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rived from it their maintenance. It does , satisfy their hunger-starved families, and not appear that any portion of their gains get a meal's meat.” (A.D. 1621). was transferred to the author. He did Spenser also has put on record bis bitnot look for remuneration in money for ter feelings on the same subject with his literary labour. He found it, partly I special reference to the misery of hang. in fame, but chiefly in his appointment to ers-on at court. It is said that Queen some post, more or less lucrative, in Elizabeth designed an annuity for SpenChurch or State. Frequently authors ser, but that it was withheld by Burleigh. became simply the pensioners of the He received, however, from the queen a great and noble, by whom no official ser-grant of Kilcolman Castle when he was vices were expected. Chaucer appears secretary to Lord Grey in Ireland ; but to have been rewarded in both ways; at evidently this complaint is wrung from one time he was a pensioner-yeoman of him by his own bitter experience — Edward III., at another he was employed
Full little knowest thou, that hast not tried, to hire ships for the king's service. At
| What hell it is, in suing long to bide : various times in his career he held offices
To lose good days that might be better spent ; in the customs. A modern poet, * who To waste long nights in pensive discontent; specially claims to call Chaucer “mas. To speed to-day, to be put back to-morrow, ter,” pictures for us –
To feed on hope, to pine with fear and sorrow; The clear Thames bordered by its gardens
To have thy princess' grace, yet want her green;
Peers'; While, nigh the thronged wharf, Geoffrey To have thy asking, yet wait many yeares; Chaucer's pen
To fret thy soul with crosses and with care ; Moves over bills of lading.
To eat thy heart with comfortless despair;
To fawn, to crouch, to wait, to ride, to run; In the very year in which he is believed to
To spend, to give, to want, to be undone.* have written the “ Canterbury Tales " he was appointed clerk of the king's works Authorship could scarcely be subjectat Windsor. Yet towards the close ofed to a greater humiliation than that of his life he seems to have been wholly John Stowe, the historian, in whose fadependent on his royal pensions and vour James 1. granted letters patent grants of wine. Thus there sprang, al- under the great seal, permitting him “to most necessarily we may say, out of the ask, gather, and take the alms of all our primary condition of authors, that vile loving subjects." Yet Stowe's case difsystem of patronage which kept men of fered from that of hundreds of his conletters in a position of bondage for up-temporaries and successors only in that wards of three centuries after our regu- he was more honest than they. For, lar literature began.
while they were beggars in disguise, he The introduction of printing made but was an avowed and properly licensed little difference to authors. It ere long mendicant. His letters patent were read did away with the university censorship ; by the clergy from the pulpit in each but books were so dear that they were parish which he visited. Other authors within reach of the means only of the prefixed their begging letters to their very wealthy, on whose bounty, there-works, in the shape of fulsome and lying fore, authors were still dependent; and dedications. very wretched was their lot. “Rheto- The dedication system naturally acric,” says Burton, in his “Anatomy of companied that of patronage. It very Melancholie," "only serves them to soon underwent those wonderful develcurse their bad fortunes ; and many of opments of which it was evident from them, for want of means, are driven to the first that it was capable. In the hard shifts. From grasshoppers they time of Queen Elizabeth the practice had turn humble bees and wasps — plain par- come into fashion of dedicating a work, asites – and make the muses mules, to not to one patron, but to a number.
William Morris, in “The Earthly Paradise.”
IFrom “Prosopopoia, or Mother Hubbard's Tale."
Spenser, in spite of his horror of fawn- the patron was often compared with, or ing, has prefixed to the “ Faërie Queene" even placed abore, the Deity. Then the seventeen dedicatory sonnets, the last of common price of a dedication varied from which opened a wide door to volunteer £20 to £40; sometimes it was even patronesses, being inscribed “ To all the more. After the Revolution the price gratious and beautifull ladies in the fell to sums varying from five to ten court.” Over and above these outer ded-guineas ; in the reign of George I. it rose ications, be it remembered, the invocation again to twenty, but from that time the with which the poem opens is addressed to practice gradually declined, as the bookQueen Elizabeth herself, along with the sellers became more and more recognized sacred Muse, Venus, Cupid, and Mars. as the patrons of letters. The queen is further typified in the The fall of patronage, and of its conFaërie Queen herself; and to her the comitant, dedication, was hastened by the whole work is dedicated, presented, and general adoption in the latter part of the consecrated, “to live with the eternitie of seventeenth century of the method of her fame."
publication by subscription. Before that, Fuller has introduced in his “ Church the booksellers were in the background. History” twelve special title-pages be- They were mere dealers in books. No sides the general one, each with a partic-opportunity was afforded them for enterular dedication attached to it; and he prise. As soon, however, as subscriphas added upwards of fifty inscriptions tion was introduced, the booksellers beto as many different benefactors. Joshua gan to show themselves in the front. Sylvester, the translator of Du Bartas, Subscribers represented to some extent carried the vice of dedication to a still the public - a limited and adventitious more ludicrous excess. In the collected public, doubtless - but still a much edition of his works,* there are seventy wider public than was possible under the separate dedications, in prose and verse, patronage régime. Now with the public addressed to eighty-five separate indi- thus introduced we have present the viduals. Sometimes one short poem is most important of the three factors which dedicated to half-a-dozen patrons. If go to make a free and prosperous nathe poet received the usual dedication tional literature. There was then an infee from each, the speculation must have ducement for authors to do their best, been as profitable as it was ingenious.t and for publishers to aid them in advanThe second book of the “ Divine Works "cing their interests. Authorship then becontains fifteen separate dedications. came possible as a liberal profession, and One instance of his fattery is unique in publishing became possible as an organits barefaced comprehensiveness. An ized trade. It was a timid method of “ elegiac epistle consolatorie” on the business, certainly, but it was a vast imdeath of Sir William Sydney, is addressed provement on the method which it came to Lord and Lady Lisle (Sydney's par- to supersede. It was long before it acents), to Sir Robert Sydney their son, to complished much good, but it did accomLady Worth their daughter, “and to all plish lasting good in the end. In short, it the noble Sydneys and semi-Sydneys.” was the transition stage from the system Surely the power of fawning could no of patronage to the system of free and further go! It is only to be hoped that unfettered publication. it paid.
In truth, however, subscription was, in Nothing, certainly, could be more de- the first instance, only a more extended grading to authors than that their suc- kind of patronage ; and for a long time cess should depend, not on their merit, the two methods continued to exist side but on their powers of sycophancy; for by side. Of this a remarkable example it is unquestionable that the amount is afforded in the case of Dryden, who which a patron bestowed varied with the seems, however, to have had a wonderful amount of flattery publicly awarded to aptitude for combining in his own experihim. The terms of adulation became lence all the methods of remunerating most extravagant in the period after the authorship in vogue in remote as well as Restoration, when, according to Disraeli, in later times — official appointments,
royal pensions, dedication fees, subscrip* Folio, pp. 657, printed by R. Young in 1633. . | Even Sylvester's ingenuity was surpassed by that
tions, and copy money. He was poet of an Italian physician, of whom
of whom Disraeli tells us. laureate and historiographer royal ; * he was, besides, a special annuitant of estimate, Dryden netted from his Virgil Charles II.-- to whom the whilom eulo- the sum of £1,200. gist of Cromwell justifies his submission The publication of that work was the in the sorry couplet
Disraeli tells us. Having written Commentaries on the Aphorisms of Hippocrates," he dedicated each book of his com # Both offices still exist; but it is surely time that mentaries to one of his friends, and the index to an- ! such questionable and often invidious distinctions should other.
be abolished, or at least that they should be deprived correlative dedication, continued rampant. of their eleemosynary character. Thanks to such men as Archibald Constable, the men who deserve such But this was not peculiar to Dryden. Twenty honours no longer need the paltry salaries attached to years later we find Steele addressing Lintot and Pope them. Mr. Tennyson has effected the reductio ad | addressing Motte in precisely the same style. See Carabsurdum of the laureateship. His salary is £200 a ruther's "Life of Pope," pp. 96-251. By way of convear: vet, if report speaks truly, his contract with his | trast, it is noteworthy that Sir Walter Scott usually publishers yields him an annual return to be estimated addresses his publisher as “My dear Constable. in thousands.
occasion of frequent bickerings, and the
interchange of much strong language, beThe poets who must live by courts, or starve, tween Dryden and his publisher, the faWere proud so good a government to serve, –
mous Jacob Tonson (Jacob I., for there
were three of that name and dynasty). and he was collector of customs in the
the Dryden's standing complaint against port of London, as Chaucer had been | Tonson is, that he pays him in bad coin. three hundred years before.
“You know," he says, in one letter, As regards dedication fees, it is notori
orie “money is now very scrupulously re
monen ous that no flattery was too fulsome, noceived in the last which you did me the depth of self-abasement too profound, favour och
favour to change for my wife, besides the for Dryden's mendicant spirit. If the dinid mone
clip'd money, there were at least forty pay was proportionate to the degree of shillings brass.” In another he says that. adulation, he was certainly entitled to the when the eighth “ Æneid” is finished, he maximum. He dedicated his translation expects “ ['so in good silver, not such as of Virgil to three noblemen, with what I have had formerly. I am not obliged Johnson calls “an economy of flattery at to take gold, neither will I ; nor stay for once lavish and discreet." What this in- it four-and-twenty hours after it is due." vestment of praise yielded him we do, In another. "I lost thirty shillings, or not know; but in his letter of thanks to more, by the last payment of £50 which one patron (Lord Chesterfield), he char
you made at Mr. Knight's." Throughacterizes his lordship's donation as a
out the correspondence, Dryden treats “noble present." The extraordinary | Tonson in the rudest and most bearish feature in this case, however, is, that in manner possible. He usually addresses addition to dedication fees, Dryden re- him abruptly as “ Mr. Tonson,” much as a ceived for his Virgil both subscriptions
gentleman might address his tailor.* In and copy money. The copy money con- / what Scott calls a " wrathful letter." sisted certainly of £50 for every two which, however, made no impression “on books of the "Æneid,” and probably of the mercantile obstinacy of Tonson," he the same sum for the “Georgics” and says, “ Some kind of intercourse must be the "Pastorals.” The plan of subscrip-I carried on betwixt us while I am translattion was ingeniously contrived so as to
ing Virgil. . . . You always intended I create a supplementary galaxy of patrons, I should get nothing by the second subeach of whom was propitiated by what
scriptions, as I found from first to last. was in effect a special dedication. There...I then told Mr. Congreve that I were two classes of subscribers. Those knew you too well to believe you meant in the first class paid five guineas each ; I me any kindness.” In vet another grumthose in the second class, two guineas. | bling epistle, Dryden says, “ Upon trial I The inducement offered to the five find all of your trade are sharpers, and guinea subscribers was that in honour of vi
that in honour of you not more than others; therefore I each of them there should be inserted in /have not wholly left you: " from all which the work an engraving embellished at the it is evident ihat, in Dryden's time, the foot with his coat of arms. The bait relations of publisher and author were took wonderfully. There were in the still on a very unsatisfactory footing. end one hundred and two subscribers of Dryden died in the last year of the seyfive guineas, representing the sum of enteenth century ; but, although at that 510 guineas, which, calculating the guinea, / very time the publishers, led by such men as Dryden did, at twenty-nine shillings, as the Tonsons and Lintot, were consoliamounted to 2739 Ios. Indeed, Dryden dating the publishing trade. they were was a cunning speculator as well as a still in the leading-strings of subscripshrewd bargain-driver, as his publisher tion; and during the greater part of the found to his cost. According to Pope's eighteenth century, patronage, with its
| Such trifles are not insignificant.
The world of lettters was still dominated the death of Queen Anne, Addison was by such princely patrons as Somers, made Secretary to the provisional ReHarley, and Halifax, who were
gency, and two years later he became
Secretary of State. Addison was unFed with soft dedication all day long.
doubtedly the first literary man of his This is all the more remarkable, since, at time ; yet, throughout his career, he was that very time, literature was making vig-paid in political advancement for his lit. orous efforts to emancipate itself. Then erary labours ; for it is well known that popular literature took its rise in Defoe's his business capacity was of the poorest Review and Steele's Tatler, and Steele order. No man ever had a better opporand Addison's Spectator. No man ever tunity than Addison had of asserting the stood out more determinedly as the independence of literature, yet he was enemy of patronage than Richard Steele, always willing to use it as his ladder, and all honour be to him for his powerful rather than as his stage. testimony. But Steele could afford to be in this Addison was by no means sinindependent; for he derived from his gular in his day. The chief of his confirst wife a comfortable income of £670 a temporaries lived, or tried to live, by the year. In the Tatler, he had boldly pro- same means ; though few were so fortuclaimed his ambition " to make our lucu-nate as he was. Defoe was secretary to brations come to some price in money, the joint commission which drew up the for our more convenient support in the Articles of Union, and was afterwards public service." Yet Steele had, in 1707, sent to Scotland on a special mission to accepted the office of Gazetteer, with a advance its interests ; but Defoe was salary raised by Harley from £60 to £300 twice fined and imprisoned for political a year; and in 1715, he was made Sur. libel, and on the earlier occasion at least veyor of the Royal Stables at Hampton was pilloried as well. Men of letters Court. Steele ridiculed patronage as a who lived by politics, had to take their “ monstrous" institution in the Specta- share, not only of political profit, but also tor,* yet the first and second collected of political suffering. Prior, who was volumes of that serial were dedicated twice secretary to a foreign embassy respectively to the arch-patrons, Lord (thanks to his patron Lord Dorset), and Somers and Lord Halifax. This, how-twice virtually an ambassador, was ever, may have been Addison's doing, charged with high treason, in connection who was the special foster-child of these with the Treaty of Utrecht, and was imnoblemen, and who lived from first to prisoned for two years. This sent him last by his official employment. John back to his fellowship and his books. Locke, according to Lord Macaulay, He then published his poems by sub“owed opulence to Somers ;” and it was scription, and realized £10,000. The at Locke's death that Addison, in reward Earl of Oxford played the grand patron of writing the “ Campaign," obtained, and added other £10,000 ; and thus the through Halifax, the post of Commis- poet's last days were comfortably prosioner of Appeal in the Excise, which vided for. Congreve was more fortunate. Locke had vacated. He received for the He received from Halifax (Addison's post £200 a year, a sum which enabled patron) different posts in the customs, him, no doubt, to leave his garret in the which yielded him £600 a year; and Haymarket. Every step he gained be- after the accession of the house of Hantween that garret and Holland House, he over, he was made Secretary to the Island owed to the same kind of influence. He of Jamaica, which nearly doubled his inwas Under-Secretary of State, his chief come. Gay was the most unlucky of all being the Earl of Sunderland, to whom literary place-hunters. In 1714 he quitted vol. vi. of the Spectator was dedicated, his post of private secretary to the Duchvol. iv. having previously been dedicated ess of Monmouth, to accompany Lord to Marlborough, Sunderland's father-in-Clarendon, Envoy Extraordinary to Hanlaw. Addison's next post was Chief over, in the capacity of secretary. Gay Secretary for Ireland, during the vice wrote to Pope in great glee about his royalty of the notorious Lord Wharton, good fortune. But he kept the post only to whom vol. v. of the Spectator was dedi- for a month or two. He made several cated, in terms which extolled his busi- attempts, subsequently, to enlist Court ness capacity, but which were judiciously favor on his behalf, but without success. silent regarding his moral character. On Once he was offered a humble post,
which he declined with indignation. • See No. clxxxviii.
That made his reputation ; for to that
disappointment, in all probability, we ledger forever,- he left a fortune of owe“ The Beggar's Opera.”* By the £100,000, the greater part of which old publication and performance of that play, Jacob inherited. and by the publication (by subscription of Pope, however, like Scott at a later course) of “Polly,” a sequel to it, the period, found it advantageous to extend performance of which was prohibited, his publishing connections. Besides Gay realized nearly £3,000.
Tonson, he bad dealings of one kind or These details serve to show us how another with Lintot, Curll, Dodsley, Gilgreat authors lived and were remunerated liver, and Motte, to mention no others. during the period that connects the reign With Curll, the supposed surreptitious of Dryden with the reign of Pope. Two publisher of his letters, his relations were things seem to be clearly demonstrated anything but friendly. A ridiculous turn - that authors were not yet free from is given to these relations by an apocrytheir bondage to personal and political phal story circulated by Curll, of an atpatrons; and that publishers had not yet tempt wbich he believed or pretended to learned to rely on the patronage of the believe, that Pope had made to poison public. The latter were still, as Dryden him in a tavern, at their first and only called them, mere “chapmen" of books ;} meeting, in consequence of his having and their gains depended mainly on the ascribed to Pope the authorship of “ The amount of patronage, represented by sub Court Poems," three of Lady Mary scriptions, which the infuence of authors Wortley Montague's “ Town Eclogues." could bring them. In fact their interest The publisher with whom Pope's name is lay, as Dryden hinted very plainly to chiefly associated, however, was Bernard Tonson, in intercepting as large a share Lintot. In one of his most biting and as possible of the subscriptions which humorous prose sketches, Pope describes passed through their hands.
a journey to Oxford, performed in comThe connecting link between Dryden pany with Lintot, whom he holds up to and Pope, for our present purpose at the most unmitigated ridicule. Yet Lintot least, was Jacob Tonson -"left-legged was the publisher of Pope's Homer, a Jacob,” as Pope wickedly called him, re- speculation from which he derived beferring to a personal deformity. In truth, tween £8,000 and £9,000, and which however, the whole of Pope's satirical enabled him to set up his villa at Twickenallusions to Tonson were somewhat un-ham. This success allowed Pope to trigenerous - though they were not the less umph over the slavery of patronage in a Pope-ish on that account — for Tonson (memorable couplet :was the first bookseller who recognized and thanks to Homer, since I live and thrive, Pope's merit. In 1706 he wrote to Pope
Indebted to no prince or peer alive.* in flattering terms, offering to publish, in his forthcoming Miscellany, Pope's | It was quite characteristic of Pope, how“ Pastorals,” which he had seen in manu-ever, that he should take credit for his script - an offer which Pope was too emancipation to himself, and forget his shrewd a man of business to reject; and obligations to the booksellers. He never the publication at once placed Pope in was thin-skinned in these matters, or the front rank of the authors of his time. indeed in any matters affecting the repIt was this transaction that suggested utation of others. His feelings towards Wycherley's profane remark, that Lintot, his undoubted benefactor, were “Jacob's ladder had raised Pope to im not more grateful or generous than those mortality.” Yet, not long afterwards, we with which he regarded Tonson and Curll. find Pope writing thus of his patron : In the race described in the second book “ Jacob creates poets as kings do knights ; of the “ Dunciad," in honour of the godnot for their honour, but for their money. dess of Dulness, Lintot and Curll are Certainly he ought to be esteemed as entered as rival candidates. worker of miracles who is grown rich | But lofty Lintot in the circle rose : by poetry." The extent of Tonson's “This prize is mine; who tempt it are my wealth is uncertain ; but we know that
foes; when his nephew, Jacob II., died in 1735, / With me began this genius, and shall end." - a year before the uncle closed his | He spoke : and who with Lintot shall con
tend? • Gay's theatre receipts from the opera amounted to £693 13s. 6d. The name of the manager who shared * Vain boast ; for when he was offered £1000 to the profits with Gay, was Rich; which suggested the suppress his attack on the Duchess of Marlborough, in mot ihat " * The Beggar's Opera' made Gay rich, and the character of Atossa, he took the money, and neverRich gay."
theless allowed the libel to be printed.