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Hopkinson 124 spoke on July 25th ; (Edward) Rutledge, Lynch 125, Gwinnett, Jefferson, Braxton, Wilson, Walton, Stone, Witherspoon, Chase and Sherman on the 26th; Franklin, Witherspoon, Clark, Wilson, Chase, Lynch and (Edward) Rutledge on the 30th; Hooper, Franklin, Middleton, Sherman, Rush, Witherspoon and Hopkins on August ist; and Sherman, Chase, Harrison, Huntington, Stone and Jefferson on the 2d.

The Journal for July 25th shows only that Jefferson, Wilson and Sherman were chosen upon a committee and that Congress resolved itself into a committee of the whole and that Harrison was chairman; for the 26th only that Congress resolved itself into a committee of the whole and that Morton was chairman; for the 29th only that Clark was chosen upon a committee and that Congress resolved itself into a committee of the whole and that Morton was chairman; for the 30th only that Harrison, Samuel Adams and Lynch were chosen upon a committee and that Congress resolved itself into a committee of the whole and that Morton was chairman; for the 31st and for August ist only that Congress resolved itself into a committee of the whole and that Morton was chairman; and for the 2d only that Walton was chosen upon a committee “in the room of M' Gwinnet, who is absent” and that Congress resolved itself into a committee of the whole and that Morton was chairman.

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THE EFFECT OF THE DECLARATION AND

WHAT WAS THOUGHT 1 OF IT

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Ring ye the bels, ye yong men of the towne,
And leave your wonted labors for this day :
This day is holy ; doe ye write it downe,
That

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for ever it remember may.” \HE Declaration changed a war of principle defensive war, a war for the redress of wrongs

into a war for the establishment of a separate government. Gerry, enclosing a copy of the Declaration“ for

yourself, and another for Major Hawley,” writes, to James Warren, July 5th : “I have the pleasure to inform you that a determined resolution of the Delegates from some of the Colonies to push the question of Independency has had a most happy effect, and, after a day's? debate, all the Colonies, excepting New-York, whose Delegates are not empowered to give either an affirmative or negative voice united in a declaration long sought for, solicited, and necessary — the Declaration of Independency. New-York will most probably on Monday next, when its convention meets for forming a constitution, join in the measure, and then it will be entitled The Unani

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mous Declaration of the Thirteen United States of America.”

On the same day, John Adams declares, to Polly Palmer 3: “[QC] I will inclose to you a Declaration, in which all America is most remarkably united. - - - It compleats a Revolution, which will make as good a Figure in the History of Nations, as any that has preceded it. - provided always that the Ladies take Care to record the Circumstances of it, for by the Experience I have had of the other Sex, they are either too lazy or too active, to commemorate it.”

Whipple writes, July 8th, to Langdon : “Yours of the 24th ultimo I have received .. The Declaration will no doubt give you pleasure. It will be published next Thursday at the head of the Army at New-York. I am told it is to be published this day in form in this city . . . I hope that you will take care that the Declaration is properly treated. Colonel Bartlett desires his compliments”; and, at 10 o'clock in the evening (of the same day), also, of course, from Philadelphia, to Joshua Brackett (?): “[Mn] I cannot forbear communicating the Pleasure I know You will enjoy on Receipt of the enclosd Declaration, it was this day published in form at the State House in this City

Sir,” says Joseph Barton of Delaware, to Wisner, his cousin, on the 9th, “it gives a great turn to the minds of our people declaring our independence. Now we know what to depend on. For my part, I have been at a great stand: I could hardly own the King, and fight against him at the same time; but now these matters are cleared up. Heart and hand shall move together. I don't think

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there will be five Tories in our part of the country in ten days after matters are well known. We have had great numbers who would do nothing until we were declared a free State, who now are ready to spend their lives and fortunes in defence of our country.”

Cæsar Rodney writes, July 1oth *, to Thomas Rodney : “The Declaration has laid the foundation, and will be followed by laws fixing the degree of offence and punishment suitable. Some people have done things which, if done in future, nothing less than life will be sufficient to atone for ... Neither Betsey's nor Sally's shoes are yet done, though the measures were sent as soon as I to town. I am glad to find that you are of opinion my harvest will be down by the last of this week. Pray do attend to it. Perhaps wheat will bring something next year.”

Evidently about the same time, Samuel Adams writes, to John Pitts: “[SA] You were informd by the last Post that Congress had declared the thirteen united Colonies free & independent States — It must be allowd by the impartial World that this Declaration has not been made rashly

Much I fear has been lost by Delay, but an Accession of several Colonies has been gaind by it - The Delegates of every Colony were present & concured in this important Act; except those of N Y who were not authorizd to give their Voice on the Question, but they have since publickly said that a new Convention was soon to meet in that Colony & they had not the least Doubt of their acceding to it[.]”

Five days later, he declares to R. H. Lee: “[A] Our Declaration of Independency has given Vigor to the

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