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Hawaiian, 105 American, 52 British, 2 German, 1 French, 1 Bel-

gian, 5 Scandinavian, 11 Portuguese, 1 Chinese. The nationali-

ties of teachers in independent schools are as follows: 15

Hawaiian, 10 part Hawaiian, 121 American, 24 British, 6 Ger-
man, 4 French, 6 Belgian, 1 Dutch, 1 Scandinavian, 2 Portu-
guese, 2 Japanese, 11 Chinese.

Here is a comparative statement of school attendance in six



During the past year there has been a gain of 1,407, or 11 per
cent. Hawaiians of full blood have increased 273, or 5 per
cent.; part Hawaiians, 250, or 11 per cent. Portuguese have
increased in number 414, or 13 per cent. Of the entire attend-
ance, 56^ per cent, is Hawaiian or part Hawaiian, and 25 per
cent. Portuguese. There is a significant increase in the number
of Chinese and Japanese, although the proportion of these na-
tionalities is still small. With such a variety of children of other
tongues than that taught, it is not surprising to learn that high
school studies are engaged in by but a small proportion of pupils.
Mr. H. S. Townsend, Inspector-General of Schools, says in his
report that in Honolulu only 4 per cent, of the children in the
public schools are pursuing studies of this class, whereas in cities
of similar size in America the average is about 10 per cent.

The figures given above show that, at the opening of the pres-
ent year, between 12,000 and 13,000 children of Hawaiian and
European nationalities—or the races entitled to the electoral
franchise under certain property and educational restrictions—
were being educated in the English language within these islands. This is more than 12 per cent, of the entire population (census of 1896) of 109,000, whereof 46,023 are Asiatics who are not eligible for the franchise. So large a school attendance of the enfranchised nationalities augnrs well for the wholesome growth of an intelligent body politic. At the same time, there seems to be no small significance in the recent immense increase of Chinese and Japanese pnpils. Any who deplore this exhibit must be of narrow mind. While it does not imply insensate race prejudice to regard with serions apprehension the continued large influx of Asiatics, yet, as it is certain that a large proportion of those now in the country will, like the poor, be always with us, it is against sound wisdom to deprecate anything that will raise the grade of their intelligence. The more near an Asiatic is brought to Western ways, the less dangerous a competitor will he be in labor or business. Civilization breeds wante, and wants make the cheap man dear. At auy rate, the remarkably increasing thirst of Asiatics in Hawaii for an English education speaks volumes for the potency of Hawaiian civilizing influences. The fact that our educational system is broad enough to accommodate, and hospitable enough to welcome, all comers reflects some glory on this little country. Even the public schools of the United States, whose praise is in all ends of the earth, are not doing more effective work than the schools of Hawaii in refining out the pure gold of humanity from the crudest of raw materials.

The Hawaiian public school system is essentially American. It employs American text-books almost exclusively, which, of course, include for the higher glides the cream of English classics. The only exceptions are Hawaiian geography and history. More than one-third of the teachers in all schools, public and independent, are American. It is no slight testimony to the efficiency of the system that Hawaiian and part Hawaiian teachers come next in number to American, and form but a little under one-third of the entire teaching staff. This is a happy result of the policy of training teachers at home, as these are acquainted from the first with the peculiar difficulties of conducting a school of mixed races. For many years hometrained teachers had to do their best to earn certificates by working upon the furnished syllabus of periodical examinations, but within the past few years there has been established at Honolulu a normal school with a practice-school attached. From this institution a constant supply of scientifically trained teachers is assured, which, it ia hoped, will soon overtake, or, at least, approach the demand. An admirable feature of the system is the virtually permanent tenure of the teacher's office. Teachers are employed during the year. Schools are in session, even in remote country districts, for forty weeks of the fifty-two. Once employed, teachers are privileged to remain in the service until they resign or are removed for cause. Removals are rare. Within a few years past a splendid esprit de corps has developed among the teachers. They have formed associations in the different islands for mutual improvement in the profession, and they hold a national summer school with the same purpose each year in Honolulu. Eminent educators from the United States are induced to become the principal lecturers before the summer schools. The Inspector-General, who is chief executive officer under the Board of School Commissioners, is in nothing more zealous than in stimulating .the teachers to effort in this line of mutual improvement.

By an Act of the Legislature of 1896 the school system of Hawaii has been raised from the rank of a bureau to that of a department of the government. The Minister of Foreign Affairs is also Minister of Education and the President, ex officio, of a board of six commissioners, of whom three may be, and two are at present, ladies.

The Constitution of the Republic of Hawaii prohibits any aid from the public treasury to sectarian schools—another point of contact with the American school system. Formerly it was the regular practice of successive legislatures to pass grants of money to schools under the control of different religions denominations. Instead of becoming weaker from the withdrawal of public aid, the independent schools last year exhibited an inorease of attendance proportionate to that of the public schools. There are several fine institutions, under both Protestant and Catholic auspices, firmly established in the islands. Oahu College, at Honolulu, a fonndatiqp of the American Mission, has now a handsome group of modern buildings. It has chairs established in the ancient and modern languages and natural philosophy, l)esides the usual academic branches. Students frequently graduate from it to enter universities iti the United States for higher education or courses in their affiliated schools of the learned professions. St. Louis College, also at Honolulu, is conducted by Roman Catholic Brothers, giving instruction from primary to classical grades, with mnsic and drawing as specialties. It is only open to boys, but it has more pupils than any other school in the islands. lolani College, owned and directed by the Anglican Bishop of Honolulu, with an able staff of instructors, is a high-class academy doing substantial work. The Kamehameha School for boys and girls, founded by the will of the late Mrs. Charles R. Bishop, a royal princess of Hawaii, besides giving tuition from primary to high school grades, inclusive, affords the benefits of manual training in various branches of industry. There is also a normal school for the training of teachers attached to this noble foundation. Manual training, it nuy be said, is being introduced into the common public schools of the country wherever practicable. Honolulu has long had a reformatory Bchool in which agricultural and mechanical industry has been taught to the wayward lads sent there for reclamation.

Hawaii has practically a free school system, the only exception being a group centering in the Honolulu High School. This is under authority of a section of the new school law, which provides "that the department may, in its discretion, establish, maintain, and discontinue select schools, taught in the English language, at a charge of such tuition fees for attendance as it may deem proper; provided, however, that such select schools shall be established only in places where free schools of the same grade•for pupils within the compulsory age are readily accessible to the children of such district."

Out of the total appropriated expenditures of the Hawaiian government for all purposes, $1,939,978.50, for the two years ending Dtcember 31, 1897, the amount for the support of public schools is $404,000. As the independent schools are also sustained out of the pockets of the people, the aggregate contributions of the population to the cause of education are in nowise shabby. On the whole, Hawaii may be proud of her schools. They will not be the least valuable part of the estate that she will bring into the American Commonwealth.

Daniel Logan.



The development of industry and the progress of economic thought have lately evolved in the union label an economic force which promises to grow constantly stronger as it becomes more widely known. It is sufficiently interesting, at any rate, to deserve more attention than it has hitherto received. Although the union label has been a valuable factor in strengthening three of the most powerful of the American trade-unions, and has exerted an incalculable influence in bringing about some changes that are of serious importance to society as a whole, it is within a year that it has begun to be noticed at all by the students of economics, or by anybody else outside the trade-unions. No mention of the label appears in any of the books on economics or sociology. Even Professor Ely, who has written exhaustively on the labor movement in America, apparently has never heard of the union label. The past year, however, has worked wonders for the spread of the label's particular light outside the ranks of the workers. Lectures on the subject have been delivered before the students of economics at Columbia, and one of the students has the label for his thesis. The National Labor Bureau has commissioned a special agent to investigate the union label. Consumers' Leagues, whose membership consists of wealthy buyers, have discussed it exhaustively. Evidently its day is near at hand.

To a great extent, no doubt, its neglect is due to the fact that American students of economics are forever studying the history of the English labor movement, with the conviction that the American organizations are bound to develop on identical lines, and that, given a similar situation, the step taken by the English unions twenty-five or thirty years ago is bound to be

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