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its abounding in classical references and disquisitions ; of the latter, its practical and explanatory references; a feature of quite as important a kind as the other, and introduced as it is in conjunction with no slight degree of critical apparatus, one which undoubtedly gives to Mr. Trollope's work a claim upon the younger student, for whom it is principally intended, of no ordinary force. Indeed, with one exception, viz. the want of any running titular reference to the chapters, at the top of the pages, it is an admirable work; and, if in another edition this want should be remedied, as it ought to be (for the numerous references in the notes render it absolutely necessary, to prevent the present difficulty of finding the chapters), we do not scruple to assert, that it will be the very best edition for ordinary purposes, "adapted to the use of the higher classes in schools, of students in our universities, and of candidates for holy orders,” with reference to religious instruction, that has yet been published. The peculiar objects attempted by Mr. Trollope had better be given in his own words, from the Preface :
It seems to be an essential requisite that such an edition should be comprised in a single volume; not so much perhaps with a view to keep down the price, which is nevertheless an important consideration, as to furnish a convenient companion to the lecture-room, where it is always advisable, if not absolutely necessary, to have the entire work at hand. If it be further attempted, as in the present publication, to supply such a commentary as may suffice for the common purposes of the Clergy in general, and even for the ordinary references of the more matured divine, the advantages gained by having the Text, the Notes, and Indices in the same volume, are yet more apparent.
It is hoped that this desirable object has been attained, with the employment, at the same time, of a clear and distinct typography, and without the sacrifice of perspicuity in the annotations, to the necessity of an over-close compression.-P. v.
The Text of Mill, as reprinted in the Orford Edition of 1830, has been followed with very little deviation; and that only in some half-dozen instances, in which there is the most unquestionable authority, and even necessity, for the change. In all cases, however, various readings of importance have been given in the Notes, with the reasons for preferring or rejecting them. Those of minor authority have been necessarily omitted; nor is it probable that the readers for whom this edition is more immediately designed, would find much either of interest or advantage in exploring the critical depths of Griesbach's apparatus. To such as take pleasure in researches of this nature, there is a ready guide in White's Criseos Griesbuchiana in Nov. Test. Synopsis, and in Vater's Edition of the Greek Testament, published in 1824.
It has been a main object in the Notes to combine conciseness with perspicuity; and, omitting the minutiæ of verbal criticism, to present the student with a comprehensive philological and exegetical commentary on this portion of the Sacred Scriptures. In some few instances the different opinions of two or more critics have been noticed; but for the most part, it has been deemed sufficient to adopt at once that interpretation which has been more generally received, and to which the objections, if any, are more readily obviated. No difficulty has been intentionally evaded; and it is hoped that few have been left without a satisfactory solution. A summary of parallel passages has been given at the head of each chapter of the three last Gospels, so as to avoid the repetition of information already supplied : and the explanation of a word, or phrase, or form of construction, which may still appear to have been passed over without notice, will frequently be found, by a reference to the Indices, in some place where it has previously occurred. By consulting the Index of Matters, which has been made very full and complete, any particular doctrine, or bistory, or character, may likewise be traced through all the passages in which it has been incidentally discussed. Under the head of “ Church of Rome,” for instance, the several texts are enumerated which bear upon the entire system of her worship and corruptions; while her distinctive tenets, such as Auricular Confession, the Invocation of Suints, &c., are to be sought in their alphabetical position.
The citations from the Old Testament have been verified, the manner of their application pointed out, and the source of any deviation froin the original examined : so that the marginal references, which have been necessarily abandoned, will scarcely be required ; more especially as the most important of them liave frequently been embodied in the notes. To each of the several Books an Introductory Notice has been prefixed, comprising a rapid sketch of the writer's history, together with a brief inquiry into its genuineness, date, and the place from which it was written ; a statement of the particular object which ihe author had in view; and, in the case of the Epistles, an analysis of the argument. It was originally intended to have left the Apocalypse without any comment whatsoever; but it was deemed advisable, upon after consideration, to annex a few brief explanations of that portion of the prophecy, which has, in all probability, been fulblled. In this part of the work the interpretation of Deun Woodhouse has been principally, though not exclusively, adopted. Pp. v.-vii.
In chronology, Mr. T. follows Gresswell; and of punctuation, to which he has paid particular attention, he remarks :
To this poiot the utmost care and attention have been devoted in the present undertaking; and it is confidently presumed that no inconsiderable facilities have been afforded, and no few ambiguities removed, by this means only. The stųdent's first impresssion is not unfrequently correct, in which case a note may be less an aid than an impediment: and yet it is no unusual occurrence to meet with a lengthened discussion on some critical question, which might have been settled at once by the insertion or omission of a single comma.-P. vii.
This reminds us of the anecdote of the celebrated Mr. Boyle and Alexander Pope. The latter was reading in a coffee-room some Greek MS., which presented a difficulty insurmountable to the great poet: Boyle, then a youth in the Guards, asked to see it, and replied, that a " note of interrogation" would set all right. “And pray," says the little hump-backed Pope, "what is a note of interrogation ?" " A little crooked thing," replied the soldier, “which asks questions." The anecdote well illustrates Mr. Trollope's remarks. As one example of the necessity of attention, we may refer to 1 Cor. xv. 32, where the whole beauty of the first question of the Apostle is lost, in the manner our English version punctuates the passage. Instead, also, of the quotation, “ Let us eat and drink,” being the corollary from the denial of the resurrection, it is rendered a positive exhortation of Christianity, founded solely on the certainty of death: and thus, by a single misplaced stop, the Gospel of Christ is imbued with the voluptuousness of Epicurus. Other instances, not less striking, will occur to the reader, where positive doctrines are involved in a like obscurity. We have not detected a single instance in which Mr. Trollope has neglected to point the text so as to exhibit the doctrine in a clear and satisfactory manner; a difficulty acknowledged in common affairs by modern lawyers, whe, as is well known, to avoid the authority of marks of punctuation, reject them altogether.
We shall now give a few examples of the editor's annotations; and these, for the sake of conciseness, we shall principally select from his remarks on the Church of Rome, to which he especially alludes in the Preface :
Matt. viii. 14. Tevdepóy. See Lex. Pent. Gr. V. yaußpós. Peter's marriage is decisive against the Romish canon which imposes celibaey on the clergy.-P. 26.
Matt. x. 2. Swdexa đTOOTÓAwy. The name ÅTOOTÓAos, which signifies sent, is applied to those twelve whom Christ sent forth to preach (Mark ii. 14), more especially with reference to his final commission. See John xx. 21. In Heb. iij. I, it is applied pre-eminently to Christ himself, as the Messenger of the New Covenant. The number twelve may seem to have relation to the twelve patriarchs, or the twelve tribes of Israel. Compare Mati. xix. 28. Luke xxii. 30. By the epithet tpwtos nothing more is meant than that Peter was first called to the apostleship. So Theophylact : προτίθησι δέ Πέτρος και Ανδρέαν, διότι και πρωτόκλητοι. Μark (iii. 16) and Luke (vi. 14) omit the word altogether : nor does Christ give, or Peter claim, any authority over the rest of the apostles : but there are passages which rather look a contrary way. See Malt. xxxiii. 8, 599. Acts xv. 13. 2 Cor. xii. 11. Gal. ii. 11.-P. 31. Matt
. xvi. 18. émi taúry Tŷ TÉTpq Whether this Rock be understood of Peter himself, or of Christ, or of the confession which Peter had just uttered, it gives no supremacy to Peter above the other apostles. St. Paul, for instance, was not " a whit behind him" in the work of the Gospel. From the change however of the word ét pos into térpa, it should rather seem that the confession of the divinity and incarnation of Christ, which had also been made by the other apostles (Mait. xiv. 33), was the Rock upon which the christian church is built. The expression thaai ģdou, which is found both in sacred and profane writers, always signifies death, as being the entrance into Hlades. Compare Psalm ix. 13. cvii. 18. isa. xxxviii. 10. Wisd. xvi. 13. 3 Macc. v. 51. Hom. II. E. 646. Theogn. 427. Ovid. Met. I. 662. Our Lord meant, therefore, that his church should endure for ever.
Ver. 19. Tas karis cñs Barinelas. Peter laid the first foundation of the christian church both among Jews and Gentiles (Acts ii. 41. x. 15); and with reference to this, he seems himself to apply this expression of our Lord (Acts xv. 7). If, however, it be connected with the power of binding and loosing, it was not limited to Peter, but addressed in the same terms to all the apostles in Matt. xviii. 18. In the Talmud, to bind and to loose mean respectively to prohibit and to permit; so that our Saviour intended to convey to his apostles the power of retaining or abrogating such of the Mosaic ritual, as the circumstances of his religion might require. The power which is here evidently confined to things, is extended in John Xx. 23, to persons ; and, with modifications adapted to the altered state of things, it will be continued to their successors till the end of time.-P. 53.
Matt. xxvi. 26. cŭdoynoas. Many MSS. have cixaprotuous, which is probably correct : but see on Mutt. xiv. 19. Hence the sacrament of the Lord's Supper is also called the Eucharist ; and this name, which is used by Ignatius, was probably coeval with the Apostolic age. An account of its institution is given in nearly the same terms with those of St. Matthew, by Mark (xiv. 22), Luke (xxii. 19), and St. Paul (1 Cor. xi. 23). The breaking of the bread is mentioned as a necessary part of the rite by all; and it is therefore unwarrantably omitted by the Church of Rome. With respect to the doctrine of Transubstantiation, which is built upon the literal acceptation of the words TOÛTÓ OTI TÒ Owué uou, it is clear that such an interpretation is positively absurd. The disciples could not suppose that the bread, which Christ was breaking before them, was the actual body in which they saw him still living among them, or that the wine in the cup was literally the blood wbich was still flowing in his veins. As the verb to signify has no corresponding term in Hebrew, il is is constantly used for it represents. Compare Gen. xl. 12, 18. xli. 26. Dan. vii. 23. viii. 21. Luke xv. 20. Acis x. 17. I Cor. x. 4. Gal. iv. 24.
Ver. 27. πίετε εξ αυτού πάντες. The addition of the world πάντες will respect to tlie wine, and its omission with reference to the bread, has a degree of emphasis, which may almost be regarded as anticipating the erroneous practice of the Papists, in refusing the cup to the laity. Of Tółnwy, put for dvrwv (ver. 28), see on lati. xx. 28. It may be presumed that where távtes is used, the reference is to the universality of the offer; and, where nonnol is employed, to the limited acceptance of salvation.-P. 83.
Mark vi. 13. ñdeupov éraiq. Oil was used by the Jews and Egyptians, and indeed by the ancients generally, for the cure of diseases. See Luke x. 34. Joseph. B. J. I. 33. 5. Pind. Pyth. IV. 393. Æsch. Prom. 489. Theocr. Idyl. XI. 2. It was probably employed by the apostles symbolically; for, as to its medicinal effects, in their hands at least, the cure was instant and miraculous. No sanction can be derived from the passage to the Romish sacrament of extreme unction, which is only administered to such as are past the hope of recorery. Compare James v. 14.- Pp. 106, 107.
1 Cor. xi. 27. ý nívn. Hence the Romanists derive an arguinent for refusing the cup to the laity; but the particle is plainly equivalent to kai, which is indeed a various reading of some authority. The clause čvoxos šotai K. T. 1. indicates the guilt, and consequent punishment, of profaning the symbols of Christ's body and blood. That eternal punishment is not meant is clear from ver. 30. Of korpārtai, to die, see on Hom. II. A. 241.-P. 370.
1 Thess. ii. 3. őtt, édv un éron K. 7. A. There is plainly an ellipsis, which the E.T. has correctly supplied thus: That day shall not come, except, &c. The apostasy, which this striking prediction announces, has been variously explained; but though an unfulfilled prophecy must be, in its very nature, ambiguous, every part of it applies so accurately to the corruptions of the Romish Church, that it is scarcely possible to mistake the reference. In 1 Tim. iv. 13, St. Paul alludes to the same apostasy; and the description of Antichrist (Rev. xvii. 1), as well as the predictions of the little horn and the blasphemous king in the book of Daniel, have doubtless the same import. Although the title of the MAN OF Sin, and the terms employed throughout, are in the singular number, yet the whole succession of popes is intended, according to the usual phraseology of prophetical language. Of the expression ó viðs ons aralelas see on Matt. xxiii. 15. li is applied to the traitor Judas in John xvii. 12, and treachery against Christ is assuredly involved in the doctrine of papal supremacy.
Ver. 4. 6 årtikeluevos K. T. A. The character developed in this verse accords exactly with the pope's invasion of the Divine prerogative in condemning and absolving men; bis assumption of Divine titles, such as our Lord God the Pope ; and his pretensions to an authority above the Scriptures. By vaòs Geoù is meant the Church of Christ. Compare 1 Cor. iii. 16. 2 Cor. vi. 16. 1 Tim. iii. 15. Rev. iii. 12. Of σέβασμα see on Acts xvii. 23.
Ver. 6. tò ratéxov. That which restraineth; i. e. the restraining power. This is generally understood of the Roman empire; and ó katéxwv, in the next verse, of the succession of emperors, just as ó óvópwros rís ápaprias is the succession of popes. Although the iniquity in question was already secretly at work in the apostles' age, yet it was not rill the emperor of Rome was taken (ex pécou) out of the way, that the Bishop of Rome was advanced in his stead. With ó katéxw supply éoti.
Ver. 9. év ndon Ouváụei K. T.A. Nothing can agree more fully with this description than the pretended miracles, and other frauds and impositions of the Church of Rone.
Ver. 11. TỘ yetdel. For example, the doctrine of Transubstantiation ; not to mention the absurd legends of the saints.-Pp. 439, 440.
1 Tim. iv. I. votépous vaipois. See on Acts ii. 17, and compare 2 Thess. ii. 3, 899. By aveluası radyois are meant pretenders to inspiration : in allusion perhaps to the impositions which the Romisb priesthood practise upon the multitude, by means of pretended revelation from departed saints. Prom Eph. vi. 12, it seems that didackarlal baypovlw may mean doctrines suggested by devils
, which aptly designates the idolatrous practices of the Church of Rome.-P. 446.
2 Tim. iii. 1. évOTNCOVTAL K.X. This passage describes but too faithfully the deplorable tendency of the apostasy which was predicted in the former Epistle, and in 2 Thess. iii. 1. The seeds of the corruption were already sown by the Judaizing teachers at the time when the apostle wrote ; but the prophecy comprehends a much longer period, and applies with the most overwhelining force to the interested views of the monks and the Romish clergy in the promotion of vice, and the delusions practised upon women more especially, by means of auricular confession, their pretended sanctity, and other hypocritical devices.-P. 453.
James v. 14. dreifartes é Aaiq. See on Mark vi. 13.--P. 491.
We have chosen this consecutive series of annotations, because, also, they afford a fair specimen of the editor's labours, and furnish a concise view of the points of controversy between the Romanist and the Protestant. But the notes abound with criticisms equally clear and equally useful ; and, only that want of space does not allow, we would quote some other equally instructive specimens of the way in which Mr. Trollope has embodied, in simple terms, the more extended observations of other commentators. The above will suffice to justify our praise of this work, and to recommend it to our readers.
Should another edition be called for, which we earnestly hope, we shall expect to see our recommendation attended to about the heading of the pages. In page 453, the “B” of the 2d Epistle to Timothy, is altogether omitted : the references are also, in many cases, incorrect; for instance, on Luke xv. 24, a reference as to mais is given to verse 16, instead of verse 27. Mr. Trollope might have successfully applied the note on the corresponding text, Matt. viii. 5, where he properly states, that rais and ĉoùos are interchangeable terms, to the Socinian doctrine, that Christ was the servant of God; an expression which the Unitarians are continually introducing. The value of this remark in the criticism of 2 Phil. vii. (which, by the way, Mr. Trollope does not notice), appears from the fact that, by the LXX., in Isaiah xlvii. 1, Christ is styled mais, and in Isaiah ix. 6, maičiov, whilst in the same text terms are applied to Christ which our English idiom renders The Mighty God, The Everlasting Father, Father of the Everlasting Age.
We have also to remark, that the note on Matt. xiii. 31, in the Analecta, appears to us preferable to that in the present volume. The evidence of the Spaniard, who speaks of mustard trees taller than horse and man, in which birds built their nests, is problematical ; whilst the quotations from the Talmud, as to the existence of a tree called mustard, are apposite. We wish particularly to call Mr. Trollope's attention to the remarks in the Christian REMEMBRANCER, Vol. XII. p. 23, where, in a review of the Analecta Theologica, under Matt. xvii. 20, he is invited to consider the recent arguments, on the botanical nature of the tree in question, of Mr. Frost and Mr. Buckam. In an age like this, when the study of natural history is cultivated in so liberal a manner, and when illustrations of Scripture are continually arising from the investigations of naturalists, it is by no means beneath the attention of the Biblical critic. To be candid, we must say, there is a want of allusions of the kind in this work; but the field has been entered on elsewhere and in our own pages) by another writer, and many striking proofs of the truth of the sacred narratives, incidentally and advisedly occurring, will be brought into notice.
We feel it a duty to the editor to introduce here the announcement of his present labours, in the following extract from his Preface :-