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there chiefly, with her aunt, the other lady in the box. | pulled the skirt of her dress tightly round her ankles in a But she often goes South, and has spent years in
tremendous flurry, and as well as she could slid down the Europe, studying music and art. She is passionately ladder. By the time she reached the bottom Troy was fond of France, the home of her mother's ancestorsther How fortunate I am to have dropped in at this mo“She looks as I fancy French women whom I have
ment!” exclaimed the sergeant. read about did - the women who lived for pleasure She found her voice in a minute. “ What! and will you even in art."
shake them in for me?” she asked, in what, for a defiant " It is your Puritan mind that judges her this mo- girl, was a faltering way ; though, for a timid girl, it would ment. She could not be a Puritan in aspect; I doubt
have seemed a brave way enough. if she could in any phase comprehend one.
“ Will I !” said Troy. “Why, of course I will. How meet her, through your æsthetic nature you will like blooming you are to-day!” Troy Aung down his cane and " I shall never like her, Cyril ; you know that is im- *** But you must have on the veil and gloves, or you'll be
stung fearfully!” possible. I couldn't if I would. I-I am afraid of “ Ah, yes. I must put on the veil and gloves. Will you her !” and suddenly the cold still voice quivered again kindly show me how to fix them properly?". with its burden of unshed tears.
" And you must have the broad-brimmed hat, too; for · Late as it was when the opera ended, Cyril and your cap bas no brim to keep the veil off, and they'd reach Agnes took the midnight train home. * Poor little mouse ! ” murmured Circe Sutherland,
“ The broad-brimmed hat, too, by all means.".
So a whimsical fate ordered that her hat should be taken repeating unconsciously in her waking midnight dream
off — veil and all attached — and placed upon his head, upon her luxurious couch the ejaculation of Evelyn Troy tossing, his own into a gooseberry bush. Then the Dare in the front door of her log-house. “ Poor, half- veil' had to be tied at its lower edge round his collar, dead litile mouse! what a stony stare she gave me. and the gloves put on him. I'm sure I wish her no harm. I'd rather not hurt her. He looked such an extraordinary object in this guise that, But how preposterous for such a woman to suppose
flurried as she was, she could not avoid laughing outright. that she can possess wholly such a man. The sooner
It was the removal of yet another stake from the palisade slie finds out that she cannot, and makes up her mind
of cold manners which had kept him off.
Bathsheba looked on from the ground whilst he was busy to bear it, the better it will be for her.”
sweeping and shaking the bees from the tree, holding up (To be continued.)
the hive with the other hand for them to fall into. She made use of an unobserved minute whilst his attention was absorbed in the operation to arrange her plumes a little.
He came down holding the hive at arm's-length, behind FAR FROM THE MADDING CROWD. which trailed a cloud of bees.
“Upon my life,” said Troy, through the veil, “ holding CHAPTER XXVII.
up this hive makes one's arm ache worse than a week of
sword-exercise." When the manœuvre was complete he The Weatherbury bees were late in their swarming this approached her. “ Would you be good enough to untie me year. It was in the latter part of June, and the day after and let me out ? I am nearly stifled inside this silk cage." the interview with Troy in the hayfield, that Bathsheba To hide her embarrassment during the unwonted process was standing in her garden, watching a swarm in the air of untying the string about his neck, she said, and guessing their probable settling-place. Not only were “ I have never seen that you spoke of.” they late this year, but unruly. Sometimes throughout a « What?" whole season all the swarms would alight on the lowest at- “ The sword-exercise." tainable bough — such as part of a currant-bush or espalier “ Ah ! would you like to?" said Troy. apple-tree; next year they would, with just the same una- Bathsheba hesitated. She had heard wondrous reports nimity, make straight off to the uppermost member of some from time to time by dwellers in Weatherbury, who had by tall, gaunt costard, or quarrington, and there defy all invad- chance sojourned awhile in Casterbridge, near the barers who did not come armed with ladders and staves to
racks, of this strange and glorious performance, the swordtake them.
exercise. Men and boys who had peeped through chinks This was the case at present. Bathsheba's eyes, shaded or over walls into the barrack-yard returned with accounts by one hand, were following the ascending multitude of its being the most flashing affair conceivable; accouagainst the unexplored stretch of blue till they ultimately trements and weapons glistening like stars — here, there, halted by one of the unwieldy trees spoken of. A process around yet all by rule and compass. So she said mildly was observable somewhat analogous to that of alleged for- what she felt strongly : miations of the universe, time and times ago. The bustling “ Yes; I should like to see it very much." swarm had swept the sky in a scattered and uniform haze, " And so you shall ; you shall see me go through it.” which now thickened to a nebulous centre: this glided on “No! How?" to a bough and grew still denser, till it formed a solid black “Let me consider." spot upon the light.
“Not with a walking-stick — I don't care to see that. The men and women being all busily engaged in saving It must be a real sword.” the hay — even Liddy bad left the house for the purpose of “Yes, I know ; and I have no sword here ; but I think I lending a hand Bathsheba resolved to hive the bees her- could get one by the evening. Now, will you do this ? " self, if possible. She had dressed the hive with herbs and Troy bent over her and murmured some suggestion in a honey, fetched a ladder, brush, and crook, made herself low voice. impregnable with an armor of leather gloves, straw hat, and “Oh no, indeed!” said Bathsheba, blushing.
" Thank large gauze veil — once green, but now faded to snuff-color you very much, but I couldn't on any account.'
and ascended a dozen rungs of the ladder. At once she heard not ten yards off, a voice that was beginning to She shook her head, but with a weakened negation. have a strange power in agitating her.
“ If I were to," she said, “ I must bring Liddy, too. Might “Miss Everdene, let me assist you ; you should not I not?” attempt such a feat alone."
Troy looked far away. “I don't see why you want to Troy was just opening the garden gate.
bring her," he said coldly. Bathsheba Aung down the brush, crook, and empty hive, An unconscious look of assent in Bathsheba's eyes be
HIVING THE BEES.
Surely you might? Nobody would know.”
(To be continued.)
trayed that something more than his coldness had made her Even the powder not unknown to ladies of fashion is also feel that Liddy would be superfluous in the suggested one of Nature's beautifying means. That which is left on
She had felt it, even whilst making the proposal. the hands of the ruthless boy when he has caught a butterWell, I won't bring Liddy - and I'll come. But only fly is a common instance; but there are birds, such as the for a very short time,” she added; a very
short time." large white cockatoo, which leave a wbite powder on the It will not take five minutes,” said Troy.
bands. An African traveller speaks of his astonishment on a rainy day to see his hands reddened by the moist plumage of a bird he had just killed. The most ordinary way, however, in which the pigment is found is when it
exists in the depths of the tissues, reduced to very fine COLOR IN ANIMALS.
particles, best seen under the microscope. When scat
tered, they scarcely influence the shade; but when close The variety of coloring in animal life is one of the mar- together, they are very perceptible. This explains the vels of nature, only now beginning to be studied scientific- color of the negro: under the very delicate layer of skin ally. It is vain to say that an animal is beautiful, either which is raised by a slight burn there may be seen abunin symmetry or diversity of color, in order to please the dance of brown pigment in the black man.
It is quite human eye:
Fishes in the depths of the Indian seas, superficial, for the skin differs only from that of the Eurowhere no human eye can see them, possess the most gor- pean in tone; it wants the exquisite transparency of fair geous tints. One thing is remarkable : birds, fishes, and
Among these, the colors which impress the eye do insects alone possess the metallic coloring ; whilst plants not come from a flat surface, but from the different depths and zoophytes are without reflecting shades. The mollusca of layers in the flesh. Hence the variety of rose and lily take a middle path with their hue of mother-of-pearl. tints according as the blood circulates more or less freely; What is the reason of these arrangements in the animal hence the blue veins, which give a false appearance, bekingdom? It is a question which cannot be satisfactorily cause the blood is red ; but the skin thus dyes the deep answered; but some observations have been made which tones which lie beneath it; tattooing with Indian ink is throw light on the subject. One is, that among animals, blue, blue eyes owe their shade to the brown pigment the part of the body turned towards the earth is always which lines the other side of the iris, and the muscles paler than that which is uppermost. The action of light seen under the skin produce the bluish tone well known is here apparent. Fishes which live on the side, as the to painters. sole and turbot, have the left side, which answers to the The chemical nature of pigment is little known; the back, of a dark tint; whilst the other side is white. It may sun evidently favors its development in red patches. Age be noticed that birds which fly, as it were, bathed in light, takes it away from the hair, when it turns white, the colordo not offer the strong contrast of tone between the upper ing-matter giving place to very small air-bubbles. The and lower side. Beetles, wasps, and flies have the metallic brilliant white of feathers is due to the air which fills them. coloring of blue and green, possess rings equally dark all Age, and domestic habits exchanged for a wild state, alter round the body; and the wings of many butterflies are as the appearance of many birds and animals; in some species beautifully feathered below as above.
the feathers and fur grow white every year before falling On the other hand, mollusca which live in an almost off and being renewed; as in the ermine, in spring the fur closed shell, like the oyster, are nearly colorless; the larvæ which is so valued assumes a yellow hue, and after a few of insects found in the ground or in wood have the same months, becomes white before winter. whiteness, as well as all intestinal worms shut up in ob- It would, however, be an error to suppose that all the scurity. Some insects whose life is spent in darkness keep exquisite metallic shades which diaper the feathers of this appearance all their lives; such as the curious little birds and the wings of butterflies arise from pigments; it beetles inhabiting the inaccessible crevasses of snowy moun- was a dream of the alchemists to try to extract them. tains, in whose depths they are hidden. They seem to fly Their sole cause is the play of light, fugitive as the from light as from death, and are only found at certain sparkles of the diamond." When the beautiful feathers seasons, when they crawl on the flooring of the caves like on the breast of a humming-bird are examined under the larvæ, without eyes, which would be useless in the retreats microscope, it is astonishing to see none of the shades the where they usually dwell.
mystery of which you would penetrate. They are simply This relation between coloring and light is very evident made of a dark-brown opaque substance not unlike those in the beings which inhabit the earth and the air ; those of a black duck. There is, however, a remarkable arare the most brilliant which are exposed to the sun; those rangement; the barb of the feather, instead of being a of the tropics are brighter than in the regions around the fringed stem, offers a series of small squares of horny North Pole, and the diurnal species than the nocturnal ; substance placed point to point. These plates, of infinibut the same law does not apparently belong to the inbab- tesimal size, are extremely thin, brown, and, to all appearitants of the sea, which are of a richer shade where the ance, exactly alike, whatever may be the reflection they light is more tempered. The most dazzling corals are those give. The brilliant large feathers of the peacock are the which hang under the natural cornices of the rocks and on same; the plates are only at a greater distance, and of less the sides of submarine grottos ; while some kinds of fish brightness. They have been described as so many little which are found on the shores as well as in depths re- mirrors, but that comparison is not correct, for then they quiring the drag.net, have a bright red purple in the latter would only give back light without coloring it. Neither regions, and an insignificant yellow brown in the former. do they act by decomposing the rays which pass through Those who bring up gold fish know well that to have them them, for then they would not lose their iris tints under finely colored, they must place them in a shaded vase, the microscope. It is to metals alone that the metallic where aquatic plants hide them from the extreme solar plumage of the humming-birds can be compared; the efheat. Under a hot July sun they lose their beauty. fects of the plates in a feather are like tempered steel or
The causes to which animal coloring is due are very crystallized bismuth. Certain specimens emit colors very various. Some living substances have it in themselves, variable under different angles, the same scarlet feather owing to molecular arrangement, but usually this is not the becoming when turned to ninety degrees a beautiful case ; the liveliest colors are not bound up with the tissues. emerald green. Sometimes they arise from a phenomenon like that by The same process which nature has followed in the which the soap-bubble shows its prismatic hues ; sometimes humming-bird is also found in the wing of the butterfly. there is a special matter called pigment which is united It is covered with microscopic scales, which play the part with the organic substance. Such is the brilliant paint, of the featber, arranged like the tiles of a house, and takcarmine, which is the pigment of the cochineal insect, and ing the most elegant forms. They also lose their color the red color of blood, which may be collected in crystals, under magnifying power, and the quality of reflection separate from the other particles to which it is united. shows that the phenomena are the same as in feathers.
There is, however, a difference in the extent of the chro- I light, etc. They offered a contrast of color, though to a inatic scale. Whilst the humming.bird partakes in its certain degree alike; but when they slept under the straw colors of the whole of the spectrum from the violet to the chair which they chose for their domicile, they were exred, passing through green, those of the butterfly prefer actly of the same shade during the hours of rest — a fine seathe more refrangible ones from green to violet, passing green that never changed. The skin rested, as did the through blue. The admirable lilac shade of the Morpho brain. so that it seemed probable that central activity, menelas and the Morpho cypris is well known, and the thought, will, or whatever name is given, has some effect wings of these butterflies have been used by the jewellers, in the change of color. The probability is, that as they carefully laid under a thin plate of mica, and made into become pale, the pigment does not leave the skin, but that ornaments. A bright green is not uncommon, but the it is collected in spheres tno small to affect our retina, metallic red is rare, excepting in a beautiful butterfly of which will be impressed by the same quantity of pigment Madagascar, closely allied to one found in India and Cey- when more extended. lon. The latter has wings of a velvet black with brilliant It is undoubtedly the nerves which connect the brain green spots; in the former, these give place to a mark of with organs where the pigment is retained. By cutting a fiery red.
nerve, the coloring matter is paralyzed in that portion of There is the same difference between the metallic hues the skin through which the nerve passes, just as a muscle is of creatures endowed with flight and the iris shades of isolated by the section of its nerve. If this operation is fishes, that there is between crystallized bismuth and the performed on a turbot in a dark state, and it is thrown soft reflections of the changing opal. To bave an idea of into a sandy bottom, the whole body grows paler, exceptthe richness of the fish, it is only necessary to see a net ing the part which cannot receive cerebral influence. The landed filled with shad or other bright fish. It is one im- nerves have, in general, a very simple and regular distribumense opal, with the same transparency of shade seen tion : if two or three of these are cut in the body of the through the scales, which afford the only means of imitat- fish, a black transversal band following the course of the ing pearls. It is due, however, not to the scales, but to nerve will be seen; whilst, if the nerve which animates extremely thin layers lying below the scales under the skin the head is thus treated, the turbot growing paler on the and round the blood-vessels, which look like so many sand, keeps a kind of black mask, which has a very curious threads of silver running through the flesh. Réaumur first effect. noticed and described them ; sometimes their form is as These marks will remain for many weeks, and what may regular as that of a crystal, and of infinitesimal size and be called paralysis of color has been remarked in consethickness. The art of the makers of false pearls is to col- quence of illness or accident. Such was seen in the head lect these plates in a mass from the fish, and make a paste of a large turbot, the body being of a different color. It of them with the addition of glue, which is pompously was watched, and died after a few days, evidently of some named “ Eastern Essence." This is put inside glass beads, injury which it had received. The subject offers a field of and gives them the native whiteness of pearls.
immense inquiry: the chemical and physical study of pigMany observations have been made lately by our natu- ments, the conditions which regulate their appearance, raljete as to th• defence which color supplies to animals : their intensity, and variations under certain influences ; hares, rabbit-, slags, and goats possess the most favorable the want of them in albinos, and the exaggerated developshade for concealing them in the depths of the forest or in ment in other forms of disease. To Mr. Darwin, in Eng. the fields. It is well known that when the Volunteer land, and to M. Ponchet, in France, the subject is indebted corps were enrolled, and the most suitable color for the for much research, which will no doubt be continued as riflemen was discussed, it was supposed to be green. Sol- occasion offers. diers dressed in different shades were placed in woods and plains, to try which offered the best concealment. Contrary to expectation, that wbich escaped the eyes of the enemy was not green, but the fawn color of the doe.
MR. RUSKIN'S RECENT WRITINGS. Among hunting quadrupeds, such as the tiger, the leopard, the jaguar, the panther, there is a shade of skin which man has always been anxious to appropriate for his own The old Egyptian tombs have paintings of the
The world is out of joint. The songs of triumph over negroes of Sudan, their loins girt with the fine yellow peace and progress which were so popular a few years ago skips for which there is still a great sale. All the birds have been quenched in gloomy silence.
It is difficult even which prey upon the smaller tribes, and fishes like the to take up a newspaper witbout coming upon painful foreshark, are clothed in dead colors, so as to be the least seen
bodings of the future. Peace has not come down upon the by their victims.
world, and there is more demand for swords than for There is an animal which, for two thousand years, bas ploughshares. The nations are glaring at each other disexcited the curiosity and superstition of man by its change trustfully, muttering ominous threats, and arming themof color — that is, the chameleon. No reasonable obser- selves to the teeth. Their mechanical skill is absorbed in vation was ever made upon it, until Perrault instituted devising more efficient means of mutual destruction, and some experiments in the seventeenth century. He ob
the growth of material wealth is scarcely able to support served that the animal became pale at night, and took a
the burden of warlike preparations. The internal politics deeper color when in the sun, or when it was teased ; of states are not much more reassuring than their external whilst the idea that it took its color from surrounding ob
relations. If the republic triumphs in France and Spain jects was simply fabulous. He wrapped it in different it is not because reason has supplanted prejudice, but bekinds of cloth, and once only did it become paler when in cause nobody, except a few Carlists or Communists, believes white. Its colors were very limited, varying from gray to
enough in any principles to fight for them. In the promgreen and greenish brown.
ised land of political speculators, the government of the Little more than this is known in the present day: un- country is more and more becoming a mere branch of der our skies it soon loses its intensity of color. Beneath stockjobbing. Everywhere the division between classes the African sun, its livery is in cessantly changing; some
widens instead of narrowing; and the most important phetimes a row of large patches appears on the sides, or the nomenon in recent English politics is that the old social skin is spotted like a trout, the spots turning to the size of bonds have snapped asunder amongst the classes least a pin's head. At other times, the figures are light on a accessible to revolutionary impulses. brown ground, which a moment before were brown on a Absorbed in such contests, we fail to attend to matters light ground, and these last during the day. A naturalist of the most vital importance. The health of the populaspeaks of two chameleons which were tied together on a tion is lowered as greater masses are daily collected in boat in the Nile, with sufficient length of string to run huge cities, where all the laws of sanitary science are stuabout, and so always submissive to the same influences of diously disregarded. Everywhere we a generation
BY LESLIE STEPHEX.
growing up sordid, degraded, and devoid of self-respect. / antipathy to all the established commonplaces of contented The old beauty of life bas departed. A laborer is no longer respectability; an eloquence and imaginative force which a man who takes a pride in his work and obeys a code of transfuses his prose with poetry, though his mind is too dismanners appropriate to his station in life. He restlessly cursive to express itself in the poetical form ; and a keen aims at aping his superiors, and loses his own solid merits logical faculty, hampered by a constitutional irritability without acquiring their refinement. If the workman has which prevents his teaching from taking a systematic form; no sense of duty to bis employer, the employer forgets in let him give free vent to all the annoyance and the indignahis turn that he has any duty except to grow rich. He tion naturally produced by his position, and you will have complains of the exorbitant demands of his subordinates, a general impression of Mr. Ruskin's later writings. One and tries to indemnify himself by cheating his equals
. seems almost to be listening to the cries of a man of genius, What can we expect in art or in literature from such a social placed in a pillory to be pelted by a thick-skinned mob, and order except that which we see? The old spontaneous urged by a sense of his helplessness to utter the bitterest impulse has departed. Our rising poets and artists are a taunts that he can invent. Amongst the weaknesses natural puny generation, who either console themselves for their to such a temperament is the disposition to attach an undue impotence by masquerading in the clothes of their prede- value to what other people would describe as crotchets ; cessors or take refuge in a miserable epicureanism which and amongst Mr. Ruskin's crotchets are certain theories calls all pleasures equally good and prefers those sensual which involve the publication of his works in such a manner enjoyments which are niost suited to stimulate a jaded ap- as to oppose the greatest obstacles to their circulation. petite. Religion is corrupted at the core.
With some it It is due partly to this cause, and partly to the fact that is a mere homage to the respectabilities; with others a people do not like to be called rogues, cheats, liars, and mere superstition, which claims to be pretty but scarcely hypocrites, that Mr. Ruskin's recent writir dares even to assert that it is true; some revolt against all ially his “ Fors Clavigera,” the monthly manifesto in which religious teaching, and others almost openly advocate a he denounces modern society, have not received the notice belief in lies; everywhere the professed creeds of men are which they deserve. The British public is content to divorced from their really serious speculations.
ticket Mr. Ruskin as an oddity, and to pass by with as litThose who would apply a remedy to these evils gener- tle attention as possible. And yet the “ Fors Clavigera ally take one of two lines: they propose that we should (the meaning of the title may be found in the second numhumbly submit to outworn authority, or preach the consol- ber) would be worth reading if only as a literary curiosity, ing gospel that if we will let everything systematically. It is a strange mixture of autobiographical sketches, of alone things will somebow all come right. As if things had vehement denunciation of modern crimes and follies, of not been let alone! When we listen to the pedants and keen literary and artistic criticism, of economical controthe preachers of the day, can we not sympathize with versy, of fanciful etymologies, strained allegories, questionShakespeare's weariness
able interpretations of history, and remarks upon things Of art made tongue-tied by authority,
in general, in which passages of great force and beauty are And folly doctor-like controlling skill,
curiously blended with much that, to say the least, is of inAnd simple faith miscalled simplicity,
ferior value, and in which digression is as much the rule And captive good attending captive ill?
as in “ Tristram Shandy" or Southey's “Doctor.” Even “ Tired of all these," where are we to find consolation ? Mr. Ruskin's disciples seem at times to be a little puzzled Most of us are content, and perhaps wisely, to work on by his utterances, and especially by a certain receipt for in our own little spheres and put up with such results as making a “ Yorkshire Goose Pie," which suddenly intrudes can fall to the share of a solitary unit in this chaotic world. | itself into one of his numbers, and may or may not cover a We may reflect, if we please, that there never was a time profound allegory. Nothing would be easier, and nothing since the world began at which evil was not rampant and would be more superfluous, than to ridicule many of the wise men in a small minority; and that somehow or other opinions which he throws out, or to condemn them from we have in the American phrase "worried through"it, and the point of view of orthodox science or political economy. rather improved than otherwise. There are advantages to It seems to be more desirable to call attention to the be set against all the triumphant mischiefs which make strength than to the weakness of teaching opposed to all wise men cry out, Vanitas Vanilatum! and enthusiasts may current opinions, and therefore more sure to be refuted find a bright side to the more ominous phenomena and look than to gain a fair hearing. When a gentleman begins by forward to that millennium which is always to begin the informing his readers that he would like to destroy most day after to-morrow. We have cultivated statistics of late, of the railroads in England and all the railroads in Wales, and at least one of our teachers has thought that the new the new town of Edinburgh, the north suburb of Geneva, gospel lay in that direction; but we have not yet succeeded and the city of New York, he places himself in a position in presenting in a tabular form all the good and all the evil which is simply bewildering to the ordinary British mind. which is to be found in the world, and in striking a balance Without claiming to be an adequate interpreter, and still between them. The proble is too complex for most of us; less an adequate critic, of all his theories, I may venture a and it may be as well to give it up, and, without swagger- few remarks upon some of the characteristic qualities of ing over progress or uselessly saddening ourselves over * Fors” and others of his recent writings. decay, do our best to swell the right side of the account. Mr. Ruskin, as I have said, is at war with modern soMost men, however, judge according to temperament. The ciety. He sometimes expresses himself in language which, cheerful philosopher sees in the difference between the but for his own assurances to the contrary, might be taken actual state of the world and the ideal which he can frame for the utterance of furious passion rather than calm reflecfor himself, a guarantee for the approach of a better day. tion. “ It seems to be the appointed function of the nineThe melancholy pbilosopher sees in the same contrast teenth century,” he says, “to exhibit in all things the a proof of the natural corruption of mankind. He puts elect pattern of perfect folly, for a warning to the furthest the golden age behind instead of before; and, like his rival, future.” The only hope for us is in one of the “forms attributes to the observation of external events what is of ruin which necessarily cut a nation down to the ground merely the expression of his own character.
and leave it, thence to sprout again, if there be any life No one, at any rate, will deny that the clouds are thick left for it in the earth, or any lesson teachable to it by enough to justify many gloomy prognostications. Take a adversity.” And after informing his Oxford hearers that man of unusual if not morbid sensibility, and place him in we are, in the sphere of art at any rate, “ false and base,” the midst of the jostling, struggling, unsavory, and unrea- “absolutely without imagination and without virtue," he sonable crowd ; suppose him to have a love of all natural adds that his language is not, as they may fancy, unjustiand artistic beauty, which is outraged at every moment by fiably violent, but “temperate and accurate — except in the prevailing ugliness; a sincere hatred for all the mean- short-coming of blame.” Indeed, if Mr. Ruskin's habitual ness and imposture too characteristic of modern life ; a statements be well founded, the world has become well nigh determination to see things for himself, which involves an uninhabitable by decent people. Lot would be puzzled to
discover a residue of righteous men sufficient to redeem his anger than for squandering so valuable an article so us from speedy destruction. In the preface to a collected rashly. He suffers from a kind of mental incontinence edition of his works, he tells us that in his natural temper which weakens the force of his writing. He strikes at he has sympathy with Marmontel ; in his “enforced and evil too fiercely and rapidly to strike effectually. He accidental temper, and thoughts of things and people, with wrote the “Modern Painter,” as he tells us in a characDean Swift."
teristic preface to the last edition, not from love of fame, No man could make a sadder avowal than is implied in for then he would have compressed his writing, nor from a claim of sympathy with the great man who now rests love of immediate popularity, for then he would have given where his beart is no longer lacerated by sæva indignatio. fine words instead of solid thought, but simply because he Neither, if one may correct a self-drawn portrait, can the could not help it. He saw an injustice being done, and analogy be accepted without many deductions. Swift's could not help flying straight in the faces of the evil-doers. misanthropy is very different in quality from Mr. Ruskin’s. It is easy to reply that he ought to have helped it. In that It is less « accidental,” and incomparably deeper. Misan- case the book might have become a symmetrical whole inthropy, indeed, is altogether the wrong word to express the stead of being only what it is — the book which, in spite temper with which Mr. Ruskin regards the world. He of incoherence and utter absence of concentration, has believes in the capacity of men for happiness and purity, done more than any other of its kind to stimulate thought though some strange perversity has jarred the whole social and disperse antiquated fallacies. order. He can believe in heroes and in unsophisticated But we must take Mr. Ruskin as he is. He might, perhuman beings, and does not hold that all virtue is a sham, haps, have been a leader; he is content to be a brilliant and selfishness and sensuality the only moving forces of the partisan in a random guerilla warfare, and therefore to win world. Swift's concentrated bitterness indicates a mind partial victories, to disgust many people whom he might in which the very roots of all illusions have been extir- have conciliated, and to consort with all manner of superpated. Mr. Ruskin can still cherish a faint belief in a ficial and untrained schemers, instead of taking part in possible Utopia, which to the Dean would have appeared more systematic operations. Nobody is more sensible than to be a silly dream, worthy of the philosophers of Laputa. Mr. Ruskin of the value of discipline, order, and suborThe more masculine character of Swift's mind makes him dination. Unfortunately the ideas of every existing party capable of accepting a view of the world which helped to happen to be fundamentally wrong, and he is therefore drive even him mad, and which would have been simply obliged in spite of himself to fight for his own hand. intolerable to a man of more delicate fibre. Some light Men who revolt against the world in this unqualified must be admitted to the horizon, or refuge would have to fashion are generally subject to two imputations. They be sought in the cultivation of sheer cynical insensibility: are eccentric by definition ; and their eccentricity is genMr. Ruskin has not descended to those awful depths, and erally complicated by sentimentalism. They are, it is we should have been more inclined to compare his protest suggested, under the dominion of an excessive sensibility against modern life with the protest of Rousseau. The which bursts all restraints of logic and common-sense. old-fashioned declamations against luxury may be easily The worst of all qualifications for fighting the world is to be translated into Mr. Ruskin's language about the modern so thin-skinned as to be unable to accept compromise or to worship of wealth; and if he does not talk about an ideal submit contentedly to inevitable evils. In Mr. Ruskin's “state of nature,” he is equally anxious to meet corruption case, it is suggested, the foundation of this exaggerated by returning to a simpler order of society. Both writers tone of feeling is to be found in his exquisite sense of the would oppose the simple and healthy life of a primitive beautiful. He always looks upon the world more or less population of peasants to the demoralized and disorganized | from an artistic point of view. Whatever may be our other masses of our great towns.
claims to superiority over our ancestors, nobody can deny Mr. Ruskin finds his “ideal of felicity actually produced that the world has become ugly. We may be more scienin the Tyrol.” There, a few years ago, he met “as merry tific than the ancient Greeks ; but we are undoubtedly and round a person
as he ever desires to see: “ he was mere children to them in art, or, rather, mere decrepit and tidily dressed, not in brown rags, but in green velveteen ; effete old men. We could no more build a Parthenon or he wore a jaunty hat, with a feather in it, a little on one make a statue fit to be set by the Elgin marbles, than they side; he was not drunk, but the effervescence of his could build ironclads or solve problems by modern methods thorough good humor filled the room all about him; and of mathematical analysis. Indeed, our superiority in any he could sing like a robin.” Many travellers who have case is not a superiority of faculty, but simply of inherited seen such a phenomenon, and mentally compared him with results. And thus, if the artistic capacities of a race be the British agricultural laborer, whose grievances are the fair measure of its general excellence, that which we slowly becoming articulate, must have had some search- call progress should really be called decay. ings of heart as to the advantages of the modern civiliza- have grown dim, and our hands have lost their cunning. tion. Is the poor cramped population of our fields, or the Mere mechanical dexterity is but a poor thing to set brutal population which heaves half-bricks at strangers against the unerring instinct which in old days guided in the mining districts, or the effete population which alike the humblest workman and the most cultivated skulks about back slums and our casual wards, the kind of artist. human article naturally turned out by our manufacturing The point at issue appears in one of Mr. Ruskin's conand commercial industry?
troversies. According to the Spectator, Mr. Ruskin wished The problem about which all manner of Social Science the country to become poor in order that it might thrive Associations have been puzzling themselves for a great
in an artistic sense. ** If,” it said,
we must choose many years essentially comes to this ; and Mr. Ruskin between a Titian and a Lancashire cotton-mill, then in the answers it passionately enough. The sight and the sound name of manhood and of morality give us the cotton-mill!” of all the evils which affect the world is too much for him. and it proceeded to add that only the dilettantism of the “ I am not,” he says, “an unselfish person nor an evangel- studio" would make a different choice. Mr. Ruskin, that ical one; I have no particular pleasure in doing good, nor is, is an effeminate person who has so fallen in love with the do I dislike doing it so much as to expect to be rewarded glories of Venetian coloring and Greek sculpture that he for it in another world. But I simply cannot paint, nor would summarily sweep away all that makes men comfortread, nor look at minerals, nor do anything else that I like, able to give them a chance of recovering the lost power. and the very light of the morning sky, when there is any Let us burn our mills, close our coal-mines, and tear up our - which is seldom nowadays near London - has become railways, and perhaps we may learn in time to paint a few hateful to me, because of the misery which I know of and decently good pictures. Nobody in whom the artistic see signs of when I know it not, which no imagination can faculties had not been cultivated till the whole moral fibre interpret too bitterly.” There is evil enough under the was softened would buy good art at such a sacrifice. sun to justify any fierceness of indignation; and we should Up to a certain point, I imagine that Mr. Ruskin would be less disposed to quarrel with Mr. Ruskin for cherishing accept the statement. He does prefer Titians to cotton