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upon a guardian ad litem in the same manner and with the same effect as the service of papers in an action in the supreme court may be made.

Answer to petition.

$ 3365. Upon presentation of the petition and notice with proof of service thereof, an owner of the property may appear and interpose an answer, which must contain a general or specific denial of each material allegation of the petition controverted by him, or of any knowledge or information thereof sufficient to form a belief, or a statement of new matter constituting a defense to the proceeding.

Verification of petition and answer.

$ 3366. A petition or answer must be verified, and the provisions of this act relating to the form and contents of the verification of pleadings in courts of record, and the persons by whom it may be made, shall apply to the verification.

Trial of issue and decision thereon.

§ 3367. The courts shall try any issue raised by the petition and answer at such time and place as it may direct, or it may order the same to be referred to a referee to hear and determine, and upon such trial the court or referee shall file a decision in writing, or deliver the same to the attorney for the prevailing party, within twenty days after the final submission of the proofs and allegations of the parties, and the provisions of this act relating to the form and contents of decisions

upon the trial of issues of fact by the court or a referee, and to making and filing exceptions thereto, and the making and settlement of a case for the review thereof upon appeal, and to the proceedings which may be had, in case such decision is not filed or delivered within the time herein required, and to the powers of the court and referee upon such trial, shall be applicable to a trial and decision under this title. Provisions applicable.

$ 3368. The provisions of title one of chapter eight of this act shall also apply to proceedings had under this title. Judgment, entry of; in favor of plaintiff; commissioners

of appraisal, appointment of

$ 3369. Judgment shall be entered pursuant to the direction of the court or referee in the decision filed. If in favor of the defendant, the petition shall be dismissed with costs, to be taxed by the clerk at

the same rates as are allowed of course to a defendant prevailing in an action in the supreme court, including the allowances for proceedings before and after notice of trial. If the decision is in favor of the plaintiff, or if no answer has been interposed and it appears from the petition that he is entitled to the relief demanded, judgment shall be entered, adjudging that the condemnation of the real property described is necessary for the public use, and that the plaintiff is entitled to take and hold the property for the public use specified, upon making compensation therefor, and the court shall thereupon appoint three disinterested and competent freeholders, residents of the county where the real property or some part of it is situated, or of some adjoining county, commissioners to ascertain the compensation to be made to the owners for the property to be taken for the public use specified, and fix the time and place for the first meeting of the commissioners. If a trial has been had, at least eight days notice of such appointment must be given to all defendants who have appeared.

Duty of commissioners; report; compensation.

§ 3370. The commissioners shall take and subscribe the constitutional oath of office. Any of them may issue subpænas and administer oaths to witnesses; a majority of them may adjourn the proceedings before them, from time to time, in their discretion. Whenever they meet, except by appointment of the court or pursuant to adjournment, they shall cause at least eight days notice of such meeting to be given to the defendants who have appeared, or their agents or attorneys. They shall view the premises described in the petition, and hear the proofs and allegations of the parties, and reduce the testimony taken by them, if any, to writing, and after the testimony in each case is closed, they, or a majority of them, all being present, shall, without unnecessary delay ascertain and determine the compensation which ought justly to be made by the plaintiff to the owners of the property appraised by them; and, in fixing the amount of such compensation, they shall not make any allowance or deduction on account of any real or supposed benefits which the owners may derive from the public use, for which the property is to be taken, or the construction of any proposed improvement connected with such public use. But in case the plaintiff is a railroad corporation and such real property shall belong to any other railroad corporation, the commissioners on fixing the amount of such compensation, shall fix the same at its fair value for railroad purposes. They shall make a report of their proceedings to the supreme court with the minutes of the testimony taken by them, if any; and they shall each be entitled to six dollars for services, for every day they are actually engaged in the performance of their duties, and their necessary expenses, to be paid by the plaintiff. Confirmation of report; rehearing before commissioners; final order; deposit of money deemed payment.

$ 3371. Upon filing the report of the commissioners, any party may move for its confirmation at a special term, held in the district where the property or some part of it is situated, upon notice to the other parties who have appeared, and upon such motion, the court may confirm the report, or may set it aside for irregularity, or for error of law in the proceedings before the commissioners, or upon the ground that the award is excessive or insufficient. If the report is set aside, the court may direct a rehearing before the same commissioners, or may appoint new commissioners for that purpose, and the proceedings upon such rehearing shall be conducted in the manner prescribed for the original hearing, and the same proceedings shall be had for the confirmation of the second report, as are herein prescribed for the confirmation of the first report. If the report is confirmed, the court shall enter a final order in the proceeding, directing that compensation shall be made to the owners of the property, pursuant to the determination of the commissioners, and that upon payment of such compensation, the plaintiff shall be entitled to enter into the possession of the property condemned, and take and hold it for the public use specified in the judgment. Deposit of the money to the credit of, or payable to the order of the owner, pursuant to the direction of the court, shall be deemed a payment within the provisions of this title

Offer to purchase by plaintiff; notice of acceptance of

offer; costs and allowances. $ 3372. In all cases where the owner is a resident and not under legal disability to convey title to real property the plaintiff before service of his petition and notice, may make a written offer to purchase the property at a specified price, which must within ten days thereafter be filed in the office of the clerk of the county where the property is situated; and which can not be given in evidence before the commissioners, or considered by them. The owner may at the time of the presentation of the petition, or at any time previously, serve notice in writing of the acceptance of plaintiff's order, and thereupon the plaintiff may, upon filing the petition, with proof of the making of the offer and its acceptance, enter an order that upon payment of the compensation agreed upon, he may enter into possession of the real property described in the petition, and take and hold it for the public use therein specified. If the offer is not accepted, and the compensation awarded by the commissioners does not exceed the amount of the offer with interest from the time it was made, no costs shall be allowed to either party. If the compensation awarded shall exceed the amount of the offer with interest from the time it was made, or if no offer was made, the court shall, in the final order, direct that the defendant recover of the plaintiff the costs of the proceeding, to be taxed by the clerk at the same rate as is allowed, of course, to the defendant when he is the prevailing party in an action in the supreme court, including the allowances for proceedings before and after notice of trial and the court may also grant an additional allowance of costs, not exceeding five per centum upon the amount awarded. The court shall also direct in the final order what sum shall be paid to the general or special guardian, or committee or trustee of an infant, idiot, lunatic or habitual drunkard, or to an attorney appointed by the court to attend to the interests of any defendant upon whom other than personal service of the petition and notice may have been made, and who has not appeared, for costs, expenses and counsel fees, and by whom or out of what fund the same shall be paid. If a trial has been had, and all the issues determined in favor of the plaintiff, costs of the trial shall not be allowed to the defendant, but the plaintiff shall recover of any defendant answering the costs of such trial caused by the interposition of the unsuccessful defense, to be taxed by the clerk at the same rate as is allowed to the prevailing party for the trial of an action in the supreme court. Compensation awarded, etc., to be docketed as a judgment;

delivery of possession; issue of writ of assistance. $ 3373. Upon the entry of the final order, the same shall be attached to the judgment roll in the proceedings, and the amount directed to be paid, either as compensation to the owners, or for the costs or expenses of the proceedings, shall be docketed as a judgment against the person who is directed to pay the same, and it shall have all the force and effect of a money judgment in an action in the supreme court, and collection thereof may be enforced by execution and by the same proceedings as judgments for the recovery of money in the supreme court may be enforced under the provisions of this act. When payment of the compensation awarded, and costs of the proceeding, if any, has been made, as directed in the final order, and a certified

copy of such order has been served upon the owner, he shall

upon demand of the plaintiff, deliver possession thereof to him, and in case possession is not delivered when demanded, the plaintiff may apply to the court without notice, unless the court shall require notice to be given, upon proof of such payment and of service of the copy order, and of the demand and non-compliance therewith, for a writ of assistance, and the court shall thereupon cause such writ to be issued, which shall be executed in the same manner as when issued in other cases for the delivery of possession of real property. Abandonment of proceedings by plaintiff.

$ 3374. Within thirty days after the entry of the final order the plaintiff may abandon the proceeding, by filing and serving a written notice of his determination to do so, and paying the fees and expenses of the commissioners, and the costs and expenses directed to be paid in such order; and thereupon payment of the amount awarded for compensation shall not be enforced, but in such case the plaintiff shall not renew proceedings to acquire title to such lands or any part thereof without a tender or deposit in court of the amount of the award and interest thereon.

Appeal from final order; stay of proceedings.

$ 3375. Appeal may be taken to the general term of the supreme court from the final order, within the time provided for appeals from • orders by title four of chapter twelve of this act; and all the provisions

of such chapter relating to appeals to the general term from orders of the special term shall apply to such appeals. Such appeal will bring up for review all the proceedings subsequent to the judgment, but the judgment and proceedings antecedent thereto may be reviewed on such appeal, if the appellant states in his notice that the same will be brought up for review, and exceptions shall have been filed to the decision of the court or the referee, and a case or a case and exceptions shall have been made, settled and allowed, as required by the provisions of this act, for the review of the trial of actions in the supreme court without a jury. The proceedings of the plaintiff shall not be stayed upon such an appeal, except by order of the court, upon notice to him, and the appeal shall not affect his possession of the property taken, and the appeal of a defendant shall not be heard except on his stipulation not to disturb such possession. Appeal from judgment in favor of defendant.

$ 3376. If a trial has been had and judgment entered in favor of the defendant, the plaintiff may appeal therefrom to the general term

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