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There is one point, however, which black and blue, as well as in very inseems to tell startlingly for the ancient telligible tinglings, that, possible or or objective side of the question. After not, it is fact. the visitation, it is not uncommon to And Doctor van Druffel, or Duffel, find the place upon which the monster already cited, depones in the Berlin had appeared to sit, swollen and dis- Ecclesiastical Journal, and says :coloured, sometimes even excoriated and bleeding, presenting, in short, “I myself know a person who affirms every appearance of having been really that a ghost, which he was compelled to subjected to the pressure of a bruising

carry some distance on his shoulders, in or galling weight: nay, in some cases,

broad daylight, left livid-blue marks, as the impression of the very form of the

of bruises, on the parts which its but

tocks had pressed, which marks he also demon, as seen by the sufferer in his

afterwards showed to me and to others. dream (the print of feet, the in

Now,” (proceeds the Doctor,) “ as to denture of haunches, &c.), has been these sugillations, which the nightmare plainly visible on the skin. Doctor produces, I can appeal for the truth of van Duffel, or Druffel-we have seen them to known experience. It by no means the name written both ways-is our follows, however, that a veritable, obauthority on this point. Here is what jectively present spirit has produced

these bruises. he says :

We may with confidence

assume, that the phantasy, excited to a “In a half-waking or intersomnious

magical activity through the local afflux

of blood, first subtrudes a goblin as condition, you behold a monster of some

cause, and then by a like magical rekind, a goblin, a fiery horse, a wild,

action effects an extravagation of blood gigantic man, glide slowly towards you.

in the part subjected to pressure.” This apparition sets itself on the pit of your stomach, and presses you with such a crushing weight, that you can

Another great authority on such neither breathe nor move a limb. After

points, the learned Frederick von the affection are often to be seen livid Meyer, of Frankfort, does not in this marks (sugillationes), some affirm actual fully agree with Doctor van Duffel. impressions of the figure of the goblin The nightmare, as this author thinks, or monster, on the place where it sat.” may indeed be a mere phantasm or

psychic inage, devoid of all proper And Doctor Ennemoser also speaks objectivity ; but it is just as possible of the same thing as matter of long that it may be a personal subsistence, experience and notoriety.

as the popular belief will have it. He Nor, however it seems to clash with calls on intelligent patients and unreceived notions of spiritual essences, prejudiced physicians to lay before the are we without evidence of the power public accurate accounts of the affecof other spirits than the nightmare, to tion, as it occurs in their own experileave on the human body material

and thus to furnish persons traces of their operation. Lillbopp, a versed in ghostly matters, and who writer every way worthy of credit, says: have experimental knowledge of the

invisible world, with data to decide “A certain person saw a spectre lay upon its natural or supernatural chahold of him, and, after the same was racter. To which purpose the learned vanished, he yet felt, in the part so laid hold of, a pain which lasted many days ;

author proceeds to throw in his own in other such cases also have swellings

mite of information, assuring us that and other marks of lesion been observed."

a lady so visited has described the sen

sation to him, as being distinctly that And the same writer further re

of the pressure of a hairy body, as of marks :

an ape or other beast. “It is not easy to reason a person

Certainly, there is no one in or who has had such an experience out of

out of Germany that knows so much the belief in a preternatural agency,

about Nightmares, and such problemaseeing he can in no other way explain to

tical entities, as Frederick von Meyer ; himself the fixed pain and the swelling.” nevertheless, Doctor Ennemoser is

not agreed with him. Doctor En. You prove to him that it is impos- nemoser is a philosopher,'and will not sible, but his pinches testify, in legible hear of an objective Nightmare. The

ence,

9

“sugillations” do not puzzle hiin. Me- from the outward world_is that ideal dical history, he informs us, offers ma- picture which the artist has within ny examples of the power of thought him, which is a part of himself, and to produce wounds on the surface of which reproduces itself by his hands the body, in parts to which it is in- on canvas or in marble! Nearer to tently directed, the mere inward ima. him than the objects that press most gining of an injury in a particular importunately on his sense, clearer in place working the injury imagined. his soul, and more sharply struck off The explanation of this he finds in than all that is most defined and pal“ the plastic force of phantasy, the pable in the material region around essence of which, as poetic shaping him, it works upon his mind with a power, consists in the realizing of power against which all external soliideal representations, wherein the soul citings of sense prevail nothing. Hapof man can do much even unto his own py was Blake, who lived in good unbody.” “ 'The animal soul (psyche)," derstanding with the artist within him, says the Doctor

and whose ready pencil transferred the

unearthly creations of this latter to in“ unconsciously copies in the germi- sensible canvas, instead of receiving nal matter contained in the blood the them on his own sensitive skin. The images presented to it, whether by the

pencil was the conductor, which car. senses from without, or by the thought ried off innocuous the destructivefrom within, embossing or engraving

creative force, the lightning that would them upon the outer surface of the body. For the ideal, the supersensuous, ever

have smitten and fused his own corseeks to acquire form, to give an im

poreality into new anomalous fantastic press of itself in the sensible; and when

forms. It is good when he who is the outward sense is now locked up in subjectively an artist is one also obtorpor, and the inward awakes in vision jectively–when the inward openness and ecstacy, then is the moment in which to the influences of an ideal world, the shapes that occupy the dreaming goes hand in hand with the capability soul can copy themselves off without dis

of transmitting those influences—of turbance_can model themselves in the

mediating their operation upon the passive materiality of the body.

world without, instead of arresting The spiritual picture, or intuition of the inward sense, reflects itself out of the

them within your own being, and becamera obscura of the brain, through

coming yourself their passive object, the nerves as light-conductors, upon the

when you ought to be their subject, curtain of the skin, wholly according to

their minister and co-operating instruthe physical laws by which impressions ment. Had Blake not been able to of light embody themselves on opaque paint his nightmares, and his daymares surfaces. That the reflex of the

too, they would have painted them. inner picture is produced chiefly on the selves in wizard-marks upon his own outer skin has a natural ground; the

body. nerves of feeling are the antithesis of the nerves of sight . In magnetic

Claude de Tisserant, who in the clairvoyance the sense of feeling some

year 1775, wrote a book De Prodigiis, times acts vicariously, through the

relates therein the following : nerves of the skin, for its pole, the sense of sight, and there is no point of the

• The wife of a member of the parliasurface of the body with which somnam

ment of Provence in a dream saw her bulists have not seen.”

husband beheaded, which also really

took place at the same time at Paris. Thus, as the thought is directed to Awaking in a passion of terror at the a particular point, the blood rushes in

cruel spectacle, she found her hand con. fuller surges in the same direction,

vulsively shut, so that she was unable

to open it; and when it was with main furnishing the plastic matter out of which the magical shaping power, the

force opened by her maids, there was

found on the palm the perfect image of artist and prophet within us, creates her husband, with his head cut off, and works before which our own under- this bled like the wounds of the stigstanding, as well as that of others, matized." stands baffled, and can but muse in expressive silence.” How vivid A very similar instance of the how far more vivid than all objective plastic power of the dreaming soul ” pictures which the eye brings liim is related by Von Meyer :

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“Variame V., of N, saw one nigh`, above arz, in moments of strong in a very lively dreais, a person who emotion, produced even in a waking otiered her a white and a rail rose, bilo

state, we have many instances. The ding her choose one of them. She chose

painful effect upon the nerves, oc. the red. Then she awoke she felt a

casioned by hearing a stuttering pervehement burning in one arm, and by degrees there formed itself on tlie spot

son talk, manifests itself in irritable so affected, the periect picture of a red

temperaments, by similar stuttering rose, which appeared embossed on the on the part of the hearer.

In ve skin, like a mole. On the eighth day hement sympathy you imitate invothis rose was in its most perfect state, luntarily the gestures of the person both as to drawing and colour; it be- who is the object of the emotioncame thenceforth daily paler, and less the movements of an orator who defined, and after fourteen days no trace carries you with him, or of a person of it remained. This well authenticated

in danger whom you cannot help. fact forms an important contribution to

In the following case, sympathy prothe history of the stigmata."

duced still more marked effects : These cases show how much deeper

“On the entry of the French into a significance than we think of lies in

Moscow, and during the desperate atthe phrase, so often in our mouths,

tempt made by some lingering inha.. " the power of the imagination.” The

bitants of the sacred city' to defend imagination is a power which we little the Kremlin, a French soldier, being understand : it is a truly creative pow- hard pressed by a Cossack, was, aster er, and is not ours, but we are its. a running fight of the length of a street Yea, the most powerful workings of

or so, driven into a certain blind alley,' the imagination are those of which the

or court without thoroughfare, and here imagining subject is not conscious,

stood at bay. A citizen, who had wherein a higher, universal power, the

turned into this same alley to avoid

meeting the combatants, and now could “soul of the world," imagines in and

not get out, fell at the sight of the con. hy him, and works very miracles. But

fliet into an ecstacy of fear, and stood the ordinary creations of imagination there charmed, beholding all as it were are only subjective: then when ecstacy in a dreadful waking dream, or state of comes in with her help, they become nightmare. When the Frenchman in objective. Which is the rationale of all his turn had driven the Cossack out of mazic. Maja, in the Indian mytho.

the alley, and the citizen, somewhat logy, the everlasting mother of things,

recovered from his panic, had got to

his own house, there were found on is nothing else than the divine imagination, the source of all forms; as

his arms and other parts of his body

bleeding gashes, such as he had seen the divine reason—the father of things

given, and received, so that he stood in -is of all essences.

need of surgical help, and kept his bed The poet, or artist generally, is a some days." conductor of the power of imagination, open to receive it from above- What the effect on this sympaopen to transmit it netherward. A thizing soul would have been, had madman is a poet, in whom the force the Cossack cut off the Frenchman's of divine imagination meets not free head, one trembles to calculate. course-in whom the divine dream, But we have cases on record, of which he should be the medium of re- similar effects of sympathy, where the alizing in the world without him, is object of the emotion was out of arrested, painting itself in his own the range of sensuous cognizance, soul, as those nightmare-images paint and where, consequently, magnetic themselves on the body, instead of be- ecstacy must have been present, and ing by him sung, or painted, to others, clairvoyance supplied the place of as Blake painted his dream-shapes, ordinary vision. and so put them forth out of himself. In the life of St. Suso, by Gorres, it

Aristotle, in his book De Animali- is related that this holy person, who bus, relates that a hen, having van- was remarkable for the austerity of quished a cock in fight, acquired, by his penances, on a certain occasion the force of imagination, ever dwelling smote himself so pitilessly with the on this victory, a comb and spurs. scourge as to lay open a blood

How effects such as those related vessel.

an

“ At the same time, and in the same seemed to be torn and rent in all hour that he so smote himself, a holy directions. The margins of the rents maid, whose name was Anna, was at receded from each other, here more, her prayers in another city, and had a

there less: cicatrization had comvision, or ecstacy, wherein she was led

menced on all of them, but was in in spirit to the town where Suso was administering to himself the discipline.

none yet completed. As she beheld the cruel stripes, she was

In such cases, and they might be taken with such a passion of pity that multiplied to no end-the dream of she drew near to him, and as his arm the brooding soul is broken in upon ; was uplifted to deal himself a stroke, she is startled into consciousness, she interposed her own person, and and for a moment becomes, herself, received the blow on her arm. Thus it artist, instead of instrument, organ seemed to her in her vision. And when

of the world-artists working. Hurshe came to herself, there was just such a welt, livid and bleeding, upon her

riedly she paints from the picture

before her, marring the fair work arm, as if the scourge had really stricken her, instead of Suso. Which of that world-artist, which is painted mark she retained for a long time, with

from eternal pattern.

That great pain."

world-artist is Maja, the “mother of

things," the soul of the world, Tha following somewhat similar the Divine Imagination, whose case (which differs from the fore. dream are we, who imageth us to her. going only inasmuch as here the sym- self, and to ourselves, and imageth pathy rests upon natural, instead of

herself in us.

We spoke, above, of religious affection) is related by workings of the imagination, of Doctor Pabst :

which the imagining subject is not

conscious, wherein a higher, universal “ The sister of a soldier who was power, the “soul of the world,” condemned to run the gauntlet, being imagines in and by him, and works at the time of the execution at home in miracles. Of such miracles, the the midst of her family, was sensible formation of a life within a life-of of the stripes which her brother re- a life out of a life, is the highest. ceived, and in a kind of ecstacy moaned

Of like miraculous imaginative workand cried, as if under the lash, until at length she fell down in a swoon,

ing we have an example, in the power

and was carried to bed, when, on stripping

of some of the lower animals, as her, they found her back piteously

the polypus, to replace limbs that ploughed with stripes, from which also have been cut away ; and we have blood was trickling.'

experience of something akin to it

in ourselves, in so familiar a pheTo this category belong incontes. nomenon as the closing and healing tably the workings of the imagination of a wound, or the knitting of a of a pregnant woman upon the being broken bone. In all these operations, that forins itself within her; the the unconscious psychic power of affections of the mother permanently imagination is at work, and it will incorporate themselves in the body not carry on two of them together, of the child. This was well known the fractured bone of a woman in to the Spartans, who therefore brought pregnancy will not knit so long as their women during the time of preg- the child is unborn; not till after nancy into the presence of none but the birth does the ordinary callus beautiful objects, and the Spartan form itself. For, to all magical forms furnished to the chisel of a operations, an undistracted intention, Phidias, a Praxiteles, and a Deixippus, as well as attention, is required. The models worthy of those divine ideals mightiest enchanter cannot work two which they helped to realize.

enchantments at once. Howshipp relates that a

Something strange and awful in the fourth month of her preg- glimmers up, out of profoundest horror nancy, as she attempted to cross a and gloom, in that observation of river in winter, was thrown by the Testa, who found in the body of a cracking and rending of the ice into great criminal a heart deformed by violent anxiety and fear. In the preternatural membranes and hairseventh month she brought a child like fibres, and who remarks that into the world, whose integuments such unnatural misformations and

woman

fore his death (it was on the feast of the elevation of the cross), he beheld in a vision a man, like a seraph with six wings, who with outstretched hands, and feet bound together, was fastened to a cross. Two wings lifted themselves over the head, two were stretched out as for flying, and two covered the whole body. This sight filled the servant of God with the highest joy, yet ile knew not what the vision might signify. He rejoiced at the glorious aspect of the seraph ; but the condition of the heavenly being on the cross, and the bitterness of the sufferings, terrified him. Troubled in mind, he considered what the vision might mean, and exercised his spirit with painful efforts to comprehend it. While he now vainly strove and wrestled for understanding of this, and the novelty of the vision moved him profoundly, behold! the marks of the nails began to show themselves also in his hands and feet, as he had observed them in that man in his vision.”

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monstrosities of structure are often found in the hearts of malefactors. Riolan found, on the dissection of a man of very vicious life, the substance of the heart cartilaginous. It would appear that there is more in the phrase, “a bad heart,” than people generally mean. Do our sins, ihen, harden our hearts, physically as well as morally? More germane to our subject seems the well-avouched fact, that persons touched by the King of France, for glandular swellings, were really healed, and that warts, and the like, are to this day, and every day, cured by what are called sympathetic means, which act upon the imagination.

The cases which have recently attracted so much attention in the Tyrol, find, like those above cited, the key to their mystery in this power of imagination, and assimilative energy of sympathy. The nun Emerich, from her youth up very sickly and devout, had already before entering the cloister a vision of one who, in the form of a shining youth, offered for her choice a wreath of flowers in the left hand, and a crown of thorns in the right. She grasped at the latter, pressed it with fervour on her head, but on coming to herself, felt, round the whole head, a violent pain, which was accompanied with bleeding. And the wounds in the hands, feet, side, and brow, as well of this nun as of Maria Morl of Caldaro, or Kaltern and Domenica Lazzari of Capriana, further exemplify the plastic power of the soul over the body, whereby the latter becomes the involuntary mirror of the former-yea, its photogenic plate, giving local permanence to the images which it (the soul) fixedly contemplates.

The “ Legend of the Saints" tells of thirty-two persons who have had the stigmata ; among whom the first and most illustrious is St. Francis of Assisi. The manner in which this holy person received these marks, is another proof of the power of sympathy, through the ministry of the imagination, to pass out from the spiritual into the bodiły region of our being. It is thus related by Thomas of Celano:

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“ Being in a solitude two years be

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