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from the Mahrattas and Afghauns, he now made offer of terms to which a little Chap. I. before he would not so much as listen. He proposed to make Fyzoolla collector of the revenues, or Zemindar, of the whole territory of Rohilcund, allowing six lacs of rupees per annum for his own expenses. But this offer, and even that of a jaghire of ten lacs of rupees in the Rohilcund country, were rejected. The Rohillas were so advantageously posted, with works thrown up in their front, that it was necessary to advance by regular approaches, and the army were so discontented, on account of hardship, arrears of pay, and ill usage, either real or supposed, that the General was doubtful of their steadiness and order. After several days, in which the approaches were carried on, and the scouting parties of both armies were frequently engaged, it was at last agreed that, Fyzoolla Khan should receive a jaghire of fourteen lacs and seventyfive thousand rupees in the Rohilcund territory, and should surrender one half of all his effects to the Vizir. Thus terminated the first Rohilla war.*

Before closing the account of the events to which the visit of Mr. Hastings The revenue to Benares gave birth, it is necessary to mention its effects with regard to the Emperor redeserted Emperor. Upon receiving from him the grant of the duannee, or the 'used' receipt and management of the revenues of Bengal, Bahar, and Orissa, it was agreed that, as the royal share of those revenues, twenty-six lacs of rupees should be annually paid to him by the Company. His having accepted of the assistance of the Mahrattas to place him on the throne of his ancestors was now made use of as a reason for telling him, that the tribute of these provinces should be paid to him no more. Of the honour or the discredit, however, of this transaction, the principal share belongs not to the Governor, but to the Directors themselves; who in their letter to Bengal of the 11th of November, 1768, had said, "If the Emperor flings himself into the hands of the Mahrattas, or any other power, we are disengaged from him, and it may open a fair opportunity of withholding the twenty-six lacs we now pay him."f Upon the whole, indeed, of the measure, dealt out to this unhappy sovereign; depriving him of the territories of Corah and Allahabad; depriving him of the tribute which was due to him from those provinces of his which they possessed; the Directors

* See the correspondence, Fifth Report, ut supra, App. No. 27, and Col. Champion's long defensive letter, Ibid. App. No. 45. See also No. 28, of the Bengal Treaties, in the Collection of Treaties, &c. with the native Princes, printed in 1812. Rampore, and Borne dependent districts, formed the territory bestowed upon Fyzoolla Khan.

f Fifth Report, ut supra, App. No. 12.

VOL. II. 2 Y

Book V. bestowed unqualified approbation. And though they condemned the use v——^ which had been made of their troops in subduing the country of the Rohillas;they declare frankly, "We, upon the maturest deliberation, confirm the treaty of Benares."* Financial con- The circumstance upon which, in summing up the account of his administragai!°n °f Ben' tion to his honourable masters, Hastings advanced the strongest claim to applause, was the alleviation of the pecuniary difficulties of the Indian government, and the improvement of the revenues. In the letters from the Bengal administration to the Court of Directors, under date 22d August, and 17th October, 1774, after presenting the most flattering picture of the financial situation to which the government was happily exalted, they advance a confident prediction, that in the course of the ensuing season, the whole of the bond debt would be discharged.f And in that representation of the state of Bengal, which was published by Mr. Hastings in 1786, he declares, "When I took charge of the government of Bengal in April 1772, I found it loaded with a debt at interest of nearly the same amount as the present; and in less than two years I saw that debt completely discharged, and a sum in ready cash of the same amount actually accumulated in store in the public treasuries." $ This boasting exhibits some remarkable features, when the facts are sufficiently seen. No improvement had been made in the productive powers of the country, which is the only permanent and satisfactory source of an improved revenue. The gross revenues of the year ending in April 1772 were 313,63,894 current rupees; the gross revenues of that ending in April 1774 were only 276,10,556. Hardly had any improvement been made in the nett receipt. That for the year ending in April 1772, was 216,88,538 rupees equal to 2,373,650/.; that for the year ending 1774, was 220,56,919 rupees, or 2,481,404/. § In the next great department of financial administration, the expense of the civil and military services, instead of any retrenchment there had been an increase. In the year ending in 1772, the civil service is stated at 154,620/., the marine at 52,161/., the military at 1,164,348/., and the total expense, exclusive of buildings and fortifications, at 1,371,129/. || In the year ending in 1774, the civil service is stated at 159,537/., the marine at 53,700/., the military at 1,304,883/., and the total at 1,518,120/.** In the year 1772, the proportion of the

* Company's Letter to Bengal, 3d March, 1775, Ibid. App. No. 46.

f Fifth Report, ut supra, p. 37, and App. No. 43.

J Memoirs relative to the state of India, by Warren Hastings, Esq. p. 21.

§ Fifth Report, ut supra, p. 7 and 35. || Ibid. p. 8. ** Ibid. p. 35.

military expense, defrayed by the Nabob of Oude, was 20,766/. * In Chap. I. the year 1774, the proportion defrayed by him was 131,430/. f In the 17^4" *following year, that ending in April 1775, there was a slight improvement in the collections, which may in part be ascribed to the measures of the preceding administration; and there was a total cessation of war which produced a reduction of the military expenditure, remarkable only for its minuteness. The gross collections amounted to 287,20,760 rupees, the nett receipt to 251,02,090, or 2,823,964/.; the civil service to 231,722/., the marine to 36,510/., and the military to 1,080,304/.; total, 1,349,836/.: and the proportion this year borne by the Nabob of Oude was 240,750/. % It thus abundantly appears that nothing so important as to deserve the name of improvement had arisen in the financial administration of the Company. A pecuniary relief had indeed been procured, but from sources of a temporary and very doubtful description; partly from the produce of the bills drawn in such profusion upon the Company, by the predecessor of Hastings; partly from the reduction of the allowance to the Nabob of Bengal, from thirty-two to sixteen lacs; but chiefly from the plunder of the unhappy Emperor of the Moguls, whose tribute of twenty-six lacs per annum for the duannee of Bengal was withheld, and two provinces of Corah and Allahabad sold for fifty lacs to the Vizir; from the sale of the Rohillas, the extirpation of whom was purchased at forty of the same eagerly-coveted lacs; and from the pay and maintenance of a third part of the troops, which were employed in the wars and dominions of the Vizir. With regard even to the payment of the debt, an inspection of the accounts exhibits other results than those presented by the declarations of the President. Year ending Balances in the Debts at in April Treasuries. interest. Other debts. 1772 C. R. 65,09,041 107,84,520 52,48,480.

1774 21,62,994 117,71,486 95,41,795.

1775 123,95,598 90,68,584 87,05,871.$

Upon this statement, if we compare the year in which Mr. Hastings began his administration, with that in which it ended, we see a prodigious deterioration. If we compare it even with that which follows, the total amount of debt in * Fifth Report, ut supra, p. 8. \ Ibid. p. 41.

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Book V. 1772 was 160,30,000 rupees; in 1775 it was 177,68,584, which is an increase v W^^~Jof 17,41,455. The only improvement appears in the balance of cash, which in 1775 exceeded the balance in 1772 by 58,86,557. Deducting from this a sum equal to the increase of debt, there remains 41,45,102, by which alone the state of the exchequer, after all the calamity which had been produced to supply it, was better in 1775 than it had been in 1772.

CHAP. II.

Commencement of the New GovernmentSupreme Council divided into two Parties, of which that of the Governor-General in the MinorityPresidency of Bombay espouse the Cause of Ragoba, an ejected PeshwaSupreme Council condemn this Policy, and make Peace with his Opponents Situation of Powers in the Upper Country, Nabob of Oude, Emperor, and Nujeef KhanPecuniary Corruption, in which Governor-General seemed to be implicated, in the cases of the Ranee of Burdwan, Phousdar of Hoogly, and Mutiny BegumGovernor-General resists InquiryNuncomar the great AccuserHe is prosecuted by Governor-GeneralAccused of Forgery, found guilty, and hangedMahomed Reza Khan, and the office of Naib Subah restored.

The operation of the new constitution framed by the parliament of England, Chap. II. was ordained to commence in India after the 1st of August, 1774. The new yn^ counsellors, however, General Clavering, Mr. Monson, and Mr. Francis, who, Arrival of the along with Mr. Hastings and Mr. Barwell, were elected to compose the board "o^^vlett" of administration, did not arrive at Calcutta until the 19th of October. On^1^11 the following day the existing government was dissolved by proclamation, and Hastings met. the new council took possession of its powers. On the proposal of the GovernorGeneral, who stated the necessity of a few days, to prepare for the council a view of the existing state of affairs, and to enable Mr. Barwell, who was then absent, to arrive; the meeting of the Board was suspended until the 25th. On the very day on which its deliberations began, some of the discord made its appearance, which so long and so deeply embarrassed and disgraced the government of India. The party who had arrived from England, and the party in India, with whom they were conjoined, met not, it would seem, with minds in the happiest frame for conjunct operations. Mr. Hastings, upon the first appearance of his colleagues, behaved, or was suspected of behaving, coldly. And with jealous feelings this coldness was construed into studied and humiliating neglect. In the representation which the Governor-General presented ^.^d1the of the political state of the country, the war against the Rohillas necessarily H^s^"^

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