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der the eye of princes like Elizabeth | newed far and near in Central Europe the Tudor, William the Silent, and Henri miseries of the dark ages, and the aspect Quatre, there were assigned to no man of the great national migrations ! such difficult negotiations and such dangerous missions as to him: nor did any | Charles V. ruled for thirty-six years. man recommend himself for the fullest | The year 1556 may be taken as historiconfidences by such noble proofs of saga-cally the central year of the century; city and integrity. And there is no event chronologically it divides it into two fairly which points more impressively the grow- equal halves. That is the date when ing frowardness of impure motives, the one year after his mother's death, one lurking strength of jealousy and violence, 1 year after he had, with tears flowing down the half-unconscious, the none the less his cheeks, his broken frame supported wicked, usurpations of military and dy- on the shoulder of young William of nastic ambition than the trial or, to use Orange, bidden farewell to the Netherthe words employed long ago by Lord lands, his favourite provinces, and then, Macaulay, “the judicial murder” of John warned by a comet, had (“ Me mea fata of Barneveld. That grey and venerable vocant,” he exclaimed) hurried from head fell as a kind of signal of war. An Brussels — the last great Emperor enend was made of truce and prudence, and tered the monastery of Juste. The words to the contrivances and precautions of placed in his mouth in Count von Platen's cabinets.

poem, suit well the occasion :The scaffold which was erected for the

Nacht ist's, und Stürme sausen für und für, 13th of May, 1619, on the Binnenhof at Hists

at | Hispanische Mönche, schliesst mir auf die the Hague, claims to be commemorated

Thür ! beyond many a bloody field where thousands may have perished in a paltry Bereitet mir, was euer Haus vermag, cause. The words of a score of synods Ein Ordenskleid und einen Sarkophag! and councils, in defence of whose prolix Nun bin ich vor dem Tod den Todten gleich, decisions it would be vain to tempt pbi-}

Und fall' in Trümmern, wie das alte Reich.* losopher or patriot to risk reputation and to sacrifice life, are outweighed by a few

| He had been outwitted by Maurice of broken utterances, in which the staunch Saxony; he had been foiled by the old steward of constitutional privilege, in | French before Metz; he had been forced the sight of the people he had served, I to grant equal privileges with Catholic to and of the ministers of divine and human i Lutheran Electors, Princes, Estates ; he law who had doomed him to the block, i had been humbled in the centre of his summed up his account and bade farewell /patrimonial and in the centre of his imto the republic : “ Men, do not believe perial power; he had trembled at Innsthat I am a traitor to the country. i bruck, he had yielded at Augsburg ; he have ever acted uprightly and loyally'... had sent his son Philip beyond the seas, Christ shall be my guide ... Bequick bridegroom to Aragonese Mary, now at about it. Be quick. The " quick ", act last the Catholic Queen. In England he of the executioner declared how much, at had hoped the days of Ferdinand and all events for a while, the laborious | Isabella would renew themselves, his achievements of statesmanship were de- family-tree would strike root and flower spised and discredited. With the work again. “ Philip and Mary,” cried the of Barneveld, much of that of Sully and herald at the wedding, “ King and Queen of the Cecils might be held to have been of England, France, Naples, Jerusalem, undone. Worse furies than those which and Ireland.” But there was no blessing their wisdom had managed to quell, or at

well or at on that “ bloody" reign, there came no least to restrain, were to be let loose. heir from the Spanish match. And if What were the campaigns in the Low Charles looked to Rome, it was to see a Countries when compared with the devas- new and vigorous Pope, as Cardinal Catation about to overwhelm Germany and raffa, the bitterest and unreconciled enemy the adjacent territories! Was not the of his house and policy: a new Pope, he fiery fame of Alva and his Spaniards to grow almost pale beside that of Tilly and "Tis night, and the storm rages more and more, Wallenstein, of Banner and Torstenson,

Ye Spanish monks, open to me the door. of the Swedes and the Croats, and the And, as you may afford, for me provide whole huge mercenary rabble, without A coffin, and your order's garb beside. name and nearly without number, which

So, gathered to the dead while I suspire, for upwards of a quarter of a century re-| I fall to ruins like the old Empire."

was elected May 23rd, 1555: a vigorous with the world and Satan is brought by Pope, though in his eightieth year, who his panegyrists into awful proximity with remembered the free political atmos- that of the Divine Being, whose name phere of Italy in the fifteenth century, is there not here the pride of Spain ? - is and longed to breathe it again. “ Thou borne by the Society of Jesus, he was shalt go upon the lion and adder,” Paul disabled, fighting against the French at IV. used to mutter to himself over the the siege of Pamplona, from the further thick, black, brimstone-flavoured Neapol- profession of carnal warfare. On his itan wine, of which he was fond, think-sick-bed, reading Amadis of Gaul and leing of the Spaniards who had overrun gends of the mendicant foundations, he the country where he and his beverage imagined himself called according to the were native. Charles could carry the laws of a celestial chivalry to be the burden of affairs no longer, he would try knight of the Blessed Virgin. The old no more to sustain the universal Church wars with the Moors, the contrast in the and to pacify the universal State. It was familiar Spanish romances between Jea toil beyond the strength of a man. rusalem and its king and his legions and Later, just before his death, he was heard the Soldan of Babylon, coloured still all to say, " In manus tuas tradidi ecclesiam his thought. In the spiritual Exercises tuam.” Physical weakness had told on there is, to this day, commended to the him, his personal sins oppressed him, he Order “the contemplation of the kingwas troubled how to make his own peace dom of Christ Jesus under the similitude with God. Care was taken that the view of a terrestrial king calling out his subfrom his rooms should be bounded by jects to the strife." On the vigil of the the walls of the convent garden, and that Festival of the Annunciation and before his sleeping-chambers should be placed the image of Mary he hung up his sword so that he might follow the chapel music and took his palmer's staff into his hand; and the service of the mass. Yet heresy he went then to pray, to confess, and to tracked him into his last asylum. There scourge himself, to fast, a week at a time, was no escape from it. And, as people to Manresa, and, fitted at length for the liked to relate whether the story was journey, he passed on to Jerusalem. He quite true or not, the hopelessness of his was not allowed to stay there. He was task among men had come home to his not permitted on his return to Spain to mind most as he worked among mechan- preach without further acquaintance with isms; he had found it impossible only to theology. He travelled humbly to Paris ; bring two clocks to tick in unison. he was dull at grammar, but he had

Charles V. might turn in despair from visions which explained the mysteries of the world, but the hopes which had ani- the sacraments and the creeds. To remated Catholicism and Spain at the dawn turn to Jerusalem was still the idea that of the century were not extinguished. / governed his plans. From Paris he and And Catholicism and Spain - though not a few friends went to Venice ; a quaint always as represented by the House of thread they twine into the life of those Habsburg and the Papacy, were at the capitals of luxury and pleasure. Insumiddle of the century far more closely perable difficulties came in the way of the allied than at the beginning. The year voyage to Syria. The little band fared of Charles V.'s abdication is in the an- on to Rome, the object before it continunals of Catholicism not most memorable ing to be to preach to Saracens and Inon account of that event. The year 1556 dians. The Pope at the time was Paul is the year in which the greatest saint of III., who took no step of importance Spain — not excepting St. Dominic, the without observing the constellations and most passionate and reverential worship-consulting his astrologers. One would per of the mystical Church ; not excepting like to know what said now the stars and St. Francis - passed away from earth, the soothsayers. He sanctioned the new leaving a large field to his successors, and Order in the Bull, “ Regimini Militantis confident of their joyful harvesting. It Ecclesiæ ;” it was Spanish in its miliis the year in which died Ignatius Loyola. tary organization, in its regimental obediThe Order he founded has always re-ence; the company of Jesus, with Ignatained something of the national charac- tius for first General, restricted for a ter of the Spaniard of the sixteenth cen- short time to sixty souls, bound to do all tury. Loyola was born on a frontier, and the Pope's bidding, to go anywhere, to nourished in the literature and scenery | Turks, heathens, and heretics, at once, of battles. Then, when he began to be unconditionally, without discussion, withabout thirty years old, for his conflict out reward. What the Templars had been — with such modifications as were of hierarchical intrigue had spun itself! involved in the times - the Jesuits were How it encumbered Europe and the to be. The verses in Solomon's Song, known world! Castilian priests, who at which the Temple had applied to it- the commencement of Isabella the Cathoself, might be appropriated by the Com- lic's reign would have been checked by pany, would suit its distant wanderings, the Guadalquiver, might now roam from its wealth, the persecutions it inflicted the Paraná to the Yantsekiang. and underwent, its watchfulness, its per- And, though the popes were unwilling petual peril. “Who is this that cometh servants, they, from Clement VII.'s time out of the wilderness like pillars of smoke, onward till long after the sixteenth cenperfumed with myrrh and frankincense, tury had terminated, were at the mercy of with all powders of the merchant ? Be- Spain and had to attend to her mandates. hold his bed, which is Solomon's ; three-The independence of Italy, for which score valiant men are about it, of the Julius, Leo, Clement himself bad striven, valiant of Israel. They all hold swords, had come to an end. Southern Italy was being expert in war: every man hath his altogether Spanish, and the whole peninsword upon his thigh because of fear in sula was held by Spanish arms and Spanthe night." The Jesuit was to bend his ish agents. The most curious and inhead forward a little, to keep his eyes structive study in Italian politics is predowncast, to have on his face a pleasant sented in the Council of Trent. The and calm look, and so forth. Should the Pope first shrinks from it in terror of Church define that what appears to the Spain, then, reassured and reliant on sight as white is black, he is to maintain Spain and for Catholic and Spanish obthe definition. In his Superior, the Sol. jects, carries it on and concludes it. The dier of Christ is to recognize and to wor-Council was a diplomatic training ground ship the Presence, as it were, of Christ. for all the nations which took part in it. He is to have no will of his own, he is to The rough sketch for the Council was disbe as a log of wood, as a corpse, as a cussed by Charles V. and a Venetian car. stick, which the old man can turn how dinal, who had lived amid the business of and whither he likes. At first, a Jesuit the republic and had written a book on might not accept a bishopric ; we have the Venetian Constitution. The author quite lately seen with what difficulty a of a careful essay on French diplomacy member of the Order was persuaded to during the sixteenth century, M. Edoureceive a cardinal's hat. But from its ard Frémy, gives up, and in our opinfoundation, the greatest names flocked ion very rightly, his first chapter to an into the society. Francis Borgia, who account of the behaviour of the French when Ignatius died stood over the ambassadors at the later sittings of the seven Pyrenean provinces, who was after-Council. The narrative of the Council wards the third General, had been a of Trent was a fine subject for political duke and a viceroy. When the next cen- historians. It was written by a man who tury opens, the Jesuits are, in all four cared to unmask its treacherous diplomcontinents, at the seats of political life. acy, by a Venetian, Sarpi. It was writThe Fathers are in Akbar's palace at La- ten again, as against Sarpi, by a Jesuit, hore, in the Imperial Chamber at Pekin, Pallavicino. In an appendix to the last ai the court of the Emperor of Ethiopia. volume of his work on the Popes, ProOne Jesuit founded 300 churches in fessor von Ranke has criticised Sarpi and Japan. Among the Indians of Paraguay his opponent. The German historian is, the noblest and most enlightened philan- by much, the best living authority on the thropy of the Order showed itself in the history of diplomacy: he calls Sarpi the so-called “ Reductions," a new exper- second of modern Italian historians; the iment in the way of Christian republics, first rank he awards to Macchiavelli. In Europe the Catholic nobility and gen-{ General Councils had been numerous try were schooled in Jesuit seminaries, in the preceding century, in which, in and the confidential spiritual direction of fact, they had gone far to supply the Catholic monarchs was, nearly universally place of the papacy. The desire of we may say, exercised by specially trained another Council had been strongly felt Jesuit casuists. That Spanish power, under Leo; had very possibly been felt which had shot up so rapidly, what a real by Adrian, in many respects so excep: strength it had put forth! Out of that tional a pope ; that desire was urged series of marriages, from Ferdinand and anew upon Clement. Popes hated Coun. Isabella to Philip and Mary, what a net- cils. A Medicean pope was likely to work of domestic and political and also have Councils in special hatred. Leo

bad taken pains to have it recorded that a stimulus from within prompted each a pope was above a council. Clement step, was a very different process from might dread that, were he arraigned be that into which countries were rapidly fore such an assembly, his use of his own torn of conflict with powerful, pressing, money at the time of his election, his use foreign principles, which, moreover, often of the funds of the Church since that seemed to set them at variance with event, and especially the illegitimacy of their own past and the piety of their his birth, might cost him his chair. ancestors. How far were these boldly At last in 1545 the Council came to- aggressive movements, these revolts, gether. The leaders of the reforming justifiable ? how far were they natural ? party among the cardinals were there. How far was their universal spread stimBut they were soon met by the disputants ulated and artificial ? how far was it the of the new order, the Spaniards Lainez work of a few selfish and licentious and Salmeron, to whom the word of com- leaders? Never were the imperfections mand had been given by Ignatius Loy- of human nature seen more plainly, felt ola to oppose every change, every nov- more keenly, than in that age. We alelty. Thus the Jesuits entered into the luded, a little while ago, to the influence arena of Theology and European Politics of the Society of Jesus at courts. And From that moment to this they have pre- that influence was in no small measure vented or prejudged General Councils. due to the pains and skill devoted, of set The persuasion of Loyola had already purpose, by the Order to the managehelped to determine the Pope to listen to ment of the confessional. In the comCardinals Caraffa and Burgos, to re-or- bats of interest and opinion, conscience, ganize the Inquisition, and to establish where a man was honest, was constantly its head-quarters at Rome. We need not baffled ; a person, from whom his posifurther accompany the Council of Trent tion demanded that he should lead others, through its scholastic windings, its ver- would be in continual want of a guide bose controversies, its pilgrimages from himself. The same needs existed, where city to city; it is thenceforward in the the prescriptions of the Jesuits have hands of Pope and Order.

never been, on any large scale, applied, The history of the sixteenth century is, where the hostility to Rome was strong. first and foremost, the history of state- est. Men in general were doubtful about craft. This maxim will be our best their acts and about their motives, which guide, while we pick our way through the they desired should be approved by God last fifty years of it. In some degree it as well as by government. The very is a history of great diplomatists on the same causes, which in some countries Imperial and Papal thrones, and it is threw such power into the hands of the from those heights that a storm threatens Jesuits, in other countries produced a which stirs panic and rouses energy. multiplication of sects, until it looked But it is ultimately a history of politicians probable that Christianity would soon with narrower and, as we might say, mod have as many various subdivisions as ern views, lovers of new institutions and there were Christian congregations. constitutions. It is a marked era in the Wherever a man would undertake the life of nations. Still more does its in- i control and cure of souls, there was sure terest lie in its grand biographies, in to be no lack of souls anxious and wishwhich, as in representative statuary, are ful to be cared for. Many explained modelled beforehand, naked and defiant, these symptoms in communities to mean the instincts and features of peoples, the dissolution of the whole life of comStatesmen never had harder work before munities. They refused to believe that them and never had such reason to mis- a Henry VIII. or a Gustavus Wasa could trust themselves. A kind of authority, be a saviour of society. The real ques. claiming to be parental, had been long tion to them, they said, was not at all a disregarded, it might be, and disliked ; question of ecclesiastical doctrine or of but, to dislike and disregard an infirm: royal supremacy. It involved the first and inactive parent is quite a different rules of morality. And, though popes thing from altogether disowning and de-' might sometimes be bad in morals, were nying him. For countries to develop: not monarchs usually so? Would it do slowly, to become stave by stage the not to hold reserved the highest place, in homes of national dynasties and churches,' the sight of all nations, for a potentate, the contradiction never becoming very who had once embodied and who might perceptible between their traditions and again embody Moral Greatness. What inclinations, the feeling always being that was happening? Lassitude was sapping the vital force of the people, luxury that|pher, and historian, and poet, dear even of the courts. What prospect could be to the satirist, of modern Europe - Mont more doleful? One saw cities swayed Blanc, the Rhone, Lake Leman, the deby the filthiest and most blasphemous | light of the large intellects of Rousseau, ravings of demagogues, and, in the coun- Gibbon, Byron, and Voltaire, enliven and try, peasants were rallying on behalf of! define the landscape of Geneva. the lowest of the older superstitions or In Carolingian times a count of Geneva on the behalf of communistic heresies. had governed on behalf of the Roman

The lives which have been, in their Empire. In Swabian times, the Emperor example and result, most beneficent to had made the bishop of Geneva count. humanity, have been at the last consumed | The bishop in his turn gave secular rule by a sense of loneliness and failure ; and under himself to the Count of Savoy, who it may be, that always after intense effort, bore the title of “ Vidomne." By degrees whether on the part of a person or a this title of vidomne passed — the count combination of persons, a corresponding at Turin willing it so in order that his slackness of mental fibre is inevitable. relations with Geneva might lose as much

“ Post tenebras lux” is the ancient as possible the traces of their origin in a motto of the town of Geneva, on which delegated authority — from the Count of the dawn and the warmth of the sun Savoy to his local officer, the custodian break from behind the wall of the Alps of the island-fortress in the Rhone. We and of eternal snow. In the heraldicare led to remark how, in the early hisbearings of the city meet the Eagle and i tory of the House of Savoy, the design the Keys, the symbols of Cæsar and off to reach and enclose Geneva was as St. Peter. On the very geography of warmly nursed and as persistently mainGeneva and on all her fortunes there is set tained as, in the later history of that the seal of an international vocation. House, the design to reach and to enFable makes Geneva four centuries older close Rome. Amadeus VIII. of Savoy, than Rome, and the eldest daughter of in the variety and incongruity of the disTroy. History connects the site with tinctions he accumulated, claims celebthe opening event in Cæsar's Westernrity as having surpassed all his succescampaigns. Here was the frontier of the sors. He became, one after the other, Allobroges, the allies of the Romans, Count and Duke of Savoy, Pope of Rome, where Cæsar met and turned aside the and Bishop of Geneva (A.D. 1444); at unwieldy caravan of the Helvetians. In intervals in his career he let his beard our own time, Geneva stands in a way of grow and lived a hermit at Ripaille. her own between the divergent interests From the times of Amadeus VIII. the of nations, of labour and capital, of eccle- bishops of Geneva were mostly members siastical establishments ; she offers a of the ducal family. The ambitious theatre for Alabama arbitrations, for house was increased and extended ; at social congresses, for the preaching of last Geneva was on all sides encompassed Père Hyacinthe. Throughout the Mid- by the possessions of the Duke of Savoy. dle Ages and at the rise of modern his- The line which separated the rights of tory she took a very prominent part in the duke over Geneva from his rights over the progress of commerce, and was the the territories beyond the city-proper had home of much literary and military ac- become the slightest imaginable. But tivity. “ Clef et Boulevard de la Suisse," under the shadow of the Cathedral of St. the city has been styled. Geneva stood | Peter at Geneva had sprung up — the on the confines of three languages, of plant is a common one in mediæval episthree political organisms, Italy, France, copal purlieus – a further Power, a deand the Empire. She had a close con- termined democracy. So far back as nection with the trade of Northern and 1387 a charter of liberties was granted, Western Europe through Cologne, with which made an important landmark on that of the South and East through Flor- the road toward the full enjoyment by ence and Venice; she was in closer Geneva of the forms of a republic. Thus neighbourhood and more intimate rela- the city was one of most diverse populations with, at about equal distances, Bern, tion and opinions. It had a most compliLyons, and Turin. And the mountain, cated jurisdiction and police. Bishop, the river, the lake – above all natural Vidomne, and Syndicate were bound by objects most suggestive to the mind of oath to uphold each other's privileges the traveller on the Continent in the and administration. Then there was the nineteenth century, inviting and familiar action of the Chapter, of the Vidomne's as they have been to the typical philoso-' lieutenant of the various civic com.

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