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“ sugillations," which at first sight such torpor, congestion, convulsive certainly appear to tell for the agency action), and so destroying the balance of a real, and even of a material being, of activities in our wonderful complex in connection with the terrifying visi- being, leave the inward sense to act tation. But, as we said before, it is unantagonized, unseal the mystic eye impossible to prove, either that the of the soul, open within us the comnightmare is, or that it is not, a real munication with brighter or darker goblin or devil. In the nature of the spheres, and bring us into converse thing, neither opinion is susceptible of with angelic or elvish intelligences, acdemonstration, and every one will cording as our tendencies at the time adopt that to which his view of things are upwards or downwards, or accordin general inclines him. Perhaps the ing as the causes which produced our truth would be found in the union of entranced state were of a celestial the two, for they are not incompatible. character or the reverse.* What we call a popular error is often Now, there is nothing elevated but a one-sided view of some truth ; about indigestion : it is neither saintly and the unpopular philosophical view nor, in its unsaintliness, is it sublime. which we propound as its corrective, In general, it comes from eating too is, in the greatest number of cases, just much, which is not a proceeding of a as one-sided.

That which can be seraphic tendency, nor the first step of scientifically known of a matter is not a movement heavenwards. And these the whole of a matter. Every thing affections of the epigastric regions are has its transcendental or supersensu- ordinarily the fruit of indigestion, ous, as well as its phenomenal side ;- wherefore the “ sleep-waking” state and science has to do wholly with the into which they cast us-namely, that latter, with the accidents of the thing; sleep of the outward and waking of the wbile faith, imagination, instinctive inward man-reveals to the eye of the intuition, which is strongest in the un- latter a base neighbourhood. The scientific man, goes direct to the un- nightmare does not come up into our known, inaccessible substance ;-on sphere, but we spiritually descend into which topic we could be distressingly his. He is there already, while we philosophical, but forbear.

are gorging ourselves, but we are not the ancient popular doctrine, which aware of him until the outward senses makes the nightmare an incubating be sealed in torpor, and the inward fiend, and the modern physiological world opens in its dim horror on the doctrine, which resolves it into con- troubled eye of the soul. gestion of blood about the epigastrium, We have met with people who beor spasm of the midriff, may be lieve that the beasts characterised by the two sides of one truth. The the Mosaic law as unclean are not so nightmare may be a proper entity, a in a mere ceremonial sense, but in one goblin as other goblins, whom either that has its foundation in nature ; in his particular elvish humour, or the fact that such beasts are in a special law of his being, or some point of in- wise liable to demoniacal possession. fernal economy or etiquette, moves to The cat is a long-recognised minister incubate on such persons as arı, hy of the darker powers. Dogs and certain states of the nervous system, horses see ghosts, which, as we shall or certain spiritualor psychic aptitudes, presently see, implies a capability of brought into what the mesmerists call being possessed, and is, in fact, the rapport with him. The congestion of next thing to it. What is more horthe chest, torpor of the vital organs, rible than to come into "

magnetic spasmodic state of the midriff, may act rapport" with a dog, through infusion like magnetism on the nerves, (as it is of the saliva of the latter into your known that magnetism does produce blood ? For the saliva is a great me.

And so,

* Who knows but some thought, unconsciously framed in sleep, or some word, mechanically pronounced, by some perhaps accidental motion of the lips, may unJock the gates of a realm of enchantments and monstrous shapes--may summon with a fatal cogency around your hed unearthly beings, aspects of darkness, the presence of which mortal senses cannot endure? May not we sometimes conjure in our sleep, and know nothing about it?

The ape is

dium of magnetic influences, a conduc- Paris, was cured by the sudden springtor of psychic agency, wherefore, also, ing of a dog at him ; but it would the moods of the soul have a marked seem that the mental shock given to operation on its physical qualities, the man reacted with a physically demaking it a vehicle of sanatory virtue, structive force upon the dog, for it fell or a deadly poison. Armstrong af- down dead on the spot. Convulsions firms that the bite of negroes, when of children are often transferred to enraged, produces obstinate ulcers and beasts of delicate nature, such as cats, hydrophobia. Gaubius tells of a which are brought into contact with soldier who, being bit in the arm by a the sufferers. All convulsive affections woman whom he had bitterly angered, are propagated by sympathy. At the died in convulsions; as also of a young Charité, an hospital in Berlin, fourItalian, who, in a paroxysm of anger, teen sickly women were taken with bit himself in the finger, and forthwith epileptic tits, at seeing a newly-arrived became rabid, and died. And Sauvage patient fall into such. At St. Roch, has recorded the case of a young in France, in the year 1786, from fifty maiden, who, by sheer intensity of to sixty young girls manifested a simi. ireful emotion, without any bite at all, lar effect of sympathy. But this time of herself or another, man or beast, we have really digressed. was thrown into a state exactly re- About other unclean animals are sembling canine madness. Even the observable other marks of spiritual or mere sight of a person in hydrophobia necromantic aptitudes. has engendered the same affection in manifestly a diabolical creature ; and persons of susceptible temperament. the idea of Doctor Adam Clarke is Please relates such a case, wherein the not without plausibility, that the forın sufferer was a priest. A student of of this obscene brute yielded a lodgWittenberg became hydrophobious, ing to the tempter in paradise : for after he had seen, with heartfelt sym- the rest, there is no shape under which pathy, a violent paroxysm of rabies the nightmare is more apt to appear. with which a young maiden, already The hare lends its form to the witch nigh in the last agonies, was seized. for her twilight flittings and scuddings He was indeed restored, but for years to the place of some unhallowed renlaboured under a great weakness and dezvous. And that the swine is a uncertainty of the voice, as well as a possessed or possessable beast we have painful dread of speaking in public. testimony not to be cited here. Now Themison experienced something of it is remarkable that the nightmarethe same kind after attending a friend visitations are oftener known to follow in hydrophobia, and seeing him die. the eating of pork than, perhaps, any An inward paralyzing terror took pos- other supper. As if the fiend, which session of him as often as he recalled had housed itself in the living pig, had to his memory the vivid picture of the the power of oppressing and vexing suffering he had witnessed. Peter the stomach into which the flesh Frank, having merely touched with his thereof comes. As the ghost of one fingers a person dying of hydrophobia, that hath not rest in death will often was, through the power of imagina- linger and sit by his new-ma le grave, tion, presently affected with symptoms so the demon which has been disof the disease; and a young physician, turbed in his possession of a fat hog, mentioned in the “ Journal Général haunts with a strange fondness the de Medecine, 1824,” became rabid place where this latter lies sepulchred through a similar operation of phan- —the stomach of him, namely, that has tasy, after the dissection of a child supped upon it. Or is it, perhaps, which had died of the bite of a mad not more probably so, that the undog. The like unhappy fate had a clean spirit enters into the same magwoman, through attending the death- netic relation to the eater in which it bed of her husband under similar cir- had stood to the beast that is eaten? cumstances.

for possession is, say some, nothing Thus mediately and immediately do else than magnetic relation between a dogs work us woe. Still every medal, devil, or between the soul of one that says the Italian, has its reverse, and died not in grace, and a man living. dogs, oftenest our bane, are sometimes And such a relation, but in a less our antidote. An epileptic person, at degree of nearness and intimacy, is

a

rialists cannot heal this disease. It is not what people suppose.' And as he never answered questions, nothing more was asked or known on the subject.

“ Cazotte was not seen for some time. It transpired that he had spent eight days in London, and the Duchess of Devonshire wrote to Paris that she was radically cured.”

also ghost-seeing. He who sees ghost is but one stage removed from being possessed. Thus Novalis says, that " ghost-appearing were not possible without inspiration.” The ghost which we see (the nightmare, for instance) is not without us, but within ; yet not in our innermost, which were possession. Our own phantasy projects the apparition into the outer world, wherein it illudes us like a magic-lantern image, (for which reason also, the ghost is before you, turn which way you will); but that which mockingly thus, as spectre, appears to us from without, has in reality its site in the medial (not the central) region of our being; and the phantasy, behind it, is as a lamp, and the outward sense is as a glass before it, whereby its image is thrown out, and appears, huge and threatening, on the wall of the phenomenal.

In the highly interesting Reminiscences of the Marquise de Créquy, which run over a period embracing nearly the whole of the last century, namely, from 1710 to 1802, are recorded two curious cases of nightmare, or of something like it, which we subjoin :

“ The Duchess of Devonshire was nightly afflicted by a nightmare in the following wise :-It was the apparition of a frightful ape, which suddenly rose out of the earth, and dragged her out of bed the moment her eyes were closed. Seizing her by the right arm, the monster stretched her on her back in the middle of the floor, having first, with one of his bind paws, shoved a cushion under the small of her back; he then came and squatted himself on her breast, where he remained motionless, his two odious hands spread out upon her cheeks, and stared, as it were, into the depths of her eyes till she awoke. In this manner she passed night after night, and was brought by such horri. ble sufferings into a miserable state of debility and emaciation. No physician could free her from this nightmare: Tronchin himself went to England for the purpose, but in vain.

" The celebrated Cazotte, author of the Diable amoureur, who had at this time become a member of the mystical order of Martinez de Pasqualis, heard of the affliction of the English Duchess. • Chronic nightmare,' said he, often comes from abuse of magnetism ; it may, also, arise from unskilful magnetic treatment, Unbelievers or mate

Cazotte, then, it would seem, had cured her: how, the second case gives us an intimation.

We need not suppose that the Duchess was really dragged out of the bed, but that she seemed to herself to be so in the half-waking, soporose state which is peculiar to such morbid dreamings. And from the position in which she believed herself to be placed, namely, with the breast hanging backwards, one would be the more tempted to ascribe her disease to a congested state of the heart or lungs, which, reaching on the nerves of the head, stirred up the imagina. tion to that ghastly activity. And the dreaming phantasy, having once, from some accidental suggestion, taken up the image of the ape, the same would afterwards, on similar suggestion, reproduce itself night after night. And so, no doubt, did the physicians of the time, pointed at by Cazotte under the designation of " unbelievers or materialists,” explain the phenomenon. But it was just in reference to such explanations that the illuminated disciple of Martinez de Pasqualis said, “ The thing is not what people believe it to be." It is not to be doubted that magnetism, by opening the inward eye, and by other influences peculiar to it, may, when used incautiously, have mischievous effects. What, but magnetism abused, was the witchcraft of the middle ages ? For the rest, we have no evidence that the Duchess of Devonshire was addicted to the use of this power: it was, however, the period when Mesmer stood in the zenith of his reputation.

One would gladly have had a word more from Cazotte, who seems

to have seen through the thing. But he answered not; he held not far permitted, or he knew nobody would believe him.

The Comtesse Fanny de Beauharnais, aunt to the first husband of the Empress Josephine, who died at Paris, in the year 1813, was afflicted with a

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nightmare, if it can be called so, of a more extraordinary nature than that of the Duchess of Devonshire. It is thus related by Madame de Créquy:

“ Madame de B. altered and fell away visibly. It is nothing,' said she to her friends, who expressed uneasiness about her; and when she was pressed on the subject, and could not turn it off with a joke, she wept for impatience. •In verity,' said I to her, . one scarcely knows you for yourself, and I cannot conceive what is the matter.'

"• If I were to tell you,' replied she smiliog, 'I should be ashamed of myself.'

Speak openly, dearest, or I can no longer believe in your friendship. Do we then shut up our heart from a heart that is ours?'

Her complaint was a nightmare, of the same character as the Duchess of Devonshire's. It could, however, be ascribed to no use or abuse of magnetism, for she had a mortal dread, an insuperable horror of magnetism. I might say she regarded it with execration, were not the word out of place in reference to a character marked by so much moderation as hers. I can assure you that she was, at all times, of the purest sincerity. Harbour, therefore, no suspicion of the truth of her recital, of which I will endeavour to omit nothing, and to which you may be sure I shall add nothing of my own.

· As soon as her women had left her bed-chamber, and her curtains were closed, she was sensible of a feverish oppression; she rang, but nobody came. She opened her curtains a little to avoid suffocation, and there presented itself the following strange illusion.

“ First, she remarked on the hearth a clear coal-fire; she heard the foldingdoors open, which connected her bedroom with the adjoining apartment; and hereupon she heard an obstinate, rasping cough.

"Now came into the room a very tall woman, miserably clad, ragged and filthy; her head was covered with a linen cloth, which yet did not prevent horns being seen on her forehead. These horns were only a finger's length, and like those of a young cow; they were not sharp, and one was somewhat shorter than the other, and appeared as if the end had been forcibly broken off, leaving only a stump. This very repulsive person went directly to the fire, which she began to stir.

" In the room, and chiefly about the bed, was a legion of frightful figures, which, in profound silence, changed themselves into formless things, and presented themselves again under new

shapes, with continually varying form and size.

• The hero of this nightly drama was a little monster of a child, which had the whooping cough; it coughed like a diable enrhumea devil with a cold (which it was)-and it was at length led into the chamber, with measured steps, with every appearance of great importance, and an infinity of precautions. It was conducted by a sort of medical devil, who in features resembled the Dowager Marquise de Beauharnais, and its retinue consisted of a multitude of demons, who lavished upon it caresses and endearments, befondlings and befawnings, to no end. Among these goblin lackeys were no monstrous figures like those which floated every where in the chamber, and met the eye, wherever it turned, like a living ghostly tapestry; but there were faces so diabolically foolish, so idiotic-parasitic, so abject, toady and lickspittle, that it was a thing to make one desperate. The young sufferer, whom they made sit on a sofa-cushion at the fire-side, was of the size of a child from five to six years old. He wore a habit of blue taffety, he was swollen like a boil, but very pale ; his head was of enormous bigness ; he had red hair, standing quite straight and stiff up from the roots, and you saw on his forehead buds of horns, which looked like snail-shells.

“ Between the friends of this little monster and its physician (who was so like the Marquise de Beauharnais) there took place regularly every evening a noisy discussion, carried on with prodigious animation in an unintelligible language, broken in upon only by the fits of passion and the whooping of the little wretch with his cough. The proceedings became more and more confused and tumultuous, till all was uproar, hubbub, and fantastic chaos, in the course of which Madame de B. was dragged out of her bed. A kind of giant, with a white beard, lifted her up by the hair of the head, and, holding her in a perpendicular direction, impinged her again and again on the floor until her knees bent. Her legs were then laid back, and bent upwards with such violence, that the joints were put out, causing the cruelest pain in both knees ; and the legs, doubled up along the back in this fashion, were made fast to her body by means of a small chaine à tourniquet, of which they made her a kind of girdle. They did not omit to set both her hands on her hips, taking care at the same time to keep the arms well out from the body, in order to round them off into the form of handles. The next thing was to stuff into her throat, in a rude and quite inhuman

minutest details: the very same dream, the very same sufferings, await me, night after night. You know that I never tell stories, and you see liow this kind of life has brought me down. I suffer so horribly from it all, that I am come to the determination not to go io bed any more."

It is a pity that Madame de B. has not told us whether the dream ever went so far as the pouring out of the decoction, and how the little sick devil took his physic. We are informed by a poet, whose name, as far as we are aware, has not reached posterity, that,

" When the devil was sick,

The devil a inonk would be :"

manner, white oniors, roots of marsh.. mallows, sticks of licorice, bundles of couch-grass, apples cut in four, and lumps of dried tiys. To this were added brown honey and honey of Narbonne, which they brought into her mouth and gullet by means of wooden spatulas, and then came large handfuls of quatrefleurs—whatever that is -- which, as she

d, choked her worse than all the rest. Her torinent was only somewhat lightened when they let an extraordinary quantity of water down her throat by means of a leaden tunnel.

“ They then took her by her two handles, like a paving-rainmer (one would say like a coffee-pot, only that a cofree-pot of her shape and of such a capacity was never seen on earth), and put her on the fire to boil all the night, like a pipkin of tisane. 'No,' said she, with a sigh, and weeping at the recollection of her torments, even while the absurdity of the whole made it impossible for her not to laugh ; ‘no, never has mortal had to endure a misery like what I suffer night after night. I think I hear myself bellow for anguish : and then the tall woman begins and says* Go, you foolish body! you are only too happy to suffer for this sweet angel!" Sometimes we have lectures or dissertations of that unworthy wretch of a physician, that enrage me outright-namely, when he undertakes to demonstrate to all those devils—while they laugh till the tears come in their eyes at the rareness of the joke—that I have nothing to sutier but what a water-kettle has to suffer as such, and am no more to be pitied than any other pipkin or pot, on the ground, as he says, that I have in me the requisite quantity of Huid, not to burn. "Oh! if I had not supplied her with the mass of water required by the laws of physic to prevent a complete desiccation-ce serait diffèrent—that would be quite a different attair! In that case, I grant you, she would have a right to complain; but you are all well

aware that vessels filled with liquid receive no damage from being placed on the fire.” In short, it is enough to drive one mad, suppose one were really nothing but an earthen pot!-and just this hellish pedant, with his science and his self-complacency, is my worst torment, to say nothing of his likeness to my mother-in-law, which amounts to perfect illusion.'

“ • Is it possible—is it really true,' cried I, that you can have so very odd and tormenting a dream with such surprising regularity?'

"I swear to you,' replied she, "all these incredible, absurd particulars, and long talk, with which I have wearied you, about what I seem to myself to feel, to see, and to hear, are true to the

but that was, no doubt, a grown-up devil, and it would perhaps be too inuch to expect to find such very serious impressions in an imp of six years old.

Cazotte at last cured the Comtesse B. of her nightmare, and all that she could say of the means he used was, that he had pronounced certain forms of prayer, at the same time touching her hands. Perhaps he used the particular prayer which, as we know, our fathers had against this visitation, and which was termed the " nightspell.” After his death, (he was guillotined in 1792,) his noble patient was visited, if not by the same plague, yet by others not less distressing, in consequence of which she had adopted the custom of sleeping in an armchair : this made strangers think her a little mad, but those who knew her better, did her more justice.

That the “spiriting," the infernal farce which visited this afflicted lady every night, was mere play of her own phantasy, is hard to believe. Hallucination and monomania are words which seem to say a great deal, but in reality leave the ground of such things unfathomed. That Madame de B., with the first feverish oppression, instead of falling into a healthy natural sleep, came into a condition of ecstacy, a certain half-sleep, (intersomnium,) with opening of the inward eye—and that to this the lying in bed was more favourable than the sitting in the arm-chair, a position which lessened the afflux of blood towards the epigastric region—all this we are warranted to assume, and so far acquire a clear view of the matter, in its psychological and physiological aspects.

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