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these computations. And the latest year, and its hardy character was formed, in the which any of them will allow, it will be continuing stress of danger and difficulty. observed, is 1226 B. C., a date earlier than But the voyage of Argo, the Seven the important catastrophe which deposed against Kadmeian Thebes, the triumthe city of Sidon from its primacy in phant attack of the Epigonoi, the enorCanaan.

mous and prolonged effort of the War of The names used in Homer, which bear | Troy, the Achaian and so-called Danaan directly on the argument, are six

attempts against Egypt, were not wars of 1. The Dardanian. 4. The Sidonian.

conquest. They were not waged in or2. The Achaian. 5. The Keteian.

der to impose the yoke upon the necks of 3. The Danaan. 6. The Theban.

others. And yet, though varied in time,

in magnitude, in local destination, they And the evidence which the text yields

seem, with some likelihood at least, to in connection with each and all of them

present to us a common character. They converges, positively or negatively, upon speak with one voice of one great theme: the same point. The general effect is, to

a dedication of nascent force, upon the throw back the Fall of Troy somewhat, whole noble in its aim, as well as deterbut not greatly, further than according to mined and masculine in its execution. the common computation. Some, how

For the end it had in view, during a ever, as we have seen, bring the 18th,

course of effort sustained through so 19th, and 20th Dynasties slightly lower

many generations, was the worthy, nay, down than the writers whose figures I

the paramount end of establishing, on a have provisionally adopted. Mr. Poole's fir

isionally adopted. Mr. Poole's | firm and lasting basis, the national life, or Mr. P. Smith's figures would not great-cohesion, and independence. ly affect any date to be assigned on the

1874.

W. E. GLADSTONE. strength of an argument such as this to the War or Fall of Troy. There is no

NOTE. -- I have to withdraw a statement too hastily made in the first part of this paper that Homer does not call Troy large or broad-wayed. This is incorrect;

see Il. ii. 141, 332, and elsewhere. But in the subthrow the Troica back at least as far as stance of my statement, with regard to the population the middle of the Thirteenth Century B.C. of Troy, I have nothing to qualify. — June 12. But the whole, it must be remembered, depends on the substantial acceptance of the Egyptian computations.

The opinions which were current on this subject before it was capable of

From Chambers' Journal. illustration by Egyptology, were learned

THE TASMANIAN BLUE GUM TREE. ly discussed and summed up by Clinton.* Some tinie ago (Dec. 6, 1873), we had Düntzer observes, that Herodotus in his a short article on the Eucalyptus globuhistory adopts the date of 1270 B.C., and lus, or Tasmanian Blue Gum Tree, and its by some the event was carried as high as alleged marvellous properties as regards 1353 B.C., while others placed it as low as the drying of marshes and prevention of 1120 B.C.

malarious disease. We ventured to ask One word, before closing, on the extra- for precise and trustworthy information ordinary interest which, if my presenta on the subject; and the following has tion of this early history be generally been sent to us by a correspondent, correct, attaches to the warlike incidents which we submit to our readers : of the infancy of Greece. Sic fortis! Much interest, he proceeds, has re. Etruria crevit. We have examples incently been excited among men of scimodern times, and in the most recent ence, especially in France, concerning experience, of great States, which owe the Tasmanian Blue Gum Tree (Eucalypall their greatness to successful war. tus globulus), in consequence of the The spectacle offered to a calm review by power which it seems to possess of prethis process is a mixed, sometimes á venting intermittent fever in the most painful one. So, too, it seems that the swampy and malarious districts. There early life of the most wonderful people is a large amount of evidence to shew that whom the world has ever seen, was greatly it possesses this power in a high degree, spent in the use of the strong hand against so that not only is intermittent fever the foreigner. That people was nursed, unknown where it naturally grows in

abundance, although in situations and in • Fasti Hellenici, Introduction, sect. vi. p. 123.

a climate where its prevalence might be + Homerische Fragen, p. 122.

expected, but places previously most subject to that afflictive malady, cease to be a height of 200 feet, and sometimes more, so when this tree is planted there. If and a diameter of stem at the base of ii all this is confirmed, as there is good to 22 feet. The stem is naked as a reason to hope it will be, the Tasmanian granite column, almost to the top, where Blue Gum Tree must be deemed one of it sends out branches forming a small the most valuable trees in the world, and crown, with thin foliage. The leaves are to many countries it will prove an inesti- lanceolate, or ovato-lanceolate, generally mable boon.

twisted, and of a dark bluish-green colThe Gum Trees, forming the genus lour, with a camphor-like odour. The Eucalyptus of botanists, which belongs timber has an aromatic odour, and is to the great natural order Myrtacea, are scarcely liable to rot, however long exalmost exclusively natives of Australia posed to the action of water. It is thereand Tasmania. A few species are found fore much used for ship-building, for farther north in the islands of the Malay- piers, and for a great variety of other puran Archipelago and in the Eastern Penin-| poses, and is a considerable article of exsula. Although ranked in a natural or- port from Tasmania. der of which the Myrtle is the type, Various medicinal uses have been asthey are very unlike myrtles in their gen- cribed to the leaves of this tree, a prepacral appearance, and constitute a charac-ration of which has been represented as teristic and most peculiar feature of even more efficacious than quinine in the Australian vegetation. Scattered over cure of intermittent fever. But this and the face of the country, as the trees of other alleged medicinal properties require Australia generally are, growing singly further investigation. or in clumps, like trees in a lawn, instead There seems, however, to be good reaof being congregated in thick forests, son for believing that this tree acts as a like the trees of most other parts of preventive of the miasmata which prothe world, they differ from other trees | duce fever and ague. That Tasmania is by a remarkable peculiarity of foliage. free from this malady, or nearly so, whilst The leaves have not one face turned to in almost all other countries of similar the sun and the other to the earth, as climate it is sadly prevalent, is of itself a trees and plants of all kinds generally significant circumstance; but it could not have, but they stand with their edges be inferred from this alone that this parupwards and downwards, so that each ticular tree is the cause of its immunity. surface is equally presented to the sun. However, a number of considerations There are some 'species in which this is having led to the opinion that this is not the case, but they are only a few probably the case, the tree has been inamong the numerous species of the genus.troduced elsewhere, and the experiment

The leaves of all the Gum Trees are tried in circumstances in which the result leathery and undivided, and abound in must be regarded as affording very cona volatile oil, which has an aromatic and clusive evidence. Some unhealthy localnot unpleasant odour. Many of the spe- ities at the Cape of Good Hope were rencies abound in resinous secretions, from dered perfectly salubrious, apparently which they receive the name of Gum through the influence of the Blue Gum Trees. Some of them attain a great size, ] Tree, within a few years after plantations with trunks sixteen feet in diameter. of it had been made. It was then tried They are remarkable for their very rapid sin Algeria, and on a pretty large scale, in growth, and are easily felled, split, and different parts of the country; and places sawn ; the timber, when green, being very that previously had been almost uninhabsoft, although it becomes very hard after itable in the fever season, became at once exposure to the air, and is then useful exempt from all such disease, even in the for many purposes, amongst which is that first year of the growth of the trees. The of ship-building. The Iron Bark Tree colonists and their families now enjoy exand the Stringý Bark Tree of Australia | cellent health, where the climate for seve are among the species of this genus most eral months of the year used to be absoimportant for their uses as timber trees. | lutely pestilential. Similar results have Botany Bay Kino is a resinous secretion followed the introduction of this tree in of another species, of some value in medi-Cuba and in Mexico. Even in the South cine.

of France it has been productive of most The Tasmanian Blue Gum Tree grows beneficial effects. A station-house at the plentifully in the valleys and on the lower end of a railway viaduct in the department mountain slopes of Tasmania. It attains of Var was so unhealthy, that the officials had to be changed every year, but forty parts extremely beautiful, finely undulatof these trees having been planted, its ing, and rich both in grass and trees, but unhealthiness entirely ceased.

exceptionally dangerous from the miasThere is hope, therefore, for the Cam- mata which it exhales, for which science pagna di Roma that its cultivation may has not yet been able well to account. yet be carried on with the greatest facility The Blue Gum Tree has been supand advantage, and the natural fertility of posed to exert its influence by the aroits soil turned to the utmost account. matic odour which it diffuses in the But if so, there is hope also of speedy atmosphere. But there seems to be immunity from sore distress for the in- much reason for thinking that the secret habitants of many parts of the world, of its power lies in part, at least, in the where intermittent fevers prevail at cer- extreme rapidity of its growth, requiring tain seasons of every year. How happy an extraordinary consumption of water, would many North American farmers be, so that it thoroughly drains the soil if by planting a few hundreds of Blue around it. A marsh near Constantia, in Gum Trees, they could secure probable Algeria, was found to be completely dried exemption from this disease for them-lin a very short time by a plantation of selves and their families! The range Gum Trees. Such is the rapidity of within which this tree can be made avail- growth of the tree, that seedlings raised able must, however, be limited by cli-on a hot-bed and planted out in the open mate. It does not bear the winter even air in the south of England, have been of the south of England, except when known to attain a height of ten feet in the season is unusually mild ; and great the same year. In a warmer climate, the part of North America, where intermit-growth is probably still more rapid ; but tent fever is very prevalent every year we know of no other instance of such during the summer months in all low rapidity of growth in the case of any grounds, and on the slopes adjacent to valuable timber tree of the temperate them, is subject to a severity of cold in parts of the world. winter which would certainly destroy every plant of this species. But in the Gulf States of North America, and to some extent northwards in the valleys of the Mississippi and other rivers, and

From Chambers' Journal. along the coasts of Florida, Georgia, and

COMBS. Carolina, its introduction may probably COMBS are of prodigious antiquity. be found in the highest degree beneficial, Rudely inade, they are found among the as also in the West Indian islands and earliest relics of art. A bronze comb, tropical parts of America. It may, per- which has been pictured both by Sir John haps, be doubted if the climate of the west Lubbock in his Prehistoric Times, and coast of Africa would not prove too warm also by M. Figuier, was found in one of for it, although its successful introduction three coffins in a tumulus near Ribe, in in Cuba seems to prove that it is capable Jutland, opened by Worsaae, the great of enduring the heat of the tropics; and Danish archæologist: from other findings as the fevers of that region constitute in the same coffin, it was plainly the the chief difficulty in the way of Euro-property, not of a lady, but of a fighting. pean colonization there, the acquirement man of the bronze epoch. In Jutland we of the means of preventing them would are close upon the footsteps of our own open up prospects entirely new. It will ancestors and of our Danish cousins and probably not be long till the powers of invaders. The earlier Celtic tribes seem the tree are fully tested in India, and if to have buried their combs as well as they are found to be as great as French their swords in the graves of their warnaturalists seem at present to believe, its riors. Such customs, indeed, are comintroduction will probably hasten the cul-! mon to all races in one stage of their cultivation of many a jungle, besides pre-ture ; his pipe and tobacco-bag were serving the health and saving the life of placed beside the dead American Inmany a civilian and many a soldier. One dian, in case he should want to smoke great tract in the North of India seems upon his passage. The custom was proespecially to demand its introduction, and longed, in some cases into Christian to be in climate perfectly adapted to it-times. When the body of the great the Terai — which stretches along the Bishop Cuthbert was carried in the boat whole base of the Himalaya, where they by his monks and clergy to the island of slope down to the plains, a tract in many Lindisfarne, they deposited his ivory

comb, "pecten eburneus,” in the stone century, the proper division of the labour cottin beside his corpse. According to is marked out; the deacon is to comb Reginald's description of St. Cuthbert's the right side of the bishop's head, the comb, it was of a now unusual shape, sub-deacon the left side : they are orbroader than it was long.

dered to do their work lightly and decently St. Cuthbert's comb was probably an (“leviter et decenter '). Perhaps some episcopal one. This popular national refractory clerks were inclined to use the saint of Northern England died at the opportunity, by punishing their spiritual end of the seventh century ; but at least father with a severe dig of the comb. a century earlier in the Gallican Church From a ritual of the fourteenth century, the comb appears to have formed a part belonging to the Cathedral Church of of the appliances used at a solemn high Viviers, it appears that the bishop's hair, mass, especially if sung by a bishop. at least in that diocese, was first combed These church combs were usually of by the deacon in the vestry; and then, ivory; sometimes they were quite plain, not merely once, but three several times sometimes elaborately carved and deco- during the progress of the mass — after rated with gems. Specimens of them are the Kyrie, after the Gloria in Excelsis, to be seen in the sacristies and treasuries and after the Creed. No rule as to genof a few of the greater churches on the eral European custom, or even national continent; and the inventories of the custom, can be drawn from local rituals prizes seized from our own churches at and pontificals, as every bishop was the ihe Reformation epoch, prove that they ordinary of ceremonies and uses for his were once às plentiful amongst us. In own diocese. the treasury of the cathedral of Sens, The combs figured in our English they show a large ivory comb inlaid with manuscripts (many of which have been precious stones and carved with figures copied by the historians of manners) are of animals : on it is cut the inscription, nearly always of great bulk, and have “ Pecten St. Lupi.” Lupus, the French coarse teeth. The medieval and renaisSt. Loup, was the most famous of the sance combs were often double – that is, archbishops of that important see in the lin shape though not in size, like modern Merovingian times. Amongst the relics small-tooth combs. In a representation hanging round the shrine of St. Cuth of the arrival of a guest (painted in the bert in the end of the fourteenth century, fourteenth century), one of the welcomthe pilgrims saw three combs : one was ing attendants is pulling off his shoes, said to have belonged to St. Dunstan, an- while another is combing his hair. The other to Archbishop Malachi, and the comb in this picture is truly immense. third was called “the comb of St. Boysit Our old English books of courtesy are the priest.” At the Reformation, these full of references to the use of the comb. and all such portable treasures disap- It was a part of the page's duty to comb peared, to the loss of the historians of his lord's hair : directions “for combing art and manners. Henry VIII. carried your sovereign's head” are given by from the wealthy Abbey of Glastonbury, John Russell in his Boke of Nurture, also “a combe of golde, garnished with small by Wynkyn de Worde in The Boke of turquases and other coarse stones, weigh-| Kervinge. Carving was the principal ing with the stones eight ounces.” | duty of the youth, and all other details of

The episcopal comb was used in the his work are included under it as a kind church, after the following fashion. If a of general title. The duty of combing, as bishop was the celebrant at the eucha culture widens, begins to be treated by rist, the deacon and sub-deacon combed the writers on etiquette as a duty towards his hair while he sat upon the faldstool, one's self, and not merely towards one's immediately after the putting on of the lord. Andrew Borde, in 1557, recomepiscopal sandals. A towel was placed mends the frequent use of the comb: round the bishop's neck during the op- “ Kayme your heade oft, and do so dyvirs eration. The old offices contain prayers times in the day.” William Vaughan, in to be used by the celebrant at his suc- } his Fifteen Directions to preserve Health, cessive assumption of each article of published in 1602, prescribes combing for vesture ; but I do not know whether any its intellectual benefits : it must be done prayer during the combing of the hair is "softly and easily, with an ivory comb,” extant. The process is described in a he writes, “for nothing recreateth the pontifical writen in the tenth century by memory more.” Sir John Harrington in order of an abbot of Corbey. In an Ordo his section on “the dyes for every Romanus of the end of the thirteenth day,” of his School of Saterne (1624), gives the simple instruction : “ Comb your head and talk.” As ladies used the fan in their well with an ivory comb from the fore- Airtations with gentlemen, so the artificial head to the back-part, drawing the comb swains of the period wielded the comb in some forty times at the least.” It would their languishing addresses to their shepseem from the preciseness of his advice, herdesses. Dodsley has a long note on that English gentlemen were still a little this custom in the eleventh volume of his slovenly in their own treatment of their Old Plays, and cites a number of illus. hair ; when they wished it to be properly trations. In his Prologue to the second treated, they put themselves under the part of Almanzor and Almahide, written hands of the barber. There is little doubt in 1670, Dryden refers to the ostentatious that the close-cropped hair of the Presby, public use of the comb by the would be terian and Independent Roundheads was wits in the pit of the theatre. From the more cleanly than the long hair of the Epilogue to the Wrangling Lovers, of cavalier with its artificial love-locks. It 1677, it appears that this free public was a part of the extreme protest of combing was a distinction which marked George Fox, the founder of Quakerism, off the man of the town from the dull against all the fashions of the earlier country cousin : Puritan sects, who were masters in England when he began his mission, to wear

How we rejoiced to see them in our pit !

What difference, methought, there was long hair. When he was preaching in

Betwixt a country gallant and a wit. Flintshire, in 1651. he says that “one

When you did order periwig with comb, called a lady" sent tor him. “She kept a

They only used four fingers and a thumb. preacher in her house. I went to her house, but found both her and her The comb has now been for so long an preacher very light and airy. In her implement in all hands, and has become lightness, she came and asked me if she so cheap in price, that it is scarcely possishould cut my hair. But I was moved to ble to realize the unkempt condition of reprove her, and bid her cut down the our ancestors in some out-of-the-way corruptions in herself with the Sword of places only a hundred years ago. In the the Spirit of God.” He learned after- Autobiography of Thomas Wright of wards that this lady boasted that she had Birkenshaw, written at the close of the gone behind him and “cut off the curl" | last century, he says, that half a century of his hair. At Dorchester, the con- earlier, in the village of Oakenshaw, about stables made him take off his hat, to see four miles from Bradford, the people were if he were not shaved at the top of his so rude that their manners became a byhead ; they were sure that so fierce an word throughout the district. It was opponent of the Puritan clergy must be a reported of them, that they kept their Jesuit. The long hair of the father of heads in such a shock-headed condition Quakerism, like that of the Frankish from Sunday to Sunday, that an iron comb kings and chieftains, was necessarily was chained to a tree which stood in the often in need of the comb; and it comes middle of the village for the use of the out incidentally, in his journal of the year whole parish. What have been the ad1662, that George Fox was so careful of vances in the use and manufacture of personal neatness as to carry a comb-case combs since this period need not be parin his pocket. When he was seized by ticularized. Lord Beaumont and the soldiers in Leicestershire as a suspected rebel, that nobleman “ put his hands into my pocket," says Fox, “and plucked out my comb-case; and then commanded one of

From Macmillan's Magazine. his officers to search for letters.”

A CURIOUS PRODUCT. The cavalier gentry, who took the I Am a child of the times, and am sorry Quaker patriarch for a plotter, were great to be unable to congratulate my Parent. employers of the comb. The huge peruke It is not that I am at all disreputable. came in with Charles II.; and a fashion My vices entitle me to no distinction. arose amongst the gallants of combing To begin by doing justice, I am perfectly their huge head-dresses in public: it is free from vanity and may therefore be the often noticed by the dramatists of the more easily believed when I say that Restoration. It is one of the stage di-probably few men being bachelors and rections, in Killigrew's Parson's Wedding, under thirty are better loved and be. for a group of fashionable gentlemen of friended than I am. The number of perthe year 1663: “They comb their heads 'sons who take a warm interest in me is

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