« ПредишнаНапред »
The following College Prizes have been adjudged :Declamation
Green. Reading in Chapel Bartlett. Francis Sheppard, B.A., Scholar of Clare Hall, has been elected a Fellow of that society.
PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY. A meeting of the Philosophical Society was lately held, Professor Peacock, the Treasurer, in the chair. Communications were made by Mr. Green, on the Reflection and Refraction of Light in noncrystallized media ; by Mr. Rothman, consisting of observations of Halley's Comet, made on the gate tower of Trinity College, from September 20, to October 27, 1836; by Mr. Hopkins, on Precession and Nutation, assuming the interior fluidity of the Earth.
A meeting of this society was held last month, Dr. Graham, the President, in the chair. Various presents were announced. A communication was read by Mr. Green, on the “ Vibrations of Air."
Mr. Hopkins then made a communication " On certain elementary principles of Geology, with remarks on some of Mr. Babbage's speculations, contained in his Ninth Bridgewater Treatise." The discussion of these subjects having excited considerable interest, we have endeavoured to obtain as correct a report of it as possible.
Mr. Hopkins stated that the thickness of that portion of the earth's crust which contains organic remains had been estimated by geologists to be in some places as much as eight or ten miles, and at the lowest estimate to be four or five miles ; but, supposing it to be considerably less than this, it might still be unquestionably termed enormous with reference to any conceivable superficial causes which its formation could be referred. From this, as well as other phenomena which this sedimentary mass presented, the gcologist concluded that an immense period of time must have been essential for its production, and hence declared the great antiquity of the globe. This opinion, however, had been much controverted, it being asserted that time was not an essential element in the production of such phenomena. The geologist's assertion of the antiquity of the globe involved the hypothesis of geolo
gical phenomena being referable to physical
Assuming this, the above conclusion was perfectly incontrovertiblefor all attempts to account for the production of geological phenomena within 6000 years by natural causes were perfectly contemptible. The opponents of geology must be consequently driven to the hypothesis, that the greater part of geological phenomena are due to supernatural agency.
But this supposition involved a great difficuliy, for it led to the conclusion that the same effort of Creative Power had been exercised in the structure, for example, of a shell destined only to be a constituent part of a solid rock, and of one destined to minister to the wants and enjoyments of animal life. The very basis of Natural Theology, as resting on the argument from design, would thus be destroyeda consequence which he doubted not would be found totally at variance with the general convictions of mankind; satisfied as he was that man had, by bis researches in natural science, been enabled to build up a noble and enduring argument in proof of the great attributes of the Deity.
On the other hand, adopting the geologist's hypothesis, we were met by the difficulty of reconciling it with the usual interpretation of the Mosaic account of the creation. Mr. H. thought that this point had not in general been stated with sufficient accuracy, it being usually asserted (as recently by Mr. Babbage) that the question was between the facts of geology and the interpretation of Genesis; whereas Mr. H. contended that it was between the geologist's interpretation of geological phenomena, on the one hard, and the theologian's interpretation of the sacred text on the other. His object was not to enter into a full exposition of the argument, but to give distinctness to the statement of it; but he conceived that the recent interpretations, coming from the highest authority, and removing the limitation with respect to time, left scarcely the shadow of a difficulty remaining.
Assuming, then,: geological phenoména to be referable to natural causes, we were led to inquire, In what state was the earth created? Some philosophers had contended for the probability of its primitive solidity and original spheroidal form, its surface only having been subject to the modifying influences of natural causes. In ascending, however, the chain of secondary causes, there was no reason whatever for stopping at
this particular point of it, if (as might be done) it could be traced still further; for if we thus ascended to the hypothesis of the earth's original fluidity, that hypothesis could be shown to be consistent with the phenomena which the earth actually exbibits.
Philosophers had proceeded to an hypothesis still more remote-viz. that the whole solar system might have been derived from a mere nebulous mass. A series of problems, however, of great difliculty, (several of which Mr. H. enumerated,) must be solved before the truth of this hypothesis could be established. Mr. Babbage, in his “Ninth Bridgewater Treatise," had considered some points connected with these problems. Mr. H. showed the entire fallacy of Mr. Babbage's conclusion, that a ring of ice might possibly have been formed at a great height in the earth's atmosphere, which by subsequently falling might produce great effects in modifying its surface. He also explained a theory which had occurred at the same time to Sir John Herschel and Mr. Babbage, respecting the changeable position of the surfaces of equal temperature within the earth. Mr. H. thought the theory well deserving of attention, though he conceived it impossible that several effects which Mr. Babbage was disposed to refer to this cause could result from it. Mr. H. also pointed out the fallacy of Mr. Babbage's speculation on the “ permanent impressions of our words and actions on the globe.” The fallacy lay in the confusion of relative and absolute motion. His views, in fact, could only apply to a planet in which every particle of matter should be perfectly elastic.
Professor Sedgwick thought that an inadequate notion of the thickness of the sedimentary portion of the earth's crust miglit be conveyed by what Mr. Hopkins had stated respecting it. It was not essential to Mr. H.'s argument to insist on what he (Prof. Sedgwick) believed to be its actual thickness, but he would state some facts which might enable us to form some estimate of it. The Professor then mentioned the observed thicknesses of the general divisions of the sedimentary rocks, which would together constitute a thickness greater than any gcologist had ventured to state as a real estimate. He remarked, however, that the thicknesses he had mentioned, being observed in different places, might not obtain in any vertical line along which the different formations might be superinfused; but still, that there could be no
reasonable doubt of the estimate usually made by geologists being a moderate
In reference to the physical problems alluded to by Mr. H., some of which he appeared to have been the first to apprehend distinctly, as well as to make some progress in their solution, he would only observe that the pursuit of geology would probably lead to nu. merous problems, the solution of which would hereafter assist greatly in enlarging our views of physical science. The Professor thought that Mr. Hopkins's distinction between geological facts and theories was little more than a metaphysical one, for that what he had considered as theoretical inferences were so incontestible as to have all the force of facts on the belief of the geologist, and that, in this sense, Mr. Babbage's statement of the question between the geologist and his opponents might be deemed correct. The Professor then spoke with great eloquence of what he believed to be the beneficial influence of the study of geology, in its tendency to give us more enlarged and adequate conceptions of the economy of the material universe, and thus to dissipate some of those feelings of momentary perplexity, if not of doubt, which were liable to cross our minds, at sone stage or other of our contemplations of the more mysterious points connected with God's government of the universe. Geology distinctly pointed to a beginning-to an origin of things in an intelligent Author.
Mr. Whewell thought the theory of the changeable position of the surfaces of equal temperature within the earth well deserving of attention. He entered into some further explanation of it, and pointed out the quantities which must be determined by experiment before the truth of the theory could be tested by calculation.
The President then rose and said, that though in general he was unwilling to occupy the time of the Society by interpusing in questions of a purely scientific character; yet from the more serious kind of interest connected with the discussions of that evening, he was desirous of making a remark upon one point of great importance, which had been introduced in their discussions ; he alluded to the supposed difficulty of reconciling the Mosaic account of the creation with the conclusions of geologists, as to the antiquity of the earth. In considering this question, the course suggested both by prudence and sound philosophy was, not to set out with affixing a dogmatical interpretation to the opening verses of the book of Genesis, and then to quarrel with the conclusions of geologists, because they may disagree with that in
terpretation; but rather, to proceed in the reverse order; to investigate carefully and rigorously the conclusions which geologists may have succeeded in establishing by the legitimate processes of inductive philosophy; and then to turn to the Mosaic narrative, and examine whether, by a fair and candid interpretation, its language may be brought into harmony and agreement with the conclusions of science.
He concluded by saying, that as students both of philosophy and of the divine oracles, they should all feel the benefit of keeping this rule in mind.
Mr. Skinner remarked that (as far as he was competent to form an opinion) the evidence of Hebrew philology was decidedly favourable to Professor Buckland's geological views, as to the first verse ia Genesis. “ The beginning" is an expression which should not be limited to a point of time—it may include an indefinitely long period, which preceded the present constitution of the earth. So“ the end" includes the period commencing with Messiah's advent, but terminating in the final judgment. At the same time we cannot but deprecate this kind of reference to the Bible in opposition to, or confirmation of, physical science. If once admitted, it must raise, from time to time, embarrassment and difficulties, not only in geology,
but in every branch of physical investi-
Mr. Hopkins said, in reply to Professor Sedgwick's remarks respecting the merely metaphysical characier of the distinction between geological facts and inferences, that be fully concurred with the Professor in feeling that geological inferences did possess at least all but the force of facts as far as the geologist himself was concerned; but his object had been to place the argument in what he believed to be a strictly accurate point of view, and in that form in which it secmed best calculated to meet the arguments of the opponents of geology, who were of course little disposed to admit the mere convictions of geologists on the one side as subversive of their own convictions, derived from a different source, on the other.
DURHAM. The Rev. Thomas Williamson Peile, struction of Civil Engineers in the Uni. M.A., and the Rev. T. C. Whitley, M.A., versity. were admitted to the office of Proctor for the ensuing year.
Nov. 30.-At a Convocation holden on The answers to the Addresses from the Saturday, Nov. 25, the following gentleUniversity to the Queen and to the men, having kept their full number of Queen Dowager, were read.
terms by residence, and passed the requiThe following gentlemen were presented site examinations, were admitted to the and admitted ad eundem :
degree of B. A. :Rev. C. Grant, B.C.L., St. Peter's Henry Stoker; Henry Humble ; John Coll. Cambridge.
Anthony Pearson Linskill; George IleJ. Thomas, B.C. L., Trin. Coll. Oxford. riot ; Henry Deer Griffith. Rev. R. Gray, M.A., University Coll. The prize for the Essay “On the exOxford.
istence of a moral sense,” is assigned to Rev. W. Richardson, M.A., Magdalen Dr. Cundells. Mr. Raymond's prize for Coll. Oxford.
the Essay by an Under-graduate. Rev. R. G. Leaton Blenkinsopp, M.A., character of the historical narrative of Trinity Coll. Cambridge.
Herodotus contrasted with that of ThucyThe following gentlemen were admitted dides,” is assigned to H. R. Watson. ad eundem by vote of the House :
Rev. J. Carr, M.A., Balliol Coll, Oxf.
Salmon, of Durham Grammar School, Rev. W. F. Raymond, M.A., Trinity have been elected King's Scholars, after Coll. Cambridge.
an examination in presence of the Right At the same Convocation a series of Rev. the Dean, and the Revs. the Preregulations was passed relating to the in- bendaries in residence.
At Lancaster, the Rev. Wm. Lawson Barnes, M. A. of St. John's College, Cambridge, Rector of Knapton, Norfolk, 'to Grace, second daughter of Mr. W. Fisher, wine-merchant, Lancaster.
At York, the Rev. George Alderson, M.A. of Pembroke College, Cambridge, Vicar of Hornby, Yorkshire, to Henrietta, youngest daughter of the late John Kearsley, Esq.
The Rev. J. N. G. Armytage, of St. John's College, Cambridge, Curate of the Parish Church, Lancaster, to Harriet, eldest daughter of John Dodson, Esq. merchant, of that town.
At Whitehaven, the Rev. Thos. Dalton, Curate of Holy Trinity, Kendal, to Mary, eldest daughter of Mr. Buckham, draper, King-street, Kendal.
The Rev. Richard Hamilton, of Wells, Somersetshire, to Charlotte, daughter of the late William Cooper, Esq. of Cooper'shill, Queen's county, Ireland.
MARRIAGES. At the Berrow church, Worcestershire, the Rev. William James Heale, M.A. of Wadham College, to Catharine, youngest daughter of the late Colonel Stephens, of St. Lucia, West Indies.
At Hales Owen, Salop, by the Rev. R. B. Hone, the Rev. Hugh Matthie, B.A. of Pembroke College, Rector of Worthenbury, Flintshire, to Anna Maria, younger daughter of the late Joseph Terry Hone, Esq. of the Middle Temple, Barrister-atLaw.
At Edgbaston church, the Rev. Francis Trench, B.A. of Oriel College, to Mary Caroline, daughter of the Rev. W. Marsh, M.A. Rector of St. Thomas, Birmingham.
At Clifton, the Rev. C. Radford, of Englishcombe, near Bath, to Miss Bird, daughter of the late Major Bird, and niece of Sir Henry Every, Bart.
At Lockinge, Berks, by the Rev. James May, the Rev. George May, M. A. of Oriel College, to Catherine Elizabeth, only daughter of Sir Henry Willian Martin, Bart.
At Streatham, by the Rev. Frederick Borradaile, M.A. Prebendary of Lincoln, the Rev. James Betts, M.A. of Trinity College, and of Ellingham, Norfolk, to Sophia, youngest daughter of the late Richardson Borradaile, Esq. of Bedfordhill, Surrey.
The Rev. George Watson Smyth, of Trinity College, Cambridge, and of Tichborne, Hants, to Mary Player, second daughter of Thomas Heath, Esq. banker, of Andover.
At Agobill, co. Down, the Rev. Robert Alexander, of Portglenone, eldest son of thie Bishop of Meath, to Hester, daughter of the late Colonel Mac Manus, of Mount Davis, Antrim.
At Edgbaston church, the Rev. Charles Benjamin Lowe, of Trinity College, Cambridge, eldest son of the late Rev. Samuel Lowe, Rector of Darlaston, to Caroline, second daughter of Robert Haig, Esq. of Dublin.
At St. Pancras, the Rev. Chas. Popham Miles, B.A. of Caius College, Cambridge, youngest son of the late Augustus Miles, Esq. to Mary Anne, eldest daughter of Brown Collison, Esq. of Guildford-street, Russell. square, London,
BIRTHS. At the Rectory, Burton Bradstock, the lady of the Rev. Henry Mitchell, of a daughter.
At the Rectory, Loughton, Bucks, the lady of the Rev. J. Athawes, of Trinity College, Cambridge, of a son.
At St. Sepulchre's Vicarage, Northampton, the lady of the Rev. John Little, of a daughter.
At High Legh, Cheshire, the lady of William Deedes, Esq. M. A. of Sandling, Kent, and late Fellow of All Souls' College, of a daughter.
The lady of the Rev. J. Ellis, of Bishopthorpe, Yorkshire, of a daughter.
At the Parsonage, Tring, Herts, the lady of the Rev. Charles Lacy, M.A. of Christ Church, of a daughter.
At Weston Lodge, Derbyshire, the lady of the Hon. and Rev. Alfred Curzon, M.A. of Brasennose College, of a daughter.
At Oxenhall, the lady of Richard Foley Onslow, Esq. of Christ Church, of a
At Donnington Rectory, Herefordshire, the lady of the Rev. William Biscoe, of a daughter.
At Sutton Montis, Somerset, the lady of the Rev. Morden Bennett, of a son.
NOTICE TO CORRESPONDENTS. We are unwillingly compelled to defer several communications.
REVIEW OF NEW PUBLICATIONS.
ART. I.—'H KAINH ATAOHKII, The New Testament in Greek, chiefly
from the Text of Mill, with Copious English Notes, adapted to the Use of Schools and Universities, and to the Purposes of General Reference. To which are annexed a Chronological Harmony, and Three Indices. By the Rev. WILLIAM TROLLOPE, M.A., formerly of Pembroke College, Cambridge, and one of the Classical Masters of Christ's Hospital, London. London : Rickerby. 8vo. 1837. Pp. viii. 600.
The estimation in which the editor of this new edition of the Greek Testament is held, as a theologian and critic, gives, prospectively, a recommendation to the volume before us. Mr. Trollope's labours in this department of sacred literature, have already been the subject of our previous review, under the head of his “Analecta Theologica,” a very estimable production, and one which, in conjunction with the present undertaking, entitles the learned editor to our most heartfelt congratulations and thanks. It is not our present intention to enter into a minute analysis of the volume, inasmuch as the Analecta, which appears to have been the prototype of the annotations in the present volume, has already engaged our labor limæ. It will be sufficient to specify the particular objects of this edition, and generally to state the efficiency of the undertaking. Perhaps, after the elaborate edition of Dr. Bloomfield (reviewed at Vol. XVIII. p. 135), it may have seemed almost a work of supererogation in Mr. Trollope to have added another to our editions of the Greek Testament; but we think we discover, notwithstanding the unavoidable general similarity of the two works, a specific difference between them, which prevents any idea of critical collision. The distinguishing characteristic of the former is,