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From Chambers' Journal. lin high places, at a time when a man could DERISIVE PUNISHMENTS.

be condemned to lose his ears for calling TIMEs are considerably changed since Laud “a little urchin" in a private letter ridicule formed a part of ordinary judicial to a friend. The archbishop and his punishment. Sometimes the suffering satellites did their master very ill service inflicted went beyond a derisive public in giving occasion for the scene in Palace exbibition. It was hard for ladies of a Yard on the 30th of June 1637, thus de. political turn of mind, as the Countess of scribed in one of Strafford's letters : “ In Buchan learned, when, after Bruce's de- the palace yard two pillories were erected, feat at Methven, she fell into the hands of and there the sentence against Burton, the foes of the warrior upon whose head Bastwick, and Prynne was executed. she had placed the Scottish crown. “ As They stood two hours in the pillory. The she did not strike with the sword, so she place was full of people, who cried and shall not die with the sword,” said King howled terribly, especially when Burton Edward, in his cruel mercy condemning was cropped. Dr. Bastwick was very the patriotic lady to be confined in a merry ; his wife, Dr. Poe's daughter, got crown-shaped wooden cage, of strong lat. on a stool and kissed him. His ears betice-work barred with iron, and hung in ling cut off, she called for them, put them air from a turret of Berwick Castle, “ for in a clean handkerchief, and carried them a spectacle and everlasting reproach.” It away with her. Bastwick told the people, was poor consolation for the prisoner to the lords had their collar-days at court, know that Bruce's sister and daughter but this was his collar-day, rejoicing much were exhibited in the same manner, one in it." Fifty-six years later, Daniel Defoe at Roxburgh Castle, and the other in the stood unabashed in the pillory of the Tower. When ladies of high degree were Temple, amid a heap of garlands, flung treated as though they were wild beasts, by a crowd of well-wishers. we are not surprised to learn that a very A stranger scene still was witnessed at long time ago – so long ago that the date Charing Cross in 1758. Dr. John Shebhas been lost - a parson at Broughton-beare was in that year sentenked to three Hackett, Worcestershire, found guilty of years' imprisonment, and to stand one aiding a farmer's wife to get rid of her hour in the pillory, for writing certain spouse, was put in a strong cage, and Letters to the People of England, insisting suspended on Churchill Big Oak, with a that France owed her grandeur, and Eng. leg of mutton and trimmings within his land her misfortunes to the undue influsight, but beyond his reach, and so starved Jence of Hanover in the British councilto death.

chambers. Upon the 5th of December, Caging, however, was hardly a recog- a pillory was erected at Charing Cross, to nized form of punishment in England, the which the culprit was brought in one of pillory being the legal instrument of pun- the City stage-coaches by Under-sheriff ishment by exposure. It was simply the Beardmore, who handed him into the Anglo-Saxon "stretch neck" – a folding-pillory, and left him to stand there at his board with a hole in the centre for the ease; neither his head nor his hands were admission of the criminal's neck — with inclosed in the pillory holes, and a richly two additional holes for the hands, fas-dressed servant held an umbrella over the tened to the top of a pole fixed upon a doctor's head, to fend off the rain. The stool or platform. No more disagreeable under-sheriff was arraigned for neglecting penalty could have been bit upon for his duty, and although he contended he adulterators, cheating traders, forestallers, had fulfilled the letter of the law, was fined dice-coggers, forgers, fortune-tellers, pub- and imprisoned for his indulgent interlic liars, cut-purses, and vagabonds hav- pretation. The Irishman who acted as ing no claim upon the friendliness of the footman on the occasion was not satisfied multitude, at liberty to pelt the unlucky with the guinea he received for bis trouble, rogue with mud, garbage, and stones at saying to Shebbeare: “ Only think of the discretion. Charles I.'s Star Chamber disgrace, your honour !” and the doctor turned the pillory into an engine of politi- was obliged to salve the indignity with an cal oppression; in their tyrannic short-extra crown. A greater man than the sightedness, making it a place of honour, Devonshire surgeon, Lord Cochrane, of rather than of degradation, for, when men Bisque Roads fame, was sentenced in like Leighton, Prynne, and Lilburne stood 1814 to be pilloried. Upon Sir Francis in Place Yard, the sympathizing crowd Burdett declaring his intention of standhailed them, not as felons, but as heroes, ing by his colleague's side in the pillory, for boldly declaiming against misdoings 'the government, not caring to risk the consequences, wisely ignored that part of the matter was, that a Mr. Wilson, as the the sentence, and rested satisfied with special plotter and contriver of the busidegrading, fining, and imprisoning the ness, and the player of the part of Bottom, famous sea-fighter. Exposure in the was condemned to sit from six in the pillory has sometimes proved fatal. In morning to six at night in the stocks at 1756, the Smithfield drovers pelted two the porter's lodge of the bishop's house, perjured thief-takers so severely that one the ass's head on his shoulders, a bottle of them died ; in 1763, a man was done of hay before him, and a derisive inscripto death at Bow in the same way; and in tion on his breast. 1785, a coachman, named Read, expired In 1736, the good people of Whitstable in the pillory before his time was up. In were edified by the sight of a doctor and 1316, the punishment was abolished for a clergyman sitting side by side in the all offences save perjury, and in 1837 put stocks for swearing at one another. In an end to altogether.

1827, a man was placed in the stocks in The stocks, which answered the pur- St. Nicholas's Churchyard, Newcastle, pose of a pillory, were often made to serve for disturbing the congregation by enteras whipping posts also, by carrying their | ing the church during service-time, and supporting posts to a convenient height, shouting : “Bell forever!” Mr. Bell beand affixing iron clasps to hold the of-ling the popular candidate for the county. fender's wrists. Sometimes a single post | A similar piece of misconduct, without fixed in front of a bench answered the the excuse of electioneering excitement, double purpose equally well; a pair of upon the part of one Mark Tuck, led to iron clasps on the top being used in the revival of the institution at Newbury whipping-cases, and another pair fixed a year or so ago. Twenty-six years had below sufficing for ankle-holders. Every elapsed since the stocks had been tenparish had its stocks. “Coming home anted, and the butter market was thronged to-night," writes Pepys, “a drunken boy | with sight-seers anxious to see how the was carried by our constable to our new victim would take his punishment. He pair of stocks, to handsel them.” They did not appreciate their kind attentions, were generally erected near the church- and saluted every chiming of the church yard, or by the roadside, a little way out. clock with expressions of thankfulness. Driving along the country road, one may After four hours' exposure to the derision often come upon such a relic of the past, of the crowd, Tuck was released, and lost nearly hidden by weeds of many years' no time in making his way home, without growth. London, of course, was liberally staying to thank those who had revived provided for in this way: writing in 1630, an old custom for his especial benefit. Taylor the Water-poet says:

A German dame who let her tongue wag In London, and within a mile, I ween,

too freely about her neighbours, used to There are of jails or prisons full eighteen;

{be compelled to stand upon a block in And sixty whipping-posts and stocks and

the market-place, with a heavy stone cages.

dangling from her neck, shaped either

like a bottle, a loaf, an oval dish, or repreThe City stocks stood near the Exchange senting a woman putting out her tongue ; end of Cheapside, and must have occu-unless she happened to be rich enough pied a goodly space of ground, for, when to buy permission to exchange the shamethey were pulled down in 1668, Pepys said ful stone for a bag of hops tied round the clearance made the coming into Coro- with a red ribbon. In 1637, a woman of hill and Lombard Street "mighty noble." | Sandwich, in Kent, venturing to take libLong after the stocks had vanished, their erties with the good name of “ Mrs. memory was preserved by the Stocks Mayoress," had to walk through the Market, where Sir Robert Viner's trans- streets of the town, preceded by a man mogrified statue of Sobieski did duty for tinkling a small bell, bearing an old broom His Majesty King Charles II. triumphing upon her shoulder, from the end of which over a turban-crowned Cromwell, until dangled a wooden mortar. Staffordshire the market itself was swept away in 1735, scolds did not get off so easily. They to make room for the Mansion-house. had to follow the bellman until they Episcopal palaces would appear to have shewed unmistakable signs of repentance, had stocks attached to them. One Sun-debarred froin giving any one a bit of dav, in 1531, Shakespeare's Midsummer their mind by the branks, or scolds' briNight's Dream was privately performed dle, an ingenious arrangement of metal at the Bishop of Lincoln's house in Lon- hoops contrived to clasp the head and don. The consequence of an inquiry into the neck firmly, while the padlock behind remained locked, while a spiked plate each of the four town gates. In Montpressed upon the tongue, so as effectually gomery, it was not used as a seat at all, to preclude its owner making any use of the culprit having to stand upon it with it. The branks, however, was not pecu- naked feet and dishevelled hair. In liar to Staffordshire ; it was in use in Scotland, alewives convicted of selling Scotland centuries ago. In 1574, two bad ale were set upon the cuck-stool, quarrelsome Glasgow bodies were bound while the liquor was distributed to the over to keep the peace, on pain of being poor folk, for whom, however bad it might “ brankit." Pennant says the authorities be, it was considered apparently good of Langholm, in Dumfriesshire, always drink enough. In 1572 a new cuckingkept one in readiness for immediate use, stool cost the parish of Kingston-uponand plenty of specimens are yet to be Thames 7s. 6d. for timber, 3s. for ironseen in different places in England. I work, 4s. iod. for wheels and brasses, One preserved at Walton-on-Thames is and 8s. for the matting; a total outlay of of thin iron, with a less terrible bit than L.1, 35. 4d. - no mean item in parochial that of the Staffordshire branks, being expenditure, as money went three hun. only a piece of flat iron some two inches dred years ago. The ducking-stool was long, to keep the wearer's tongue quiet a strong chair fastened to the end of a by simple pressure. This instrument pole, or beam, projecting over a river, bears the date of 1633 on an inscription well, or water-trough. We do not know running :

that we can better Misson's description Chester presents Walton with a bridle

of it: “ They fasten an armchair to the To curb women's tongues that talk so idle –

end of two strong beams, twelve or fifteen

feet long, and parallel to each other. a couplet explained by a story of a Mr.The chair hangs upon a sort of axle, Chester losing an estate through a mis-on which it plays freely, so as always chief-making woman's tongue, and com- to remain in the horizontal position. memorating his loss by presenting Wal. The scold being well fastened in her ton with its scolds' bridle. Dr. Plot, the chair, the two beams are then placed, as Staffordshire historian, is loud in his near to the centre as possible, across a praise of this odd device for reforming post on the water-side ; and being lifted clamorous women. “I look upon it,” up behind, the chair, of course, drops says he, “ as much to be preferred to the into the cold element." However inferior cucking-stool, which not only endangers in efficacy to the branks, the duckingthe health of the party, but also gives the stool had the advantage in affording more tongue liberty 'twixt every dip, to neither amusement to on-lookers. Amusing to of which this is liable ; it being such a spectators, no doubt, but it was a cruel bridle for the tongue as not only quite pastime, and has very properly gone out deprives them of speech, but brings of use. shame for the transgression, and humility! Some queans with inveterate babits of thereupon, before it is taken off.”

scolding were not to be cured by the The worthy antiquary was mistaken in watery ordeal : in 1681, a Mrs. Finch, supposing the cucking-stool to be one who had been ducked three several times, and the same thing with the ducking- was convicted as a common scold for a stool, whereas it had nothing whatever to fourth time, and fined three marks, the do with the cold-water cure for hot-tem-Court of King's Bench ordering her to pered shrews. Borlase calls it “the seat be in prison till she paid the fine. In of infamy," whereon Cornish scolds were 1745, the hostess of the Queen's Head, at condemned to abide the derision of Kingston in Surrey, was ducked under passers-by for such time as the bailiffs Kingston Bridge. This is the latest inof the manor thought the occasion de stance we know of, in England at least; manded. In Leicester it was customary but a woman named Mary Davis underto set the offender upon the stool at her went the like discipline somewhere in own door, and then carry her in turn to | America so lately as 1818.

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Fifth Series, 3
Volume VII.S

No. 1576. - August 22, 1874.

From Beginning, 2 Vol. CXXII.

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CONTENTS.
I. THE ISLE OF WIGHT, . . . . . Quarterly Review, .
II. THE STORY OF VALENTINE; AND HIS

BROTHER. Part X., . . . . . Blackwood's Magazine,
III. PET RARCH. By A. H. Simpson, . . . Contemporary Review, .
IV. THE MANOR-HOUSE AT MILFORD, . . Chambers' Journal, .
V. HABIT IN PLANTS, AND POWER OF Accli-

MATIZATION. By H. Evershed, . .. . New Quarlerly Review, VI. THE BRUNSWICK ONYX VASE . . . Academy, . . . VIL The PETRARCHIAN COMMEMORATION, . . Athenæum, . . . VIII. THE HEARNE LETTERS, . . . . . Athenæum, . . .

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POETRY.

THREE SONNETs. By Emily Pfeiffer, · 450 | THE LAST Tryst, .

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life"

THREE SONNETS.

i We still might rise, and with one heart

agree TO NATURE IN HER ASCRIBED CHARACTER OF To marthe ruthless "crrinding of the mill in

F|To mar the ruthless “grinding of thy mill!" UNMEANING AND ALL-PERFORMING FORCE.

Dead tyrant, tho' our cries and groans pass by O NATURE! thou whom I have thought to

thee, love,

Man, cutting off from each new “tree of Seeing in thine the reflex of God's face, A loath'd abstraction would usurp thy

Himself, its fatal flower, could still defy thee, place,

In waging on thy work eternal strife, — While Him they not dethrone, they but disprove.

The races come and coming evermore,

Heaping with hecatombs thy dead-sea shore. Weird Nature ! can it be that joy is fled

June 23. And bald un-meaning lurks beneath thy Spectator.

Emily PFEIFFER. smile? That beauty haunts the dust but to beguile, And that with Order, Love and Hope are

dead ? Pitiless Force, all-moving, all-unmov'd,

THE LAST TRYST. Dread mother of unfather'd worlds, assauge Over brown moors and wither'd leas Thy wrath on us, - be this wild life reprov’d, The angry winds were sweeping : And trampled into nothing in thy rage! Over the great grey northern seas,

| The crested waves were leaping ; Vain prayer, although the last of human- | And you and I stood close together, kind,

In the chilling gleam of the wintry weather, Force is not wrath, — she is but deaf and blind. As the bare gaunt branches, overhead, June 19.

Shook their lingering leaflets, gold and red,

While in every faltering word we said,
II.

Rang the pitiful wail for the days that were Dread Force, in whom of old we lov'd to see

dead; A nursing mother, clothing with her life For, by the sad seas, 'neath the storm-beat The seeds of Love divine, with what sore

trees, strife

Our last tryst we were keeping. We hold or yield our thoughts of Love and thee!

I scarce could hear the words you sobbed,

Amid your passionate weeping, Thou art not “calm,” but restless as the And the glow from my eager prayer was ocean,

robbed, Filling with aimless toil the endless years, L. By the chill around us creeping; Stumbling on thought, and throwing off the From the silent paths, where in summer spheres,

weather, Churning the Universe with mindless motion.

Youth, joy, and music had met together,
From the cry of the sea-mews flitting past,

O'er the wild white waves in the bitter blast, Dull fount of joy, unhallow'd source of tears,

From the breakers that crash'd on the hollow Cold motor of our fervid faith and song, Dead, but engendering life, love, pangs, and

From the sough of the breeze o'er the dull fears,

damp land, Thou crownedst thy wild work with foulest

From sea and shore rose “No more, no more,” wrong,

As our last tryst we were keeping.

sand,

III.

When first thou lightedst on a seeming goal,

There was not a pale bud left, in sooth, And darkly blunder'd on man's suffering soul.

'Mid the dry leaves round us heaping; June 20.

The bitter harvest of reckless youth,

Time's iron hand was reaping;

Our lips still said, “ Forever, forever," Blind Cyclop, hurling stones of destiny,

| As the trembling fingers clung together. And not in fury! — working bootless ill,

But even then each sad heart knew In mere vacuity of mind and will —

What fate and circumstance meant to do, Man's soul revolts against thy work and thee! And the mighty billows boom'd like a knell,

1 As we turned apart from that long farewell; Slaves of a despot, conscienceless and nil, And to wind, and rain, and the moaning main, Slaves, by mad chance befool'd to think Left the last tryst of our keeping. them free,

All The Year Round.

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