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So Mary, they who justly feel the weight
Of Heaven's offended Majesty, implore
Thy reconciling aid, with suppliant knee: Of sinful man, O sinless Advocate,
To thee they turn, nor Him the less adore; 'Tis still His light they love, less dreadful seen in thee.
THERE IS A JOY OF HEAVENLY BIRTH.
THERE is a joy of heavenly birth,
And his deep shame and silent tears
When boldly o'er the paths of crime,
When earth's discordant passions cease,
pectorals auricle classification respiratory ventricle membrane laterally apparatus articulations spherical oxygen longitudinally auditory
deteriorated filaments olfactory A fish may be defined a vertebrate animal, breathing through the medium of water by means of branchiæ, or gills, having one auricle and one ventricle to the heart, cold red blood, and extremities formed for swimming.
In considering fishes, perhaps the most important thing which offers itself to our attention is, the apparatus called the branchie, or gills. This apparatus is situated on each side of the neck, and consists of numerous laminæ fixed on arches. These laminæ are covered with innumerable blood-vessels, and are so constructed as to present a considerable surface to the water, so that the blood may receive a sufficient portion of the oxygen contained in that element. As the water in contact with the gills becomes deteriorated, it is necessary that a constant current be caused to flow over them. In most fishes this is effected by their taking the water in at the mouth, and expelling it from under the gill-covers. The blood, which is constantly sent to the branchiæ from the heart, is distributed by means of the arteries to every part of the body, whence it returns to the heart by means of the veins.
The limbs are formed into fins, the fore-legs constituting what is termed the pectoral fins; and the posterior extremities the ventral fins; besides these fins, ordinary fishes are furnished with one or two dorsal fins, and a caudal fin, or tail.
All these fins are not always present, nor when present are they always in the same relative position : the absence of certain fins, and the peculiar position of these organs, afford characters in the classification of fishes. The fins consist of a thin elastic membrane, supported by rays. The rays are of two kinds; those which consist of a single bony piece, usually hard and pointed, are termed spinous rays; and when the rays are formed of numerous portions of bone united by articulations, and frequently divided longitudinally into several filaments, they are called flexible rays. The principal organ of motion is the tail; the dorsal and ventral fins apparently serve to balance the fish, and the pectorals to arrest its progress when required.
The bones of fishes are of a less dense and compact nature than in the higher orders of animals. The skeleton may be divided into four chief parts ; the vertebral column, the head, the respiratory apparatus, and the limbs. The vertebral column consists of vertebræ, which are concave at each end and pierced in the middle; and when joined together, the hollow place between each two is occupied by a glutinous substance, which passes from one space to the next, through the hole in each bone.
The teeth in fishes are almost entirely osseous ; they are usually of a simple, spine-like form, and recurved at the tip. Teeth are found in almost every bone in the interior of the mouth.
As regards the senses, those of taste and touch appear to be but slightly developed in fishes. When we find the tongue thickly covered with teeth, as is often the case, and used as an organ of prehension; and when we consider the quick manner in which the food is swallowed, it would certainly appear that their sense of taste is very slight.
The eyes are differently placed in the various species of fishes, in accordance with their habits; for the most part they are placed laterally, and in some, as those that live at the bottom of the water, we find them directed upwards.
The sight of fishes is acute; the range of vision, however, is probably somewhat limited. The eyes, which are furnished with a spherical lens, are generally large; but in some species they are very small, whilst others appear to be destitute of them.
Although fishes appear not to possess certain portions of the auditory apparatus observed in animals of a higher grade, they, nevertheless, possess the sense of hearing.
There are reasons for the belief, that the sense of smell in fishes is tolerably acute; their olfactory nerves are of a large size, and disposed over a considerable extent of surface.
By far the greater number of fishes are of carniverous habits; there are some, however, which feed upon vegetable substances, and we find the stomach modified accordingly, as in other animals.
capitals triglyphs Doric
architrave metopes Ionic frieze
acanthus Corinthian cornice
buttresses Composite symmetry pinnacles columns
entablature canopies The art of building has, from the earliest periods of society, been cultivated by mankind; and the origin of all buildings may be deduced from the construction of the meanest huts. These were, at first, made in a conical form, which is the simplest in structure; but being inconvenient, on account of its inclined sides, both the form and construction of the huts were changed, by giving them the shape of a cube. Mankind at length improved in the art of building, and invented methods of rendering their habitations durable and convenient. The trunks of trees, deprived of their bark and other inequalities of surface, were raised above the humid soil, by means of stones, and covered each with a flat stone, or slate, to exclude the rain ;