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is doub:ful, but which is extreme. vators, and the wandering or pal“ ly fertile; the other, which is toral tribes. The former he suhdi. " the frontier to this, is a mountain. vides into three principal classes ; "ous and rugged foil, enjoying a firit, the posterity of the people con

more salubrious temperature; the quered by the Arabs, that is, the " third, which lies beyond the Greeks of the lower empire ; se"s mountains in the east, combines cordly, the posterity of the Arabian " the dryness of the latter with the conquerors; and thirdly, the pre"warmıh of the former. By a {ent ruling people, the Ottoman

happy combination of the pro. Turks. The pastoral tȚibes he diperties of climate and soil, this vides into three classes, the Turko.

province unites in a small com. mans, the Curds, and the Bedouin is

pass the advantages and produc- Arabs. It is remarkable that Sy. rs tions of different zones, insomuch ria has not refused, like Egypt, to

that pature seems to have designed adopt the foreign saces, but that they do it for one of the most agreeable are all equally naturalized to the “ habitations of this continent. Sy. country. of these different races,

ria unites different climates under the Druzes, descendants of the Arabi" the same sky; and collects within an conquerors, will most excite the at

narrow compass pleasure and tention of įhe reader. Though con. “ productions which nature has elle. pletely insulated by despotism, they " where dispersed at great distances. have maintained amidst the moun. “ of times and places. With us, for tains of Lebanon (their country) 4 “ instance, feafons are separated by fpecies of freedom and indepen. “ months ; there we may say they dance unknown to the inhabitants of " are only separated by hours. If the neighbouring plains. The con6 in Said or Tripoli we are incom. fciousness of this superiority in their a moded by the hears of July, in condition, has given an energy to “ fix hours we are in the neigh their character, which diftinguishes

bouring mountains in the tempe- them from the other people of Syria

rature of March; or, on the other in an eminent degree. They are " hand, if chilled by the frosis of considered throughout the Levant

December, at Besharrai, a day's as restless, enterprising, hardy, and journey brings us back to the brave even to temerity, Only three s coast, amid the flowers of May.- hundred of them have been seen 19

The Arabian poets have there- enter Damascus in open day, and fore said that the Sannin bears spread around them terror and car's Winter on his head, Spring on nage. No persons are “ his shoulders, and Autumn on his than they in the point of honour ; “ bofom, while Summer lies fleep. any offence of that kind, or open “ ing at his feet.”_-The limits of infult, is instantly punished by blows our present undertaking will not of the kandjar or the musquet, while allow us to enter fo fully into the among the inhabitants of the towns history of ihe inhabitants of Syria, it only excites abusive retorts. It as the fubject deserves.--Mons. Vol- is worthy observation, that the Diva ney divides the different races of zes, and other inhabitants of Leba. men into two grand divisions ; the non, are the only subjects of the ema sedentary inhabitants or the cultie pire who possess a seal property

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They are for that reason fo attached " ted absolute and arbitrary to all to their estates, that it is rare to hear his subdelegates. It is certain, to of an alienation of lands among " use the expreflion of the Turks, them. “ Their peasants fear not " that the sabre of the Sultan de" that the Aga, the Kaimacham, or scends not on the duft, but this sa• the Pacha, should send his Djen

bre he entrusts to the hand of his • dis to pillage their houses, carry

56 Vizir, who delivers it to the Pacha, " off their families, or give them " from whom it passes to the Motsel“ the bastinado.” Such oppressions " lam, to the Aga, and even to the are unknown in the mountains. It “ lowest Delibafhe; fo that it is, in is this security which has been the “ fact, within the reach of the vileft original cause of the population of “ retainer to office, and its deftructheir country, and which has given " tive edge descends even on the to the mountains of Lebanon, by

“ menest heads."--The total ponature sterile, all their fertility.-- pulation of Syria Mons. Volney eitia

The government of this fingular mates at 2,305,000 fouis. people is a well-proportioned mix- venues he calculares at £.1,281,250 ture of monarchy, aristocracy, and fterling ; not including the profits democracy.-- The fituation of the of the sub-farms, such as the coun. other subjects of the empire is tries of the Druzes, the Maronites, truly deplorable. Mons. Volney the Ansarians, &c. &c. The mi. compares the empire to a planta- litary establishment is by no means tion in one of our Sugar Tsana's, proportionable to what in Europe “ where a multitude of slaves labour we thould expect from such a rere.

to supply the luxury of one great All the troops of the Pachas s proprietor, under the inspection of united cannot amount to more than

few servants, who take good 5,700 men, both cavalry and in. care of themselves. There is no fantry. The detail respecting the difference, except that the domi- division of Syria into Pachalics is “ nions of the Sultan being too vast particularly curious and interesting ; " for a single administration, he is the limits of our present plan will obliged to divide them into smal- not however allow us to enter into “ ler plantations and separate go- it.-We must now conclude with

vernments, administered in the the author's opinion respecting the “ fame mode as the united empire. political strength of these countries. “ Such are the provinces under the--" Syria and Egypt, compared " Pachas. These provinces, again, “ with respect to the facility with " being too extensive, the Pachas “ which they may be attacked or rs have had recourse to further fub- “ defended, differ almoft in every “ division, and hence that series of “ point. Egypt is protected from a “ subalterns that step by step de- foreign enemy on the land side “ scends to the lowest employment. by her defarts, and on that of the “ In this gradation of authority, the “ sea by her dangerous cuart. Sy“ object in view being invariably “ ria, on the contrary, is open on “ the same, the means employed “ the lide of the continent by the

never change their nature. Thus," Diarbekar, and exposed also on power, being absolute and arbi- “ that of the Mediterranean by a trary in the monarch, is transmit. coast every where accesible. It is

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“ easy to make a descent in Syria, “ other. The reason is, that E. “ but very difficult to land in E- gypt being a country of plains, gypt: Egypt once invaded is

" the invader there makes a rapid " conquered; Syria may refift: “ progress; every moment brings Egypt when conquered is ex. on a battle, and every battle is “ tremely difficult to keep, and eafi- " decisive; Syria, on the contrary, “ ly lost; Syria is so easily de- « being a mountainous country, $ fended, it is impossible it should war there muft be a war of posts, 66 be loft. Less skill is necessary to " and every loss may be repair, " conquer' one than to preserve the " ed."

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Mediation of France and Pruffia in the affairs of Holland. Reasons for

doubting the success of that mediation confirmed by the event. Negociations
carried

on at Nimeguen and the Hague. Condition's laid down by the States of
Holland as the basis of an accommodation with the Stadtholder. Causes which
rendered these propositions inadmissible .M. de Rayneval suddenly breaks off
the negociation and returns to Paris. Count de Goertz receives a letter of recal,
and returns to Berlin. Violent anim"hty and mutual recrimination of the con-
tending parties on the failure of the negociation. Tne new form of government,
established in the city of Utrecht, considered as a model of perfeétion by the de-
mocratical party in other places. Dificult situation and temporizing conduct of
the States of Holland, wiih respect to the prevalent democratic spirit. Sud-
den and unaccountable changes in the political conduct and principles of the party
in opposition to the Stadtholder displayed in various places. States of Friesand
firf waver, and then, from being among the foremost in opposition, appear de-
cidedly in favour of the Prince. "M. de Rendorp changes fides in Amsterdam,
and carries over a majority of the Senate along with bim. Immediate consequences
ef rbis change; great alarm spread by it among the republican party. Mians pursued by the leaders 10 remedy the defe&tion of Amsierdam. Procure addresses from several 10wns, with a view of gaining thereby a decided möjority of vores in the allembly of provincial states. Failing in this attempt, they propose in the afle mbly a reflurion 10 fufpend ihe Prince of Orange from bis remaining bigh offices of jiadibolder and admiral-general. Foiled likewise in this, they endeaqour 10 increase the number of Vies in the provincial assembly, by affording a right of representation to several new towns; in wbich they are also defeated. Eftimate of the comparative prength and numbers of tbe contending parties. Re. trojpest of ihe nieasures purjued by Hellas d, for supporting the city of Utrecht ir. its contumacious oppopinion to the fases of the province. Unexpecled revolution in the assembly of the States of Holland, u ho, following the example of Ampierdam, acope measures evidently favourable 10 the Stadtholder's interests. General confcrnation and critical situation of the republican party. Defeated in all their late attempts; with now a great majority of the provinces, and a greater of the people decidediy against them. Bold and bazardous measures become eets of prudence. Obliged io throw ibemselves upon the democratical party for fupport, and 10 call in the armed burghers to new model and feetle ibe state and confiirusion. Theje surround the feiraie bouses of Amfierdam and Rotterdam, purge them of boje members who were adverse 19 their designs, place all poder in the hands of rheir ozen party, and cablish a acrermined majority in the states of Holland. These prepare 19 a lift Utrechi by force of arms again the Provincial States. States general, who had hiiherio preferred a strict neutrality, now take a decided purt in opposing the design of Holland to support Uır chi by forte of arms. Council of fase iTue an order fiviftly forbidding the officers in the ser. vice of Holland from marching their tronps into the territories of any other province. Probibinon confirmed by the States general. Reply from ibe States of Holland. First blood drawn in a skirmish at juts haas, a village near Utrecbi.. States of Holiand order troops to the succour of Utrecht. Propose a resi 10 their officers. si great majority rejuje obe test ; are jipended and new ones appointed. Supended officers taken into ihe projection of the States general, and their pay continued. Manife!! o publiked by the Stadtholder, amounting nearly 10 a decla. ration of war against the ruling party in the pros ince of Holland. Riots ar Amferdam. Siaits general ilire an order 10 general Van Refil, to break up the cordon or line of iroops formed on the frontiers of Holland. Counter orders from ibe liures of Holland. Colonel Balneavis carries of the regiment wbicb Le lately comman:led himself, with a battalion of another, from the fortress of

Ouder arer 10 the Sludibulder. This example caufes a general reveli in the .. Proops of Holland.

1

CH A P. II.

Arrest of the princess of Orange near Schoonhaven. Observations on the condud

and principles on which the ruling party in Holland ačied in that meafure; with an account of ihe circumstances aricriding it. Consequences of that eveni, wbich change ike u hole face of fublic affuirs in the republic, and intermingle foreign interests and connections with their comestic coniesis. Princess returns to Nime. guen. Strong memorial from the king of Pruļļa, demanding immediare and 3mple falisfuction, with due punishment to the authors of the outrage offered to the princess. Anj wer from the States of Holland deenied by ibe king unfatisfaciory

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