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already referred. I do not write by way of depreciating those who have trod the anxious path of local historical research before the present work was projected and undertaken; but I desire to show that a History of Limerick was an absolute desideratum which ought to be supplied. I have been engaged for some years, not only in collecting and preparing materials for this work, from rare and valuable published authorities, but I have supplied myself with manuscript materials of unquestionable authority-chiefly amongst them the MSS of Dr. Thomas Arthur, a native of Limerick, the friend of Sir James Ware, the physician of nearly all the eminent Irishmen of his time, and a relative of the illustrious Archbishop Creagh; to which MSS. there appears to have been little or no access before those invaluable materials for the history of Limerick came into my possession, though constituting some of the most ancient written records of many of the most important of local events—some of the most curious and interesting of which have never hitherto seen the light, but all of which I have given. The White Manuscripts, from which Ferrar professed to draw, but much of which, I repeat, he left untouched, I have in my possession at present; and I have also had access to the interesting chartu'ary and annals of Edmond Sexten, preserved in the British Museum. I should add that some years ago I purchased the valuable Limerick MSS. of John D'Alton, Esq., M.R I.A., from which I have derived most im. portant matter. Most of the other authorities I give below. As an instance of the fuller and

ore accurate details, to which I flatter myself this history will owe some of its advantages over former ones, I may refer to the period of the Sieges, a portion of the history to which Limerick is indebted for its chief celebrity, and visited by the lovers of national independence and military heroism. In treating of this and other parts of the work, I can safely aver I have spared no laborious exertions to acquaint myself both by reading, inquiring, and personal investigation, with all the narratives and traditions which bear upon the subject. On the history of its religious houses, and on the ecclesiastical history generally of Limerick, I have also taken particularly great care, and expended considerable time and labour, constantly referring to original documents, such as the Black Book of Limerick, for the more ancient details, and to original sources of information for the more modern, and setting down nothing for which I had not sufficient authority, although I am not of course so vain as to think I have escaped an occasional error.

In the list of authorities the reader will find, I hope, a sufficient guarantee of my industry as a student, and fidelity as a historian; but it would be ungrateful to omit my acknowledgment for many obligations conferred by kind friends who have consulted the public libraries for me, and lent me their family papers and other useful materials, besides other literary assistance. In the history of the Catholic Bishops after the Reformation, I have to express my thanks for the valuable assistance of the learned antiquarian, Mr. Hanna of Ballykilner, county Down.

The present Lord Gort has most obligingly furnished me with many interesting records, and valuable notes from the Carew MSS., now in the Lambeth Library; and his brother, the Hon. John P. Vereker, late Lord Mayor of Dublin, has supplied me with much available matter from his own interesting collections of papers. For the deeply interesting notes on the Jesuit Fathers, I am indebted to the kindness of the Rev. Father Hogan, S.J., a laborious and patient searcher after historical truth in this respect. L. Waldron, Esq., D.L., the late M.P. for the county Tipperary, has afforded me information as to the existence of materials in the British Museum, etc., whilst De Lacy Pierce, Esq., and his nephews, of the Adelphi Chambers, London, have most obligingly contributed various illustrative documents derived from the same source, and from their own historical collections and papers. I have got some notes, too, of much interest, from the Hon. Robert O'Brien, from General Sir Charles R. O'Donnell, and from the late lamented John Windele, Esq., Cork; while in translation, research, revision, and general literary assistance, I have enjoyed the constant, efficient, and friendly aid of Thomas Stanley Tracey, Esę., A.B., ex-Schol. T.C.D., who was conveniently near me.

The reader will find in the Index the fullest references to almost everything in the book besides what is contained in the table of contents, the latter, in general, giving only the chief heads of the subjects in the text.

List of principal authorities used in this work:Annals of Four Masters,

Dunraven's (Earl of) Memorials of Adare, Annals of Munster,

Ferrar's History of Limerick,
Annals of Ulster,

Fitzgerald and M'Gregor's Hist. of Limerick.
Aphorismical Discovery, etc., MS., T.C.D. Frazer's Handbook of Ireland,
Archdall's Monasticon,

French's (Bishop of Ferns) Unkinde Deser-
Arthur MSS.,

tor and Bleeding Iphegenia, Anderson's Ireland,

Frois-art's Chronicles, Atkinson's View, etc.,

Gordon's Ireland and Rebellion, Billing's Fragmentum Historicum,

Hamilton's Calendar of State Papers,
Black Book of Limerick,

Hanmer's Chronicles,
Book of Friar3' Preachers of Limerick in Hardiman's History of Galway,
British Museuril,

Harleian MSS. in Brit. Mus.
Boate's Natural History,

Harris's Hibernica, Borlase's Rebellion,

Harris's History of Down, Bourchier's Historia Ecclesiastica Francis- Heylin's History, corum,

Holingshed's Chronicles,
Book of Distribution of Irish Forfeited Hoveden's History,
Estates,

Keating's History of Ireland,
Burgundian Library MSS. (Brussels), Kilkenny Archæological Society's Journal,
Book of Rights,

Keogh's Botanologia and Zoologia,
Bruodin's Chronicles,

King's State of the Irish Protestants, Buchanan's History of Scotland,

King James's Irish Army List, Cambrensis (Giraldus) Irish History in MSS. Lewis's Topographical Dictionary, Camden's Britannia,

Lanigan's Ecclesiastical History, Camden's History of Elizabeth,

Liber Hymnorum, Campbell's Philosophical Survey,

Local Traditions, Campbell's Political Survey,

Ledwich's Antiquities, Clynn and Dowling's Annals,

Leland's History of Ireland, Campion's History of Ireland,

Leyden's Agonia et Victoriæ Martyrum Carte's Life of Ormonde,

Franciscorum, Castlehaven's Memoirs,

London Gazette, 1650-1-2, etc., Clarendon's History of Rebellion,

Lodge's Peerage of Ireland, Comerford's History of Ireland,

Ludlow's Memoirs, Colgan's Acta Sanctorum, etc.,

Lynch's Law of Elections in Ireland, Conway Correspondence MSS.,

Lynch's Feudal Dignities, Cox's Hibernia Anglicana,

Lynch's Cambrensis Eversus, Crossley's Peerage of Ireland,

Lloyd's Ancient Church Government in EngCurry's Civil Wars of Ireland,

land and Ireland, Carve's Itinerary,

Mason's Statistical Survey, Dalton's MSS.,

Mason on Irish Parliaments,
De Burgo's Hibernia Dominicana,

Marlborough's Chronicles,
De Burgo's Extracts from the Protestant Morrin's Calendary of the Patent and Close
Historians,

Rolls of Chancery,
Dalrymple's Memoirs,

MacCurtin's Viudication, etc., Dewar on Ireland,

Memoirs of an Octogenarian (J. Roche, Esq).

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Rothe's Analecta Sacra,
Reports on the Fisheries,
Sexten's Chartulary in British Museum,
Smith's Histories of Waterford, Cork, and

Kerry,
Southwell MSS.,
Spenser's View of Ireland,
Strafford's Memoirs,
Sir John Davies's Historical Tracts,
Strafford's Letters,
Stanihurst De Rebus Hibernicis, etc.,
Story's Civil Wars of Ireland,
Stuart's History of Armagh,
Seward's Topographia Hibernica,
Smith's MSS. in the R.I.A.,
State Paper Office Records,
State Papers of Henry VIII,
Tours in Ireland (by several authors),
Vallancey's Irish Collections,
Voltaire's Siecle de Louis XIV., etc.,
Wakefield's Ireland,
Walshe's Remonstrance and Letters,
Ware's Antiquities, Bishops, History, etc.,
White's MSS.,
White's Apologia,
Wynne's History of Ireland,
Wood's Ancient Ireland,
Wright's Ireland, etc.,
Walker's Irish Bards,
Walker's Dress and Armour of the Ancient

Irish,
Warner's History of Irish Rebellion,
Watters's Irish Birds.
Young's Tour,

MAURICE LENIHAN.

M-Dermot's History of Ireland,
Monasticon Hibernicum,
Molyneux's Diary of the Siege,
MS. Annals (unpublished) of County and

City of Limerick,
MSS. collections of the Smyth Papers, etc.
Morrison's Itinerary,
Massingham's Florilegium, etc.,
Macaulay's (Lord) History of England,
Nairne's Stuart State Papers,
O'Heyne's History of the Dominicans,
O'Reilly's History of Ireland,
O'Reilly's Irish Writers,
O'Connor's Rerum Hibernicarum Scriptores,
O'Halloran's History of Ireland,
O’Renehan's Collections,
O’Curry's MS. Materials,
Orrery's State Letters,
Ouseley's MS. Corrections and Emendations

of Ferrar,
Petty's Survey of Ireland, Tracts, etc.,
Pacata Hibernia,
Petrie's Round Towers, Tara, etc.,
Parker's (Captain) Memoirs,
Parliamentary Gazeteer of Ireland,
Philopater Irenæus,
Reports of Commissioners of Public Records,

Ireland,
Report of the Great Fishery Trials of Mal-

comson versus O'Dea, etc.
Rutty's Mineral Spas, etc.
Rushworth's Historical Collections,
Rymer's Federa,
Report of Corporation Commissioners,

These, and a great number of others, are the authorities, to which reference has been made, and from which matter has been collated by me. In the Appendices I have added a considerable quantity of matter which was not available until the latest moment; and I contemplate, in the next Edition, to supply such additional facts and historical matter as may be developed by the State Papers, etc., in the course of publication. To unavoidable errors, which I have endeavoured, as far as possible to correct, the reader will, I hope, extend a generous forbearance.

February 20th, 1866.

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Map of City of Limerick in 1866, to face title page.
Thomond Bridge, King John's Castle, etc,
Inscription and Figure,
Clare and Limerick Tokens,
Story's Map of Siege, 1990,
French Map of Limerick and its Fortifications in 1691,
Heads of James II., and William III.,
Inscription on Town Fish House in 1582,
Fac simile of inscription on tomb of Galfridus Arthur,
Fac-simile of inscription and Castle over Mungret Gate,

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1

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CONTENTS.

I. Foundation and occupation of the city by the Danes.---Origin of the name

of Limerick.-Earliest notices.-Introduction of Christianity into.- Wars

of the Danes, etc.

1

II. Reign and achievements of Brian Boroimhe, etc., etc.

10

III. Brian and his immediate successors; and the Kings of Thomond, etc.

17

IV. The Kings of Thomond, continued, etc., etc.

22

V. Annals of Thomond. - Monasteries founded by Donald O'Brien, King of

Limerick, etc., etc.

25

VI. The Norman Invasion, etc.

35

VII. Limerick under the English.—Charters and Grants, etc.

47

VIII. Annals of Thomond.—Grants, etc.

63

IX. Annals of Thomond.— The Desmonds and the Butlers, etc.

67

X. Limerick under the Tudors, etc.

69

XI. End of the Kingdom of Thonond.—Rivalry between Limerick and Galway,

73

XII. Limerick under the Tudors, continued.- Henry VIII.-Lord Leonard Gray.

-Edmond Sexten, etc.

75

XIII. Successes of the English.-Fruits of the Reformation, etc.

83

XIV. Limerick under Queens Mary and Elizabeth.-The Wars of the Desmonds. –

The Butlers and O'Briens.-Confiscations, etc.

XV. Progress of Sir H. Sidney.--Extraordinary customs of the Irish.—The

Deputy's visit to Lord Power, at Curraghmore.— Battle of Manister, etc. 99

XVI. Martyrdom of Bishop Healy and Father O'Rourke.- Continued atrocities, etc. 103

XVII. English Progress.—Persecutions continued.—Arrival of the Spaniards, etc. 107

XVIII. Fate of the Earl of Desmond.—Grants.—Richard Creagh, etc.

109

XIX. Arrival of Earl James.-0 Donnell's invasion of Thomond.—Jail Deliveries.

-Fate of the Insurgents and Spaniards, etc.

125

XX. Rejoicings in Limerick on the Death of Queen Elizabeth.—Hopes and Dis-

appointments.-Flight of the Earls of Tyrone and Tyrconnell, etc.

130

XXI. Persecutions on account of religion.-Execution of John Burke, Baron

of Brittas.-A new charter.-Indenture of Perambulation, etc.

133

XXII. Inquisitions.-Corporate spoliation.

138

XXIII. Affairs in the City. - Dr. Thomas Arthur.-Projected Catholic Universities.

-Wentworth.–Archbishop Usher, etc.

143

XXIV. The Civil War.—The Confederation.—Refusal of the Corporation to receive

the Papal Envoy.--Correspondence between the Mayor and the Envoy.-

Occupation of the King's Castle by the Confederates.-Murrough of the

Burnings, etc.

148

XXV. The Apostolic Nuncio Rinuccini.-Siege of Bunratty Castle.—Estimate of

Ormonde.-Te Deum in St. Mary's Cathedral.--Ormonde's peace de-

nounced.-Bourke deposed.-Funning constituted Mayor.–Atrocities of

Murrough of the Burnings at Cashel, etc.

155

XXVI. Cromwell sent to Ireland.-Continued negociations.-Limerick threatened.-

Ormonde and the Bishop.-Bishop O’Moloney.-Progress of Ireton, etc. 165

XXVII. Ireton's campaign.—The siege of Limerick.– Terrible sufferings of the

citizens.— Treason of Fennell, etc.

171

XXVIII. Confiscation.-Oppressive taxation of the citizens. Fearful burdens.“

Fleetwood, etc.

184

XXIX. The High Court of Butchery.–Savage executions.—Court of Adventurers. 187

XXX. Departure of the Irish for foreign lands.-Cromwell's Parliament.-Whole-

sale confiscations, etc.

190

XXXI. Death of Cromwell.- Accession of Charles II.—Disappointment of Catho-

lics.—Rewards of the Regicides and Adventurers.-Grants.--Trades-

men's Tokens.-Grant of Fisheries to Sir George Preston. - Lord Orrery.-

Corporation doings, etc.

196

XXXII. Important Events.-Schomberg lands at Carrickfergus.—King James

arrives in Kinsale, and proceeds to Dublin.--Landing of King William.-

The Battle of the Buyne.-Flight of James to France. The march of

William to Limerick, etc.

... 212

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