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through countless ages past. The human pation. What we should oppose, to the understanding, for example – the faculty death if necessary, is every attempt to which Mr. Spencer has turned so skil- found upon this elemental bias of man's fully round upon its own antecedents - nature a system which should exercise is itself a result of the play between or- despotic sway over his intellect. I do ganism and environment through cosmic not fear any such consummation, Science ranges of time. Never surely did pre- has already to some extent leavened the scription plead so irresistible a claim. / world, and it will leaven it more and But then it comes to pass that, over and more. I should look upon the mild light above his understanding, there are many of science breaking in upon the minds of other things appertaining to man whose the youth of Ireland, and strengthening prescriptive rights are quite as strong as gradually to the perfect day, as a surer that of the understanding itself. It is a check to any intellectual or spiritual result, for example, of the play of organ- | tyranny which might threaten this island, ism and environment that sugar is sweet than the laws of princes or the swords of and that aloes are bitter, that the smell emperors. Where is the cause of fear? of henbane differs from the perfume of We fought and won our battle even in a rose. Such facts of consciousness (for the Middle Ages: why should we doubt which, by the way, no adequate reason the issue of a conflict now? has ever yet been rendered) are quite as The impregnable position of science old as the understanding itself; and may be described in a few words. All many other things can boast an equally religious theories, schemes, and systems, ancient origin. Mr. Spencer at one place which embrace notions of cosmogony, or refers to that most powerful of passions which otherwise reach into its domain, - the amatory passion — as one which, must, in so far as they do this, submit to when it first occurs, is antecedent to all the control of science, and relinquish all relative experience whatever; and we thought of controlling it. Acting othermay pass its claim as being at least as wise proved disastrous in the past, and ancient and as valid as that of the under- it is simply fatuous to-day. Every sysstanding itself. Then there are such tem which would escape the fate of an things woven into the texture of man as the organism too rigid to adjust itself to its feeling of awe, reverence, wonder — and environment, must be plastic to the exnot alone the sexual love just referred to, tent that the growth of knowledge debut the love of the beautiful, physical and mands. When this truth has been thormoral, in nature, poetry, and art. There oughly taken ir, rigidity will be relaxed, is also that deep-set feeling which, since exclusiveness diminished, things now the earliest dawn of history, and probably deemed essential will be dropped, and for ages prior to all history, incorporated elements now rejected will be assimiitself in the religions of the world. You lated. The lifting of the life is the essenwho have escaped from these religions in tial point; and as long as dogmatism, the high-and-dry light of the understand - fanaticism, and intolerance are kept out, ing may deride them; but in so doing various modes of leverage may be emyou deride accidents of form merely, and ployed to raise life to a higher level. fail to touch the immovable basis of the Science itself not unfrequently derives religious sentiment in the emotional na- motive power from an ultra-scientific ture of man. To yield this sentiment source. Whewell speaks of enthusiasm reasonable satisfaction is the problem of of temper as a hindrance to science ; problems at the present hour. And gro- but he means the enthusiasm of weak tesque in relation to scientific culture as heads. There is a strong and resolute many of the religions of the world , have enthusiasm in which science finds an been and are — dangerous, nay, destruc- ally ; and it is to the lowering of this tive, to the dearest privileges of freemen fire, rather than to a diminution of inas some of them undoubtedly have been, tellectual insight, that the lessening proand would, if they could, be again – it ductiveness of men of science in their will be wise to recognize them as the maturer years is to be ascribed. Mr. forms of force, mischievous, if permitted | Buckle sought to detach intellectual to intrude on the region of kuowledge, achievement from moral force. He over which it holds no command, but gravely erred; for without moral force capable of being guided by liberal thought to whip it into action, the achievements to noble issues in the region of emotion, of the intellect would be poor indeed. which is its proper sphere. It is vain to It has been said that science divorces oppose this force with a view to its extir-! itself from literature. The statement,

like so many others, arises from lack of /sion. But there would have been no knowledge. A glance at the less techni- material deviation from the views set cal writings of its leaders — of its Hehm-forth. As regards myself, they are not holtz, its Huxley, and its Du Bois-Rey- the growth of a day; and as regards you, mond - would show what breadth of lit. I thought you ought to know the envierary culture they command. Where ronment which, with or without your conamong modern writers can you find their sent, is rapidly surrounding you, and in superiors in clearness and vigour of lit- relation to which some adjustment on erary style? Science desires no isola- your part may be necessary. A hint of tion, but freely combines with every Hamlet's, however, teaches us all how effort towards the bettering of man's the troubles of common life may be estate. Single-handed, and supported ended ; and it is perfectly possible for not by outward sympathy, but by inward you and me to purchase intellectual peace force, it has built at least one great wing at the price of intellectual death. The of the many-mansioned home which man world is not without refuges of this dein his totality demands. And if rough scription; nor is it wanting in persons walls and protruding rafter-ends indicate who seek their shelter and try to persuade that on one side the edifice is still incom- others to do the same. I would exhort plete, it is only by wise combination of you to refuse such shelter, and to scorn the parts required with those already such base repose – to accept, if the irrevocably built that we can hope for choice be forced upon you, commotion completeness. There is no necessary before stagnation, the leap of the torrent incongruity between what has been ac- / before the stillness of the swamp. In complished and what remains to be done. the one there is at all events life, and The moral glow of Socrates, which we all therefore hope ; in the other, none. I feel by ignition, has in it nothing incom- have touched on debatable questions, patible with the physics of Anaxagoras and led you over dangerous ground which he so much scorned, but which he and this partly with the view of telling would hardly scorn to-day. And here Il you, and through you the world, that as am reminded of one amongst us, hoary, regards these questions science claims but still strong, whose prophet-voice, unrestricted right of search. It is not to some thirty years ago, far more than any the point to say that the views of Lucreother of this age, unlocked whatever oftius and Bruno, of Darwin and Spencer, life and nobleness lay latent in its most may be wrong. Here I should agree with gifted minds – one fit to stand beside you, deeming it indeed certain that these Socrates or the Maccabean Eleazar, and views will undergo modification. But the to dare and suffer all that they suffered point is, that, whether right or wrong, we and dared — fit, as he once said of claim the freedom to discuss them. The Fichte, “ to have been the teacher of the ground which they cover is scientific Stoa, and to have discoursed of beauty ground; and the right claimed is one and virtue in the groves of Academe.” made good through tribulation and anWith a capacity to grasp physical princi-guish, inflicted and endured in darker ples which his friend Goethe did not \times than ours, but resulting in the impossess, and which even total lack of mortal victories which science has won exercise has not been able to reduce to for the human race. I would set forth atrophy, it is the world's loss that he, in equally the inexorable advance of man's the vigour of his years, did not open his understanding in the path of knowledge, mind and sympathies to science, and and the unquenchable claims of his emomake its conclusions a portion of his tional nature which the understanding message to mankind. Marvellously en- can never satisfy. The world embraces dowed as he was equally equipped on not only a Newton, but a Shakespeare ths side of the heart and of the under- not only a Boyle, but a Raphael - not standing - he might have done much only a Kant, but a Beethoven – not only towards teaching us how to reconcile the a Darwin, but a Carlyle. Not in each of claims of both, and to enable them in these, but in all, is human nature whole. coming times to dwell together in unity | They are not opposed, but supplementof spirit and in the bond of peace. ary — not mutually exclusive, but recon

And now the end is come. With more cilable. And if, still unsatisfied, the time, or greater strength and knowledge, human mind, with the yearning of a pilwhat has been here said might have been grim for his distant home, will turn to ihe better said, while worthy matters here inystery from which it has emerged, seekomitted might have received fit expres-ling so to fashion it as to give unity to

thought and faith, so long as this is done, this to be a field for the noblest exercise not only without intolerance or bigotry of of what, in contrast with the knowing facany kind, but with the enlightened recog- ulties, may be called the creative facul. nition that ultimate fixity of conception ties of man. Here, however, I must quit is here unattainable, and that each suc- a theme too great for me to handle, but ceeding age must be held free to fashion which will be handled by the loftiest the mystery in accordance with its own minds ages after you and I, like streaks needs — then, in opposition to all the re- of morning cloud, shall have melted into strictions of Materialism, I would affirm the infinite azure of the past.

VOICES OF THE DEAD.

| A few soiled lilies dropped by childish hands,

A few dried orange-blooms from distant lands, A FEW snow-patches on the mountain-side,

1.A few remembered smiles of some lost friend, A few white foam-flakes from the ebbing tide,

bbing tide, Few words of love some dear dead fingers A few remembered words of malice spent,

penned, The record of some dead man's ill intent,

| They are not beautiful for love to see,

And death's pale presence seems in them to They cannot hurt us, all their sting is gone,

be; Their hour of cold and bitterness is done; Yet never living blooms, most fresh and gay, Yet deepest snows and fiercest lashing seas Fill us with thoughts of love so sweet as they. Bring not such cold or bitter thoughts as these. I Spectator.

F. W. B.

END OF VOL. CXXII.

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