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Vol. Not so, my lord.
Thou seest the world, Volumnius, how it goes;
[Alarum. Cry within, Fly, fly, fly!
[Exeunt Clitus, DARDANIUS, and VOLUMNIUS.
[He runs on his sword and dies.
Alarum. - Retreat. Enter OCTAVIUS, ANTONY, MESSALA,
LUCILIUS, and their Army.
Stra. Free from the bondage you are in, Messala :
Brutus, That thou hast proved Lucilius' saying true. 787. Oct. All that served Brutus, I will entertain them.
Fellow, wilt thou bestow thy time with me? 788. Stra. Ay, if Messala will prefer me to you.
Oct. Do so, good Messala. 790. Mes. How died my master, Strato?
Stra. I held the sword, and he did run on it. 792. Mes. Octavius, then take him to follow thee,
That did the latest service to my master.
All the conspirators, save only he,
Oct. According to his virtue let us use him,
SHAKESPEARE'S JULIUS CÆSAR.
SCENE I. - The heading here in the original text
" Actus Primus. Scoena Prima. Enter Flavius, Murellus, and certaine Commoners over the Stage.” Murellus stands throughout not only in all the Folios, but also in the editions of both Rowe and Pope. The right name was first inserted by Theobald.
This opening scene may be compared with the first part of that of Coriolanus, to which it bears a strong general resemblance.
1. You ought not walk. - The history and explanation of this now disused construction may be best collected from a valuable paper by Dr. Guest “ On English Verbs, Substantive and Auxiliary," read before the Philological Society, 13th March, 1846, and printed in their Proceedings, II. 223. “Originally,” says Dr. Guest, “ the to was prefixed to the gerund, but never to the present infinitive; as, however, the custom gradually prevailed of using the latter in place of the former, the to was more and more frequently prefixed to the infinitive, till it
came to be considered as an almost necessary appendage of it. Many idioms, however, had sunk too deeply into the language to admit of alteration; and other phrases, to which the popular ear had been familiarized, long resisted the intrusive particle." The ancient syntax is still retained in all cases with the auxiliary verbs, as they are called, shall, will, can, may, do, and also with must and let, and oftener than not with bid, dare, have, hear, make, see, and perhaps some others. Cause is frequently so used; and so is help, sometimes, as in Milton's Sonnet to his friend Lawrence :
Where shall we sometimes meet, and by the fire
Help waste a sullen day? But, even since the language may be said to have entered upon the stage of its existence in which it still is, several of the verbs just enumerated as not admitting the to are occasionally found following the common example and taking it; and others, again, which at the present day have completely conformed to the ordinary construction, formerly used now and then to dispense with it. One of Dr. Guest's quotations exemplifies both these archaisms; it is from the portion of The Mirror for Magistrates contributed by John Higgins in 1574 (King Albanact, 16):
And, though we owe the fall of Troy requite,
Yet let revenge thereof from gods to light. That is, “ Though we ought to requite, revenge light,” as we should now say. Here we have let with the to, and owe (of which ought or owed is the preterite), as in Shakespeare's expression before us, without it. Others of Dr. Guest's citations from the same writer exhibit the auxiliaries may, will, can, with the to. And he also produces from Spenser (F. 2., iv. 7. 32), —