in a few years to the highest step in the scribed handsomely to Walton's “Polyglot,” and was peerage for services which were the reverse of advantamunificent to Kelly, Ashurst, and others.

geous to the country whose affairs he undertook. But there The principal literary work for which Selden was fa- were two competitors who gave them, after their first mous was his vindication of the right of the English to the struggles were over, a vast deal of trouble. These were

Grotius had claimed them for all nations, English interlopers and foreign rivals, especially the Dutch, and Selden resisted the claim. Selden's book was long in who were now in full vigor, very able and willing to avenge manuscript before it was published. Some said that this themselves on their ancient enemy, Spain, and by no delay was due to the irritation which the author felt at the means scrupulous in their dealings with other nations. treatment which he had met with in consequence of his Till the time in which Louis the Fourteenth came to work on tithes. Those who have the opportunity of being maturity, and full of vast designs of aggrandizement, could better informed, aver that it was withheld at the instance make himself a great and dangerous power in Europe, of James, who wished to negotiate certain loans with his every other state in the west was exhausted. The Thirty neighbors, and was wise enough to see that he might dis- Years' War had ruined Germany. Scandinavia had excourage the lender if he set up a claim to the exclusive hausted her energies in the campaigns of Gustavus Adolenjoyment of that which it was their interest to consider phus. Spain was sinking into decrepitude. The Pope, common property. The book was not printed till 1636, who had been the most powerful of European sovereigns when it was received with extraordinary favor. Charles during the early years of the Roman Catholic reaction, sent it by Sir William Beecher, the Clerk of the Council, sank into the condition of a petty Italian prince before the to the Barons of the Exchequer, and to the Admiralty, Thirty Years' War came to an end. The Dutch were bidding the officials of those two functions lay it up in alone free, prosperous, and triumphant, and occupied a their archives as a choice treasure. After the publication political position largely in excess of their natural imof this work Selden's parliamentary offenses were forgiven portance. We owe the doctrine of the balance of power

to the resistance which England and Holland, for a time In the seventeenth century the English hated the united, showed to the designs of Louis the Fourteenth. Dutch. The dislike appears to have been purely com- Selden, as has been said, was a confessor in the cause of mercial, for the interest of the English was strongly en- parliamentary privilege and public liberty. There were gaged in the independence and prosperity of Holland. persons in England, chiefly court lawyers and the higher Twice in modern history has the Dutch Republic bafiled clergy, who held that all law was the voice of the king, the aspirant after European empire. Holland was the that all right was of his grant, and that the voice could unbreakwater against the designs of Philip the Second at the say what it had avowed, and recall the right which it had end of the sixteenth century, of Louis the Fourteenth at granted. Not that the court was unanimous. When the end of the seventeenth. But in the interval, while James asked one of his bishops whether the king could Spain was sinking into dotage, and the strength of France take his subjects' money without their consent, the prelate was only growing, England and Holland hated each other answered, that he certainly could, for he was the breath cordially. The Butch origin of William the Third was a of their nostrils. But when the king put the same quesfruitful source of the Deliverer’s unpopularity. Selden tion to Bishop Andrews, and this prelate declined to an

narrow seas.

for a time.

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