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diate member, which is not without its / should have been thus long and hard is constructive use, but which is artistically in no way wonderful. Of the pagan a survival, though no more than a sur- buildings of Ravenna nothing remains vival, of the broken entablature, is thrust but a few inscribed stones and such like, in between them.* At Rome, on the other and the columns which are used up again hand, the two modes of construction went in the churches. Not a single temple or on side by side, and the entablature re- other building is standing, even in ruins. mained in occasional use to divide the They most likely perished early. The nave and aisles of Roman churches, after position of Ravenna was more like that of the northern architects had exchanged the New Rome than that of the Old. the round arch itself for the more aspir- The city sprang at once, in Christian ing pointed forms. Of the three greatest times, from the rank of a naval station to churches of Rome, the first in rank, the that of an abode of Emperors. But at church of Saint John Lateran, the true Rome, where the stores of earlier buildmetropolitan church of Rome, the Mother ings were so endless, where paganism Church of the City and of the World, held its ground so long, and where so used the arch in all its perfection in that many of the pagan temples were spared long range of colums which papal barbar- till a very late time, the older mode of ism has so diligently laboured to destroy, building was not likely to be forsaken all But in the Liberian Basilica on the at once. The churches had either been Esquiline the entablature — save again basilicas or were built after the model of where triple-crowned destroyers have cut the basilicas. And in the basilicas, the through its long unbroken line - reigns rows of columns which divided the build. as supreme as the arch does in the Lat- ing, the beginning of nave and aisles, eran. In the Vatican Basilica both certainly supported, down at least to the forms were used; but the entablature had days of Diocletian and Constantine, not the precedence. It was used in the main arches, but a straight entablature. Saint rows of columns which divided the nave Mary on the Esquiline therefore, in its from the main aisles, while the arcade long horizontal lines, simply clave to the was used only to divide the main aisles existing fashion; the arches of Saint from the secondary aisles beyond them. John Lateran and of Saint Paul were an It was between the long horizontal lines innovation which had to fight its way of the elder form of art, lines suggesting against received practice. the days of Augustus rather than the But the transition may be traced, not days of Diocletian, that Charles and only in the construction and arrangement Henry and Frederick marched to receive of buildings, but in their ornamental dethe crown which Diocletian rather than tails. Classical purism allows of only a Augustus had bequeathed to them. And, very few forms of capital. There are the as if to make the balance equal, the three Greek orders in their pure state, church of the brother Apostle, standing and at Rome it would be hard to shut beyond the walls of Leo no less than be- out their Roman modifications. The peyond the walls of Servius and Aurelian, culiar Roman or Composite capital, the the great basilica of Saint Paul, modern union of lonic and Corinthian forms, as it is in its actual fabric, preserves, may perhaps be admitted by straining a better than any other, the form of a great point. But there toleration ends. Yet church with arches resting on the col- one may surely say that, though the umns, the memory in short of what the Greek forms are among the loveliest crepatriarchal church itself once was. In ations of human skill, yet, if men are conthe lesser churches the arched form is fined in this way to three or four models, by far the most common, but the entab- they are sure to weary of their sameness. lature keeps possession of a minority The Corinthian capital is as beautiful an which is by no means contemptible. And arrangement of foliage as can be devised ; at last it appears again, by a kind of dying but it is hard to be forbidden either to effort, in the work of Honorius the Fourth attempt other arrangements of foliage or in the basilica of Saint Lawrence, a work to seek for ornament in other forms bedistant only by a few years from the last sides foliage. The later Roman builders finish of Pisa, from the first beginnings of clearly thought so; they brought in variSalisbury. That the struggle at Rome ous varieties, which it is easy to call cor
ruptions, but which it is just as easy to call • The Ravenna stilt may be compared with the stilt developments. Among the vast stores of between the column and the entablature in Egyptian architecture.
capitals which are to be found among the In the Saracenic styles it became a great feature with both round and pointed arches. buildings of Rome, there are many which,
though they follow the general type of;ument of the religious and artistic his. the Ionic or the Corinthian order, do not tory of Rome, it has the same kind of inrigidly follow the types of those orders terest which we feel when we find, ever which are laid down by technical rules. and anon at home, a church built or Professor Reber has given some exam- adorned after the elder fashion during the ples of this departure from rigid technical reaction under Philip and Mary. This exactness even in the Colosseum itself. temple was the work of a devout and The forms used in the Colosseum are zealous pagan, Prætextatus the friend of certainly not improvements ; the point is Julian, though it was built, not during that there should be varieties of any kind. the reign of his patron, but in the tolerant But I must speak in a different tone of days of Valentinian. This building, as a certain capitals, to my mind of singular pagan building, as part of the buildings splendour and singular interest, which of the Forum, comes within Professor lie neglected among the ruins of the Baths Reber's ken. We have to thank him for of Caracalla. The artist has been so far illustrating its remarkable capitals, in from confining himself to one prescribed which we find neither human nor animal pattern, either of volute or of acanthus forms, but, by an equal departure from leaves, that he has ventured to employ the ideal precision of any known order, vigorously carved human or divine figures The place of the figures of Hercules and as parts of the enrichment of his capitals. Bacchus in the capitals of Caracalla is And among the stores of fragments which supplied by armour and weapons in the lie in the lower gallery of the Tabula- form of a trophy. Both Professor Reber rium, there are a number of capitals and Mr. Burn note these steps in archiwhich go even further, capitals of which tectural development. Why do they not the volute is formed by the introduction go on to notice the next step, when we of various animal figures. If it be true find capitals of the same anomalous kind that the volute took its origin from a used up again in the Laurentian Basilica ? ram's horn, such a change is something From thence another easy step leads us like going back again to the beginning to the use of the same forms in the In these capitals, some at least of which, churches of Lucca, and one more step if not "classical," are certainly pagan, we leads us to the western portal of Wetzlar get the beginning of that lavish employ- and to the Imperial palace at Gelnhausen. ment of animal figures in Romanesque The complaint then which I have to capitals of which we have many examples make is that we have excellent works ilin England and Normandy, but the best lustrating the pagan antiquities of Rome, forms of which are certainly to be found and excellent works illustrating the Chrisin some of the German and Italian build- tian antiquities of Rome, but that we have ings. At Wetzlar and at Gelnhausen, at no book, as far as I know, which clearly Milan, Monza, and Pavia, we may see and scientifically traces out the connection how ingeniously the volute can be made between the two, and which sets them forth out of various arrangements of the heads as being both alike members of one unof men, lions, bulls, and the primitive broken series. In M. Wey's book I can ram himself, and how, in the noblest type at least turn from a picture of the Temple of all, it is formed by the bird of Cæsar of Saturn to a picture of the church of bowing his head and folding his wings, Saint Clement, even though either may as if in the presence of his master. Such be picturesquely mixed up with a picture forms as these may be grotesque, fanci- l of a peasant or a buffalo. Professor ful, barbarous, according to teclinical Reber and Mr. Burn give me all that I rules; I venture to see in them perfectly can want up to a certain point; only then lawful efforts of artistic and inventive they stop, without any reason that I can skill. And at any rate, here we have the see for stopping. beginning of them, in Roman buildings I have two more remarks to make on early in the third century. And there is the connection between the Pagan and the another building which I have always early Christian buildings of Rome. The looked on with especial interest, the exclusive votaries of classical antiquity small range of columns, the remains of sometimes raise a not unnatural outcry at the Temple of the Dii Consentes, imme- the barbarism of Popes, Emperors, and diately below the clivus of the Capitol. Exarchs — the memory of Theodoric forHere is a work of pagan reaction, a tem- bids us to add Kings — in building their ple consecrated to the old Gods of Rome churches out of the spoils of older buildafter some of the earliest Christian ings. But what were they to do? They churches were already built. As a mon-' naturally looked on the question in a wholly different way from that in which it by longitudinal ranges of columns in the is natural for us to look at it. They had new. In short, at the very moment when no antiquarian feeling about the matter ; the arch won its greatest triumph, both such feelings at least were far stronger in of construction and of decoration, archithe breast of the Goth than they were in tecture, as far as the roof was concerned, the breast of the Roman. The feeling of fell back on the principle of the entablaa Bishop or of a zealous Emperor or mag-/ture. The practice of vaulting large istrate would rather be that with which spaces, such as we see in the Baths of Jebu or Josiah brake down the house of Caracalla and the basilica of Maxentius, Baal. The temples were standing use- went altogether out of use, tiil a distant less ; churches were needed for the wor- approach to the boldness of the old Roship of the new faith ; the arrangements man construction came in again in the of the temples seldom allowed of their great German minsters of the twelfth being turned into churches as they stood, century. while they supplied an endless store of It is the round-arched buildings, and columns which could be easily carried off especially the early type of them, which and set up again in a new building. The form the main wealth of the Christian act cannot fairly be blamed ; in a wider architecture of Rome. The later Romanview of history and art it can hardly be esque gave Rome one boon only, but that regretted.
was a precious one. Rome now gained, Besides this objection from outside, what she had never had either in Pagan which may make some minds turn away or in early Christian times, something to from the study of the early Christian break the monotony of her horizontal buildings at Rome, there is another re- lines. The pagan temple was all glomark, an admission it may be called, to rious without; the Christian basilica be made from within. There can be no was all glorious within ; but neither of doubt that the form which was chosen for them had anything in its external outline the early churches, though it fostered art to lead the eye or the mind upward. in many ways, checked it, in the West at That lack was supplied by the tall narrow least, in one way. The arch is the parent bell-towers which add so much to the of the vault; the vault is the parent of picturesqueness of many a view in Rome, the cupola ; and to have brought these and which are the only mediæval works three forms to perfection is the glory of which at all enter into the general artistic Roman art. But for some ages the con aspect of the city. Of the sham Gothic of tinuity of Roman art in this respect is to Italy Rome has happily but little to show. be looked for in the New Rome and not | The sprawling arches of Rome's one in the Old. The type of church which Gothic church by the Pantheon show was adopted at Constantinople allowed the that we are on the way to the time of uthighest development of the art of vault- ter destruction. They are the pioneers ing, and sent it in its perfect form back of the havoc of the Renaissance. Rome again into the Western lands where it was now at last to be truly sacked by the had first begun. Saint Mark is the child barbarians. We may pass by the ravage of Saint Sophia, and Saint Front at Péri- wrought on the temples at the foot of the gueux is the child of Saint Mark. But the Capitol, on the Colosseum, on the stately oblong basilican type of the Roman columns of Nerva's Forum. One who churches had no place for the cupola, has followed the line of argument of this and the one objection to the use of the article will perhaps rather be inclined to column as a support for the arch is that mourn over the destroyed and disfigured it makes it hardly possible to cover the churches of the early days of Roman building with a vault. The vault and the Christianity. Then it was that the fury dome were therefore used in the West of the destroyer was let loose on the venonly in the exceptional class of round erable piles which Constantine had reared buildings, and in the apses of the basili- and where Theodoric had made his offer. can churches. The basilican churches ings. Pope after Pope had the pleasure had only wooden roofs, and their naves of writing up his name, of recording his could be made no wider than was con- " munificence," on the holy places which sistent with being covered with a wooden | he laid waste. The distigurement of roof. Sometimes, as in the basilica which Saint John Lateran, the destruction of bears the name of Saint Cross in Jerusa- Saint Peter's, may stand on record as the lem, where an ancient building of great great exploits of papal rule in Rome. width has been turned into a church, the Men enter the modern Vatican Basilica single body of the old structure is divided and wonder why the building seems so much smaller than it really is. We may | true abiding place on Italian soil had be sure that no man wondered on that thrust themselves into the windows both score in the ancient building, as no man of its apse and of its clerestory. We now wonders in the restored church of picture it as it was when Hildebrand Saint Paul. No wonder that the building arose from the patriarchal throne of the looks small when three arches have world, from the throne which his suctaken the place of twenty-four intercolum- cessors have swept away as an 'useless niations; the vastness of the parts takes thing,* to declare the King of Germany away from the vastness of the whole. In and Italy deposed from both his king. this mood we turn from the boasted glory doms. We picture it as it was when of the Renaissance to try and call up to Urban sat in the midst of his assembled our minds the likeness of the nobler pile Council, and called Anselm of Canterwhich has passed away. That dreary | bury, as himself the Pope of another and forsaken apse, that front which it world, to take his seat beside him in the needs some faith to believe to be part of circle of which the destroyers have left a church at all, may pass away from our no trace behind. So we might go thoughts. They have sprung up on through all the buildings, great and small, ground which no part of the old basilica of which any portion has been spared to ever covered. We turn from the work us. Everywhere there is the same deof the Borghese to the portal of ancient struction, mutilation, or concealment of times, when the one imperial tomb which the ancient features, the same thrusting Rome still holds was not yet thrust down in of incongruous modern devices, the out of sight and out of mind.* We enter, same fulsome glorification of the doers of and, as the eye hurries along the few the havoc. Still, in the vast extent of the yawning arches of the nave, we long for city, enough is left for us to trace out all the days when it might have rested step the leading features of the various forms by step along the endless ranges of its ( which were taken by the early Christian columns. And even the majesty of the buildings, and to connect them with the dome cannot make us forget that on its / buildings of the pagan city which form site once stood the altar, not as now, the models out of which they grew by standing alone and forlorn, with its huge healthy and natural development. The baldacchino further to lessen the effect historical associations of these buildings of size and dignity, but standing in its are surely not inferior to those of their place, canopied by the apse blazing with pagan predecessors. As marking a stage mosaics, with the throne of the Patri- in the history of art, we must look on arch rising in fitting dignity among his them as links in the chain, as the central presbyters, the throne from which a members which mark the great turningworthier Leo than the Medicean de-point in a series. That series, as we stroyer came down on the great Christ- have seen, begins with the arch of the mas' feast, first to place the crown of Great Sewer; it goes on, obscured for Rome on the head of the Frankish awhile, but never wholly broken, under Patrician, and then, as a subject before the influence of a foreign taste. Through his sovereign, to adore the majesty of the buildings of Rome and Spalato and the Frankish Cæsar.t We turn trom Ravenna and Lucca it leads us to the the church of the Emperors to the spe- final perfection of round-arched architeccial church of the Popes, to their own ture, both in its lighter and more graceforsaken home on the Lateran, to the ful form at Pisa, and in its more massive patriarchal church, disfigured indeed, and majestic variety at Caen and Peterbut not, like its successful rival, wholly borough and Ely and Durham. destroyed. We strive to call up the pile as it stood when its columns, its The fact has been once or twice lately brought into arches, were still untouched, not only notice that in the cloister of Saint John Lateran, the From Blackwood's Magazine. I certain place where he should rest every THE STORY OF VALENTINE; AND HIS night and wake every morning. There BROTHER
patriarchal chair of the Bishop of Rome may be seen, before the destroyers of later times had
cast out among other disused fragments. A paltry hidden the marble columns beneath dull altar fills
altar fills its place in the apse, and the whole ancient stuccoed masses of stone, but even arrangement, which may be traced in one or two of the
smaller churches of Rome, is utterly destroyed. before Northern forms which have no
+ Eadmer, Hist. Nov. p. 52, Selden. "Cum vero ad concilium venturum esset, et episcopis qui de Italia
et Gallia venerant suas sedes ex consuetudine vendi* The tomb of Otto the Second, which stood in front cantibus, nemo existeret qui se vel audisse vel vidisse of the old Saint Peter's, is thrust down into the crypt archiepiscopum Cantuariensem Romano concilio ante of the modern church. To be sure several tombs of hæc interfuisse diceret, vel scire quo tunc in loco sedere Popes have shared the same fate.
deberet, ex præcepto Papæ in corona sedes illi posita † Einhard, 801: "Post quas laudes ab eodem pon est, qui locus non obscuri honoris in tali conventu solet itfice more antiquorum principum adoratus est."
was no way in his power by which he
could attain to that glorious conclusion ; CHAPTER XVI.
but he thus secured what is the next best Dick Brown got up very early next thing to success in this world, a distinct morning, with the same sense of exhilara- conception of what he wanted, an ideal tion and light-heartedness which had which was possible and might be carried moved him on the previous night. To be out. He sat down upon the bank, swingsure he had no particular reason for it, ing his feet over the mass of gravel which but what of that? People are seldom so the workmen, beginning their morning truly happy as when they are happy with-work, were fishing up out of the river, out any cause. He was early in his and contemplating the scene before him, habits, and his heart was too gay to be which, but for them, would have been anything but restless. He got up though noiseless as midnight. The irregular it was not much past five o'clock, and wooden buildings which flanked the rafts took his turn at the pump in the yard, opposite looked picturesque in the mornwhich formed the entire toilet arrange- ing light, and the soft water rippled up to ments of the tramps' lodging-house, and the edge of the planks, reflecting everythen strolled down with his hands in his thing, — pointed roof and lattice window, pockets and his ruddy countenance shin- and the wonderful assembly of boats. It ing afresh from these ablutions, to where was not hot so early in the morning; and the river shone blue in the morning sun-even had it been hot, the very sight of shine at the foot of Coffin Lane. Dick that placid river, sweeping in subdued had passed through Windsor more than silvery tints, cooled down from all the once in the course of his checkered ex-pictorial warmth and purple glory of the istence. He had been here with his evening, must have cooled and refreshed tribe - those curious unenjoying slaves I the landscape. The clump of elm-trees of pleasure who are to be found wherever on the Brocas extended all their twinkling there is merrymaking, litile as their share leaflets to the light; lower down, a line of may be in the mirth — on the 4th of June, / white houses, with knots of shrubs and the great fête day of Eton, and on the stunted trees before each, attracted Dick's occasion of reviews in the great Park, attention. Already lines of white clothes and royal visits ; so the place was mod-put up to dry betrayed at once the occuerately familiar to him, as so many places pation and the industry of the inhabitants. were all over the country. He strolled if only his mother was of that profession, along the raised path by the water-side, or could adopt it, Dick thought to himwith a friendly feeling for the still river, self, - how sweet it would be to live sparkling in the still sunshine, without there, with the river at hand and the boat or voice to break its quiet, which he green meadow-grass between – to live thought to himself had “ brought him there forever and ever, instead of wanderluck," a new friend, and perhaps a long ing and tramping about the dusty roads ! succession of odd jobs. Dick and his There was no dust anywhere on that mother did very fairly on the whole in clear fresh morning. The boy made no their wandering life. The shillings and comment to himself upon the still beauty sixpences which they picked up in one of the scene. He knew nothing of the way or another kept them going, and it charm of reflection and shadow, the soft was very rare when they felt want. But tones of the morning brightness, the cool the boy's mind was different from his green of the grass ; he could not have fate ; he was no adventurer - and though told why they were beautiful, but he felt habit had made the road and his nomadic lit somehow, and all the sweetness of the outdoor life familiar to him, yet he had early calm. The great cart-horse standnever taken to it quite kindly. The thingling meditative on the water's edge, with of all others that filled him with envy was its heads and limbs relieved against the one of those little tidy houses or pretty light sky; the rustling of the gravel as it cottages which abound in every English was shovelled up, all wet and shining, village, or even on the skirts of a small upon the bank; the sound of the worktown, with a little flower-garden full of men's operations in the heavy boat from flowers, and pictures on the walls inside. which they were working, gave a welThe lad had said to himself times without come sense of “company" and fellowship number, that there indeed was something to the friendly boy ; and for the rest, his to make life sweet a settled home, a soul was bathed in the sweetness of the