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proclaimed in due form & under a grand & most decent solemnity, attended by the acclamations of the People without noise or confusion — necessity impelled this measure & every faithful heart wishes that its duration may be shortned by a happy accomodation of the present destructive contest between the Mother Country and these United Colonies.”

126 See Memoirs, etc., by Drayton, vol. 2, p. 315, note t. He

says that this tree was situated “just beyond Gadsden's and Lynch's pasture, over the creek at Hempstead.”

127 The South Carolina and American General Gazette (Ch) of August 14th contains the following : “On Monday last Week [August 5th] the DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE was proclaimed here, amidst the Acclamations of a vast Concourse of People.” See also Dunlap's, etc., (N) of September 17th; The Pennsylvania Journal, etc., (C) of the 18th; The Maryland Gazette (Ann) of the 26th ; and The Essex Journal, etc., (C) of October 4th.

Drayton, in Memoirs, etc., says: “... an express arrived from the Continental Congress on the 2d of August, with accounts; that on the 4th day of July, that body, had declared the United Colonies, Free and Independent States ... The account was received, with the greatest joy; and on the 5th of August, Independency was declared by the civil authority : the President, accompanied by all the officers, civil and military, making a grand procession on the occasion. And, in the afternoon of the same day, in pursuance of general orders for that purpose, the whole of the troops then in Charlestown, as well continental as provincial, were paraded near Liberty-Tree ; where, the Declaration of Independence was read to them, by Major Barnard Elliott ; after which, an address was delivered on the occasion, by the Reverend Mr. Piercy.” 128 It appears that Rutledge two years later

vetoed a bill declaring that it was necessary to frame a new constitution

based upon the independence of South Carolina, stating that he deemed reconciliation with Great Britain just as desirable as in 1776.

129 Considerable light is thrown upon the situation in South Carolina by The History of South Carolina in the Revolution by Edward Mc Crady.

130 Taken from The Pennsylvania Gazette (N) of October 9th. See also The Essex Journal, etc., (C) of November 8th.

181 Taken from The History of Georgia by Charles C. Jones,



1 Taken from The Pennsylvania Gazette (N) of July 9, 1777.


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1 The Declaration (See facing p. 284) thus printed bears the same heading (though the lining is different) as the Declaration on parchment: “In CONGRESS, July 4, 1776. THE UNANIMOUS | DECLARATION | of the | Thirteen United States of AMERICA." The body of it is in two broad columns, beneath which, in the center of the page, is : “ John Hancock." Then come, in four columns, the names of the other signers (except M:Kean) grouped by brackets and headed respectively by the name of the Colony which they represented. Georgia, North and South Carolina and Maryland are in the first ; Virginia and Pennsylvania in the second; Delaware, New York, New Jersey and New Hampshire in the third; and Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Connecticut in the last. These are followed by the order given in the text, headed : “In CONGRESS, January 18, 1777." and ending :

• By Order of CONGRESS, 1 John Hancock, President.At the bottom is : “ Baltimore, in Maryland: Printed by Mary Katharine Goddard."

There are two copies in the New York Public Library (Lenox), in the collections of Dr. Thomas Addis Emmet and Theodore Bailey Myers, the latter of which may be found facsimiled in orderly Book of Sir John Johnson, p. 220. Both have written endorsements — in the handwriting respectively of Hancock and Thomson — as follows: “[N and NM] Attest Cha’ Thomson sec' | A True Copy | John Hancock Preside”. Perhaps one is the copy formerly (See note 21, chapter VIII) in the files of the State of New York. There is a third copy in the Boston Public Library, a fourth in the files of the State of Massachusetts and a fifth in the Library of Congress. These also contain written endorsements like the Lenox copies.

George S. Godard, Librarian of the State Library of Connecticut, writes us, under date of September 18, 1905, that there is a copy there, with similar written endorsements; Charles P. Bennett, Secretary of State of Rhode Island, writes us, under the same date, that the files there contain a like copy; and Oswald Tilghman, Secretary of State of Maryland, writes us, under date of October 2, 1905, that there is a copy in the State House in Annapolis, which, he says, is signed by Hancock “as certifying to the same."

This authenticated copy was copied in the Journal of the House of Representatives of New Hampshire in red ink.

# (Why M:Kean's name does not appear on the authenticated copy Also, see note 15, chapter IX – has never been accounted for, though various theories have at different times been advanced. See also — notes 18 and 21, chapter IX, and the letters of M:Kean, p. 193 and Appendix, pp. 299, 301 and 303.)

? Of course, the Declaration on parchment may have been left in Philadelphia; though this, or that an “authenticated” copy would have been ordered by Congress under such circumstances, seems hardly possible.

3 In 1791, this was at No. 307 High Street.

4 See p. 194.

6 See note 1, chapter IX. 6 See note 2, chapter IX.

7 It is said that a small “ packet sloop ” brought all of the possessions of the infant Republic.

8 See The Pictorial Field Book of the War of 1812.

Also, see “ When Dolly Madison saved the Declaration of Independence” by Clifford Howard in the Ladies' Home Journal for July, 1897

Paul Jennings, the colored body-servant of Madison at the time, in A Colored Man's Reminiscences of James Madison (1865), says: “ It has often been stated in print, that when Mrs. Madison escaped from the White House, she cut out from the frame the large portrait of Washington (now in one of the parlors there), and carried it off. This is totally false. She had no time for doing it. It would have required a ladder to get it down. All she carried off was the silver in her reticule, as the British were thought to be but a few squares off, and were expected every moment.”

9 Taken from A Sketch of The Events which preceded the Capture of Washington by the British by Edward D. Ingraham, published at Philadelphia in 1849.

10 Whether or not this note is in existence, we do not know; but see note li, post.

11 In a report, dated October 17, 1814, he says: “[D] In the afternoon of the 23d [of August] I returned to Washington, and during the night of that day the President transmitted to me the letter, of which that which follows is a copy : “... [Signed] James Monroe. Tuesday [the 23d], 9 o'clock. You had


better move the records.'” It would thus (and from Pleasonton's account) seem that Monroe wrote not only to the President but also to one of the officers of the Department of State and that Armstrong was not notified by the President until after Pleasonton, in accordance with a direct order of the Secretary of State, had packed up the papers belonging to that Department.

12 Monroe, in his report (November 14, 1814) to the House of Representatives, called for by a resolution of October 24th, says: “[D] : when it became apparent from the movements of the enemy, after his debarkation at Benedict, that his destination was the seat of Government, every exertion was made, and every means employed, for the removal of the books and papers of this office, to a place of safety; and, notwithstanding the extreme difficulty in obtaining the means of conveyance, it is believed that every paper and manuscript book of the office, of any importance, including those of the old Government ... placed in a state of security.”

13 Jn Niles' Weekly Register (N) of July 6, 1816, John Binns (See Appendix, note 39) of No. 70 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, announces the forthbringing by him of an engraving of the Declaration (accompanied by a pamphlet). Under date of June 8th, he says : “ The original declaration of independence, as deposited in the secretary of state's office, was happily preserved when so many valuable papers were consumed by the enemy."

14 This plate is now in the steel safe (See p. 292) in the Library of the Department of State.

# See facing p. 208. These facsimiles bear “ W. J. STONE SC. WASHN

16 Jefferson, John Adams and Charles Carroll of Carrollton only were alive at this time.

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