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returned to Europe; and was succeeded in the chair by Mr. Spencer, as the Chap. V. oldest member of the board. As opposition to the Governor, therefore, no
• • > 1765.
longer actuated the Council, the general opinion of the bad character of Nun- comar produced its proper effect; and he was peremptorily excluded from the government of the country. The other conditions of the treaty were nearly the same as those of the treaty with the old Nabob. Beside the revenues of Burdwan, Midnapore, and Chittagong, the five lacks per month were to be continued during the war, and as much of them after the war as the state of the country might, to the English, seem to require. And the grand privilege to the Company's servants of trading free from the duties which other merchants paid within the country, and of paying only two and a half per cent. upon the single article of salt, was carefully preserved. The government of the country was now so completely in the hands of the English, that the accountants of the revenue were not to be appointed except with their approbation.
During the military and political transactions which so intensely engaged Transactions
i • 't i- i r-< n -r-k- T, • 1 _ in the Courts
then* servants in India, the Courts of Directors and Proprietors remained for of Proprietors several years rather quiet spectators and warm expectants, than keen and trou-and Directors' blesome controulers. When they had been agitated for a while, however, by the mutual reports of mismanagement which were transmitted to them by Vansittart and his opponents; and, at last, when they were alarmed by the news of a war actually kindled with the Nabob, of the massacre of so many of their servants, and the extensive spirit of mutiny among the troops, their sense of danger roused them to some acts of authority. Though Clive had quitted India with an Clive apact of insult towards his employers, which they had highly resented; though s^methe^cT the Directors had disputed and withheld payment of the proceeds of his jaghire, ggTMg°fnt 111 for which he had commenced a suit against them in the court of Chancery; he was now proposed for Governor as the only man capable of retrieving their disordered and desperate affairs. Only thirteen Directors, however, were found, after a violent contest, to vote for his appointment; while it was still opposed by eleven. Yet the high powers which he demanded, as indispensable for the arduous services necessary to be performed, though strongly opposed, were also finally conferred. He was invested with the powers of Commander in Chief, President, and Governor in Bengal; and, together with four gentlemen, named by the Directors, was to form a Select Committee, empowered to act by their own authority, as often as they deemed it expedient, without consulting the Council, or being subject to its controul.
The Directors, at the same time, condemned, in the severest terms, the rapa- The Directors
Book IV. cious and unwarranted proceedings of their servants. In their letter to the v 'Governor and Council of Bengal, dated the 8th of February, 1764, " One private trade grand source," they said, "of the disputes, misunderstandings, and difficulties, vantsTS'1* which have occurred with the country government, appears evidently to have taken its rise from the unwarrantable and licentious manner of carrying on the private trade by the Company's servants, their gomastahs, agents, and others, to the prejudice of the Subah, both with respect to his authority and the revenues justly due to him; the diverting and taking from his natural subjects the trade in the inland parts of the country, to which neither we, or any persons whatsoever dependent upon us, or under our protection, have any manner of right. In order, therefore, to remedy all these disorders, we do hereby positively order and direct,—That from the receipt of this letter, a final and effectual end be forthwith put to the inland trade in salt, beetle-nut, tobacco, and all other articles whatsoever, produced and consumed in the country."* In his correspondence with the Court of Directors, on the subject of his return to Bengal, Clive expressed himself in the following manner: "The trading in salt, beetlenut, and tobacco, having been one cause of the present disputes, I hope these articles will be restored to the Nabob, and your servants absolutely forbid to trade in them. This will be striking at the root of the evil." f At a general
• See the Extract at length in the Second Report, Select Committee, 1772. In another letter to the Governor and Council of Bengal, dated 24th December, 1765, the Directors say, "Your deliberations on the inland trade have laid open to us a scene of most cruel oppression, which is indeed exhibited at one view of the 13th article of the Nabob's complaints, mentioned thus in your Consultation of the 17th October, 1764: 'The poor of the country, who used always to deal in salt, beetle-nut, and tobacco, are now deprived of their daily bread by the trade of the Europeans, whereby no kind of advantage accrues to the Company, and the Government's revenues are greatly injured.' We shall for the present observe to you, that every one of our servants concerned in this trade has been guilty of a breach of his covenants, and a disobedience to our orders. In your Consultations of the 3d of May, we find among the various extortionate practices, the most extraordinary one of burjaut, or forcing the natives to buy goods beyond the market price, which you there acknowledge to have been frequently practised. In your resolution to prevent this practice you determine to forbid it, < but with such care and discretion as not to affect the Company's investment, as you do not mean to invalidate the right derived to the Company from the phirmaund, which they have always held over the weavers:' As the Company are known to purchase their investment by ready money only, we require a full explanation how this can affect them, or how it ever could have been practised in the purchase of their investment, (which the latter part of Mr. Johnstone's minute, entered on Consultation the 21st July, 1764, insinuates;) for it would almost justify a suspicion, that the goods of our servants have been put off to the weavers, in part payment of the Company's investment."
f Letter to Directors, dated 27th April, 1764. Fourth Report, App. No. 2.
meeting, however, of proprietors, held on the 18th of May, 1764, it was urged Chap. V. by several active members, and urged to the conviction of the majority, that ~ ^ the servants of the Company in India ought not to be deprived of such precious advantages; which enabled them to revisit their native countries with such independent fortunes as they were entitled to expect. The Court therefore Resolved, "That it be recommended to the Court of Directors to reconsider the orders sent to Bengal relative to the trade of the Company's servants in salt, beetel-nut, and tobacco, and to regulate this important point, either by restrictions framed at home, or by referring it to the Governor and Council of Fort William." In consequence of this recommendation, the Court of Directors, by letter dated 1st of June, 1764, and sent by the same ship which carried Lord Clive, instruct the Governor and Council, after "consulting the Nabob, to form a proper and equitable plan for carrying on the inland trade."
The presents which, since their acquiring an ascendency in the government, Servants protheir servants had been in the habit of receiving, sometimes to a very large the1r^eiptof amount, from the Nabobs and other chiefs of the country, were another subject Presentswhich now engaged the serious attention of the Company. The practice which prevails in all rude governments of accompanying any application to a man in power with a gratification to some of his ruling passions, most frequently to the steadiest of all his passions, his avarice or rapacity, has always remarkably distinguished the governments in the East, and hardly any to so extraordinary a degree as the governments of the very rude people of India. When the English suddenly acquired their extraordinary power in Bengal, the current of presents, so well accustomed to take its course in the channel drawn by hope and fear, flowed very naturally, and very copiously, into the lap of the strangers. A person in India, who had favours to ask, or evil to deprecate, could not easily believe, till acceptance of his present, that the great man to whom he addressed himself was not his foe. Besides the sums, which we may suppose it to have been in the power of the receivers to conceal, and of the amount of which it is not easy to form a conjecture, the following were detected and disclosed by the Committee of the House of Commons, in 1773.
Book IV. "Account of such Sums as have been proved or acknowledged before the Committee to have been distributed by the Princes and other Natives of Bengal, from the Year 1757 to the Year 1766, both inclusive; distinguishing the principal Times of the said Distributions, and specifying the Sums received by each Person respectively.
Revolution in Favour of Meer Jaffier in 1757.
kupees. Rupees. sS
Mr. Drake (Governor) 280,000 31,500
Colonel Clive as second in the Select Committee 280,000
Ditto as Commander in Chief 200,000
Ditto as a private donation 1600,000*
Mr. Watts as a Member of the Committee.... 240,000
Major Kilpatrick 240,000 27,000
Ditto as a private donation 300,000 33,750
Mr. Maningham 240,000 27,000
Mr. Becher 240,000 27,000
Six Members of Council one lack each 600,000 68,200
Mr. Walsh 500,000 56,250
Mr. Scrafton 200,000 22,500
Mr. Lushington 50,000 5,625
Captain Grant 100,000 11,250
Stipulation to the navy and army 600,000
Memorandum, the sum of two lacks to Lord Clive, as
Lord Clive's jaghire was likewise obtained at this period.
* "It appears, by the Extract in the Appendix, No. 102, from the evidence given on the trial of Ram Churn before the Governor and Council in 1761, by Roy Dulip, who had the principal Revolution in favour of Cossim, 1760. Chap, y.^
Rupees. £. 1765.
Mr. Sumner 28,000 Mr. Holwell 270,000 30,937 Mr. M'Gwire 180,000 20,625
Mr. Smyth 134,000 15,354
Major Yorke 134,000 15,354
General Caillaud 200,000 22,916
Mr. Yansittart, 1762, received seven lacks; but the two lacks to General Caillaud are included; so that only
five lacks must be accounted for here 500,000 58,333
Mr. M'Gwire 5000 gold mohrs 75,000 8,750
Revolution in Favour of Jaifier, 1763.
Stipulation to the army 2500,000 291,666 Ditto to the navy 1250,000 145,833 437,499 Major Munro* in 1764 received from Bulwan Sing .. 10,000 Ditto from the Nabob 3,000 The officers belonging to Major Munro's family from ditto 3,000 The army received from the merchants at Banaras .... 400,000 46,666 62,666 management in the distribution of the treasures of the deceased Nabob Serajah Dowla, upon the accession of Jaffier Ally Cawn—that Roy Dulip then received as a present from Colonel Clive one lack 25,000 rupees, being five per cent. on 25 lack. It does not appear that this evidence was taken on oath." * "It appears Colonel Munro accepted a jaghire from the King, of 12,500/. a year, which he delivered to the Nabob Meer Jaifier, the circumstances of which are stated in the Journals of last year, 825."