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have been a forgery of the second century. It is difficult to ascertain to what Jude does really refer; but whatever it was, it does not afford a sufficient reason for setting aside the Genuineness of this book, in opposition to the authorities which were just now cited.

III. This Epistle is addressed, “To them that are sanctified by God the Father, and preserved in Jesus Christ, and called (e);” that is, to all Christians, without any distinction. From the following passage, “Remember ye the words which were spoken before of the Apostles of our Lord Jesus Christ : How that they told you, there should bei 'mookers in the last time, who should walk after their own ungodly lusts (f);"" it is evident that this Epistle was written some time subsequent to St. Peter's Epistles (g), and St. Paul's Epistles to Timothy, in which these prophecies are contained ; and therefore we may place its date with most commentators, about the year 70.

IV. St. JUDE, after saluting the Christian converts, and praying for divine blessings upon

them, (c) V.1.

(f) V. 17 & 18. (8) There is great similarity between this Epistle and the second Chapter of St. Peter's second Epistle.

them, exhorts them earnestly to contend for the genuine faith, as originally delivered to the Saints, in opposition to the erroneous doctrines taught by false teachers; he reninds the Christians of the severity of God's judgments inflicted upon the apostate angels and unrighteous men of former times; from these examples he warns them against adopting the seducing principles of those who were endeavouring to pervert them from the truth, and denounces woe against all persons of impious and profligate character; he reminds them of the predictions of the Apostles concerning mockers in the last days, and exhorts them to preserve themselves in the true faith and love of God, and to use their best exertions for the preservation and recovery of others. He concludes with an animated doxology, suited to the general design of the Epistle.

The language of this Epistle is nervous, and the figures and comparisons are bold, apt, and striking

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OF THE REVELATION OF JOHN THE DIVINE. I. Genuineness of this Book.-II. Its Date.

JII. Its Contents. 1. The testimonies in favour of the book of the Revelation being a genuine work of St. John the Evangelist, are very full and satisfactory. Andrew, Bishop of Cæsarea in Cappadocia in, the fifth century, assures us that Papias acknow ledged the Revelation to be inspired. "But the earliest author now extant, who mentions this book, is Justin Martyr, who lived about sixty years after it was written, and he ascribes it to St. John. So does Irenæus, whose evidence is alone sufficient upon this point; for he was the disciple of Polycarp, who was the disciple of John himself; and he expressly tells us, that he had the explanation of a certain passage in this book from those who had conversed with St. John the author(a). These two fathers are followed by

Clement (a) Lib. 3. cap. 3. lib. 4. cap. 7.

Clement of Alexandria, Theophilus of Antioch, Tertullian, Origen, Cyprian, Lactantius, Jerome, Athanasius, and many other ecclesiastical writers, all of whom concur in considering the Apostle John as the author of the Revelation. Some few persons, however, doubted the Genuineness of this book in the third and fourth centuries; but since that time it has been very generally acknowledged to be canonical; and indeed, as Mr. Lowman observes, “ Hardly any one book has received more early, more authentic, and more satisfactory attestations.” The omission of this book in some of the early catalogues of the Scriptures, was probably not owing to any suspicion concerning its Authenticity or Genuineness, but because its obscurity and mysteriousness were thought to render it less fit to be read publicly and generally. It is called the Revelation of John the Divine; and this appellation was first given to St. John by Eusebius, not to distinguish him from any other person of the same name, but as an honourable: title, intimating that to him was more fully revealed the system of divine counsels, than to any other prophet of the Christian dispensation.

II, In the history of St. John it was shewn, that he was banished to Patmos in the latter part

of the reign of Domitian, and that he returned to Ephesus immediately after the death of that emperor, which happened in the year 96: and as the Apostle states, that these visions appeared to him, while he was in that island, we may consider this book as written in the year 95 or 96. . In farther support of this date, I shall quote the following passage from Beausobre and L'Enfant's preface to the Revelation. After adducing Irenæus, Origen, Eusebius, and several other 'antient fathers, all of whom placed the banishment of St. John to Patmos in the latter part of the reign of Domitian, they proceed to make the following judicious observations: “ To this so constant a tradition we must add other reasons, which prove farther that the Apocalypse was not written till after Claudius and Nero. It appears from the book itself, that churches hád already been established for a considerable time in Asia Minor, since St. John reproaches them, in the name of Jesus Christ, with faults which do not take place immediately; he blames the church at Ephesus for having left its first love ; that at Sárdis, for having a name that it lived, and was dead ; that' at Laodicea, for having fallen into lukewarmness and indifference. Now the church of Ephesus, for example, was not founded by

St. Paul

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