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seems to

line (in the original MS., several lines) through “ this and" appears to be in slightly darker (brown) ink than the body of the slip; the “, be and “ from 1. to 7. of” evidently is in the same ink as the body of the slip. See notes 15 and 31, supra, and 35, post. This would indicate that “ from 1. to 7. of" was inserted at the time of writing and that “this and" was erased subsequently. It is not at all unlikely, therefore, that Jefferson inserted “ from 1. to 7. of” because (and when) he remembered that he was here speaking of the notes as taken “in my place" and afterwards written “out in form" and that the Declaration as here embodied was not a part of the notes as taken “ in my place" and that he crased this and" simply because it occurred to him that it would be improper to say “from 1. to 7. of this and the two preceding sheets”, for the reason that pages “1. to 7." are not “ of this ” sheet at all but are wholly of the two preceding sheets".

88 It seems to us evident that cach of the sheets spoken of by Jefferson comprises (front and reverse) four pages. The notes are bound (See note 12, chapter IV) so tightly, however, that we cannot be certain.

84 The notes end on the twentieth page — all following the Declaration seeming, from the ink, to have been written at one sitting.

85 The ink from here on (See note 34, supra) is very slightly lighter (reddish-brown) in color than the body of the notes preceding the word “to" (See note 15, supra); and a sharper pen, it would seem, was used.

86 Taken (except what is between brackets) from what is endorsed: “[N] Rough draft of a L!e respecting the Declaration of Independence. August 4th 1796.-"

What is between brackets (except “taught me to think less unfavorably of skepticism than formerly") is taken from Laws of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, etc., republished by A. J. Dallas, vol. 1, wherein the extracts quoted in the letter to Messrs. Wm. M'Corkle & Son, post, are given, headed as follows: “On comparing the names above subscribed to the Declaration of Independence, with the names subscribed to the same instrument, as printed in the Journals of Congress (2d vol. page 241) the editor discovered a variance, which it was his duty to investigate, and ascertain the

Having, therefore, procured a certificate from the Secretary of State, that the name of Thomas McKean, the Chief-Justice of Pennsylvania, was affixed in his own hand-writing to the original Declaration of Independence, though it is omitted in the Journals of Congress, that gentleman was requested to furnish an explanation ; and from his obliging answer the following extracts are taken :".

87 This is written over an M.
88 He is mistaken : see note 18, chapter IX.



89 Taken from the facsimile in The Book of the Signers, etc., edited by William Brotherhead. J. M. C. Rodney of Wilmington, Del., writes us, under date of December 2, 1899, that the original is in his possession.

For the letter to which it is a reply, see note 7, chapter IX.

Both letters, it will be noted, are dated August 22d; but M:Kean says, it also will be noted: “ Your favor of the 22! last month . . . came safe

Of course, we do not know which of the two was in error in the date, though it seems to us probable that M: Kean was.

to hand ...


copy of this letter of August 22, 1813, was sent by Cæsar Augustus Rodney to Jefferson, with a letter, dated Wilmington, March 16, 1823, in which Rodney says : “[S] When I had the pleasure of visiting you at Monticello, I mentioned a letter from the late Governor M Kean to me, relating to occurrences, on the day that Congress adopted the Declaration of Indepence, which I had lent to M! Binns [See note 13, chapter XIII], who, unfortunately, mislaid it. the other day he was lucky enough to find it, & to deliver it to me ; and I now enclose you, agreeably to my promise, a copy of the original, that you may compare it with your minutes to ascertain whether it be correct."

Jefferson replied, April 12th : “[P] what he [M:Kean] says of your respected uncle is all true and within my own recollection.

his memory has failed him in some other particulars of no importance. he has confounded two distinct votes and blended together the transactions on them as if on one, to wit the vote on the Virga proposħ to declare independce and the ultimate declaration, but the error is quite unimportant."

40 Taken from The Freemans Journal and Columbian Chronicle (C) of the 20th. The letter may be found also in Niles' Weekly Register (N) of June 28th.

41. No attempt has been made to indicate the size or character of the type or writing, except to indicate capitals.

The lining of the titles — and of those portions only — is indicated by al. 42 See p. 208 and chapter XIII. 48 See p. 170. 44 Taken from the copy (See facing p. 170) wafered into the rough Journal. See (also) p. 170 and the notes thereto. 45 See p. 344. 46 See p. 347 47 See p. 348. 48 See p. 348.

It follows from the facts there given that the changes from this draft in the handwriting of John Adams (representing practically, as there indicated,

the “ Rough draught" of Jefferson as originally drawn) found in the three drafts just above it (which represent the “Rough draught" of Jefferson as corrected before the Declaration was submitted to Congress : sec note 48, chapter VI) were made after it was made. Where these changes were made by any one other than Jefferson (assuming, of course, that all changes in his handwriting were his, as they probably were, though, of course, we cannot know with certainty whether such changes suggested themselves to him or were suggested to him by others), we have indicated by notes. These notes are appended to the draft here found next above the draft in the handwriting of Adams, that is, to draft f. (These notes show also, in some instances, the progress of changes made by Jefferson himself.)

29 This was first written “sacred & undeniable” in Jefferson's " Rough draught ".

60 Jefferson, in making his corrections, in his “ Rough draught", wrote and then erased “equal [?] rights, some of which are”.

61 This is « inalienable" in Jefferson's “ Rough draught".
62 This is "&" in Jefferson's “Rough draught".
68 Franklin substituted this word.

64 This was first written “subject them to arbitrary" in Jefferson's « Rough draught".

65 These changes were made by John Adams, and, as readily seen, after he made the copy (8) of Jefferson's “Rough draught”, which may indicate (but which, we think, does not necessarily prove) that it was submitted more than once to Adams (or, at least, that he saw it more than once) before a

was submitted to the committee — that is, if a " fair copy" (and not the “Rough draught itself) was submitted to the committee and if no corrections were made in the committee, as Jefferson states.

56 There is no “as” in Jefferson's “Rough draught". 57 There is no “an" in Jefferson's “ Rough draught".

68 These last three words are found interlined in Jefferson's “ Rough draught ".

69 In Jefferson's “ Rough draught", this is written over something which cannot be deciphered.

6 This sentence was written (by Jefferson) upon a slip of paper and attached to his “Rough draught” (See between pp. 144 and 145). Part of the slip has been torn away. It reads at present as follows : “he has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, unco

| the depository of their public records for the sole purpose of fatigu his measures ;".

a This is evidently in Jefferson's handwriting. See note 80, post.

62 We are not sure that this conforms to the “Rough draught" as originally drawn by Jefferson (though it seems likely); for the slip (See note 60, supra) leaves visible only "ally for opposing" and "cople:

so fair copy


68 Jefferson first wrote in his “Rough draught": "he has dissolved". He crossed it out and started anew with “ he has refused ..."

64 These three words were added by John Adams, and, of course, as readily seen, before he made the copy (draft g) of Jefferson's “ Rough draught". The word “time" as first written appears to have been erased (as well as “space of”) in that draft by accident; and Jefferson accordingly rewrote it before "after".

65 These words were added by Franklin.

66 For the progress of the addition of these words, see between pp. 144 and 145.

67 This sentence is very closely written, at the bottom of a page, in Jefferson's “ Rough draught". He himself, it would seem, first wrote “ colonies", as Congress amended it.

68 These words were added by Franklin. He first wrote “important" for « valuable".

69 The rest of the third page (that below the first fold) is missing - the sheet having been torn at this fold.

70 Here in Jefferson's “ Rough draught” now appear a ", " and, above the line, the words “ Scotch and other”, seemingly in the same ink as the amendments by Congress which Jefferson indicated thereon, evidently on July 2d, 3d and 4th during the debates. We do not know what this indicates, unless it be some amendment proposed or intended to be proposed but either not proposed or not adopted. In this connection, see note 87, post.

71 The portions between the vertical lines actually occur nearer the beginning, viz., at the “*”. They are placed here, in order that the amendments by Congress, other than the change of order, may be more readily noted.

72 This sentence is interlined in Jefferson's “ Rough draught". For the progress of its addition, see between pp. 144 and 145.

78 In Jefferson's “ Rough draught", this is written over something which cannot be deciphered.

74 This is « allurements "in Jefferson's “ Rough draught". 76 This is “ rights" in Jefferson's “ Rough draught".

76 This clause occurs here in Jefferson's “Rough draught " also ; but, afterward, he placed brackets around it and interlined it — changing « determined to “determining '' where Adams gives it (and that is evidently why Adams did not copy it, but, after starting, erased “determined to"). The brackets, evidently after the Adams copy was made, were erased and the clause was erased where interlined.

77 See note 76, supra. 78 The “an is “this" in Jefferson's “ Rough draught". 70 See note 76, supra. 80 This would seem to be the only word in the Declaration on parchment in

the handwriting of Jefferson, and must have occurred to him as necessary after the engrossing. The syllable "en" and the “” (See note 61, supra), however, also seem to be in his handwriting.

We do not know in whose handwriting is the rest of the Declaration on parchment.

81 This was added by Franklin.

82 This was first so written in Jefferson's “ Rough draught"; but, afterward, he erased the “y” and made it “ injuries”. He does not, however, seem to have followed his own correction.

88 In making his corrections, in his “Rough draught", Jefferson first wrote “ lay”.

84 There is no “the” in Jefferson's “ Rough draught".
85 The rest, of course, of this page is missing : see note 69, supra.
86 Of course, the "t" is in Jefferson's “ Rough draught".

87 We cannot understand why these brackets were placed here unless to indicate that the words enclosed were stricken out by Congress ; but why even then, when the whole sentence was stricken out ? Can it be that these words were stricken out first and that the remainder of the sentence was stricken out later ? (There are brackets in Jefferson's Rough Draught ".) See note 70, supra.

88 These words were substituted by Franklin.

89 This was first written “glory & happiness" in Jefferson's “Rough draught".

20 In Jefferson's “ Rough draught", "climb" is erased and “must tread” interlined and "must" also erased. It seems as if, after making a correction, Jefferson failed to follow it.

91 This was first written “ in a separate= in Jefferson's “Rough draught".

92 This was first written "pro" in Jefferson's “Rough draught".

93 This was first written “everlasting Adieus in Jefferson's “Rough draught".

94 There is no “the” in Jefferson's “Rough draught".
95 This is written over things.
96 This is written over something which cannot be deciphered.

07 Lee wrote to Landon Carter at “[N] Sabine Hall in Richmond” on the very day he answered Jefferson's letter : “I congratulate my Friend on the Declaration he will find in this paper now sent




No copy of the Declaration other than the one above referred to in Jefferson's handwriting has been found in The American Philosophical Society ; and F. W. Page, Librarian of the University of Virginia, writes us, under

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