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1. Why is the sentence " to produce a single Calvinistic passage, Thompson, p. 208, omitted by Roberts, p. 280.

2. Why does Roberts, p. 280, substitute any for one, and print peculiar in Italics ? when the words of Mrs. More are, I do not entertain one tenet peculiar to Calvinism.”—Thompson, p. 209.

3. Why is the following omitted by Roberts, p. 281 ?—Who, without cant or enthusiasm, is always exhibited in a pious and amiable point of view." - Thompson, p. 210.

4. Roberts omits, (p. 283,) the charge which Mrs. More is clearly anxious to rebut, "of being hostile to the Church.”—Thompson, p. 213. Whence does this arise ?

5. Why does Mr. Roberts say, " but observing that singing is a help to devotion in others, I thought it right to allow the practice ?"-(p. 284,) whereas the words of Mrs. More are, but having heard that singing is one great attraction among the Methodists, I thought it but fair to counteract them with their own weapons, and, with this view, allowed of their singing psalms."- Thompson, p. 214.

6. Are these alterations in Hannah More's words to be attributed to Mr. Roberts's peculiar tenets ? and is he an advocate of the doctrine of irresistible grace ?

We here close the comparison ; and although we have shown these few maculæ in Mr. Roberts's production, we have no doubt his work will be extensively patronized by those whose sentiments coincide with

Mr. Thompson's Life, however, is altogether of a different stamp. Independent of the interest of the subject as a composition, it cannot fail to command the public approbation ; whilst as a specimen of biography, we have nothing superior to it in the English language, with the exception, perhaps, of Southey's Life of Nelson.

Each chapter is ornamented by a beautiful woodcut from interesting sketches connected with the memoir, taken by the author himself; and appropriate texts, selected with great judgment, introduce the various scenes in Mrs. More's eventful life. The toul ensemble of the volume, indeed, allures the reader.

We do not think, as a specimen of Mr. Thompson's style, that we select a better or more interesting passage than the following, wherein the enormities of infidel France are most powerfully denounced. And with this extract we close our notice, strongly recommending the volume to our Christian friends, and thanking Mr. T. most cordially for much information and amusement.

Religious ignorance, together with practical infidelity, under the profession of Christianity, had, in France, already opened an inlet' to speculative unbelief, with all its attendant enormities. Even under the comparatively mild and enlightened discipline of the Gallican Church, the Scriptures were theoretically withholden, and practically neglected among the laity; while the clergy, to whom, at least in the Vulgate Latin, they were not unfamiliar, certainly did not regard them as higher authority than the Dialogues of Gregory, or the “ Flos

his own.

Sanctorum.” The truths of Christianity never appeared in any other company than that of the fables of Popery; and both were constantly represented as integral portions of a single superstructure based on a common foundation. There was no opportunity allowed for a Beræan discrimination; and it is little matter of surprise, that a Christianity so unsound should give way on the first assaults of infidelity. The achievements of our Lady of Loretto, and of the warlike Apostle of Compostella, were easily borne down either by argument or ridicule; and those who believed the foundation miracles of the Christian faith to be entitled only to an equal degree of credence, were, of course, easily seduced from the hopes of eternity. There existed also, in the depraved manners with which the profligate courts of the last two sovereigns had inoculated the French people, moral inducements to infidelity, more effective than any sceptical theories. In a soil thus prepared, a less assiduous tillage might have realized an ample harvest

of unbelief. But culture was not wanting. The antichristian conspiracy in France was conducted at once with a degree of forethought and energy worthy of the best of causes, and with a recklessness of instruments and consequences worthiest of itself. The abuse of terms has always been a favourite and effective instrument with the enemies of truth and goodness, who, to impose on popular credulity, have generally assumed the designation most opposite to their real character. Where the name of “ 'sceptic or “infidel” would have excited horror, the title of " philosopher,” which is never so well appropriated as by the Christian believer, was precisely the most calculated to conciliate respect and confidence. The advocates of knowledge, the assertors of intellectual right, could never be opposed, even by such as knew their hollowness, without a primâ facie case of ignorance and bigotry against the opponent. The term “ Toleration" was another of these abused words. The revocation of the edict of Nantes, and the long train of enormities consequent on that atrocious act of Popish perfidy, had aroused the indignation of every heart in France, in which bigotry had not totally extinguished humanity; and enlightened opinions on the subject of religious persecution were gaining ground. Of this circumstance the infidel cabal were not slow to avail themselves. Under the disguise, then, of removing all persecutions for mere religious opinions, and securing to every man protection in person, property, and religious worship,-(a principle which every enlightened Christian must cordially approve)—it was sought to introduce a system of religious proscription, persecution, and bloodshed, which would have more than surfeited the Jezebel of the house of Medici. The word knowledge was no less grossly perverted. Cheap and entertaining works, from the encyclopædia to the tract, adapted to all classes, ostensibly for the purpose of propagating philosophical and useful information, but really to infuse the virus of infidelity, were rapidly brought out by the confederacy. The Encyclopædia was the great machine. The leaven was disguised principally in articles on history or natural philosophy; those on religion openly advocating Christianity, though not without some insidious cavils. Persons of orthodoxy and reputation, unsuspicious of its object, allowed themselves to be associated in the work; and thus, under the specious covert of philosophy, reason, knowledge, civil and religious liberty, was nurtured the conflagration which was to devour them all; and which, after darkly smouldering through the greater part of a century in the vitals of the social fabric, which it had already eaten away, burst at once upon the day through all the walls of the edifice, involving simultaneously all classes of society alike in indiscriminate combustion. Its first moral fruits were lawlessness and rapine; and the higher, as the richer and more defenceless, became the prey of the poorer. The practical part of the doctrine had too many attractions for want and cupidity to be long without its disciples in England. Happily, however, the Christianity of the English Church was of a firmer texture than that which the knife of Rousseau and the hatchet of Voltaire had so mercilessly shred away. Woven entirely from the tough web of the Bible, with no thread of legend or tradition to break away at the touch of ridicule, and disconnect the solid parts of the structure, it only required to be used. Like the adulterate Christianity of France, it had been too little acknowledged as a principle of life; but there was this difference: the acknowledgment, whenever made, was encumbered with no absurdity. In the Christianity of the Church of England there was nothing of which genuine philosophy could be ashamed; it courted the light and challenged inspection; and all that was needed was the honest and practical admission of its supreme claim. The great body of the people of England, too, with all their depravations, were loyal; and, accustomed never to separate the ideas of “Church and King,” were attached to the ecclesiastical polity of their country, even when least availing themselves of its provisions. Infidelity was so far from popular, that it was, for the most part, infamous, and that, too, among many who were too little heedful of the truths which they would have shuddered to dispute. The pestilence that was desolating the mind of France did not, therefore, communicate so much infection as alarm to her island neighbour. Still the doctrines of the French Revolution were not left to make their way in England by their simple accommodation to the depravity of human nature every where. They had preachers and propagators who were disseminating the poison with Satanic diligence. Tracts of the most anarchical and blasphemous character were dispersed in the manufactory, the cottage, the workshop, and the mine. Sanatory precautions were immediately taken; yet these were not so entirely successful as to prevent sporadic cases of the disease: and the nation was not without apprehension lest the tempest which was threatening to whelm the mansions, palaces, and temples of France in noble, royal, and sacerdotal blood, might roll its sanguinary deluge over the homes and altars of England.— Pp. 129–133.

Art. II.- A Narrative of Missionary Enterprises in the South Sea

Islands; with Remarks upon the Natural History of the Islands, Origin, Languages, Traditions, and Usages of the Inhabitants. By John Williams, of the London Missionary Society. Nlustrated with Engravings on Wood, by G. Baxter. Published for the Author. London : Snow and Leifchild. 1837. Pp. xx. 589.

(Concluded from p. 401.) As every thing is interesting which regards the civilization of a new country, we afford an opportunity of judging respecting the introduction of laws at Raiatea and Rarotonga. A private conspiracy against Mr. Williams and another missionary had broken out, which had been providentially frustrated

On the following day the chiefs held a meeting, and determined to put the four ringleaders to death. We remonstrated with them, when, after a whole day's discussion, they vielded to our wishes, and spared the lives of the conspirators. In the course of conversation the chiefs inquired what the English people would do under such circumstances : when we informed them that in England there were established laws and judges, by which all offenders of every kind were tried and punished. They then wished to know what judges and laws were: and upon having the nature of the office of judge, and the character of a code of laws, explained to them, they said, “Why cannot we have the same ?" They, therefore, nominated a judge pro tempore, by whom the criminals were tried, and the ringleaders sentenced to four years' banishment to an uninhabited island. This occurrence induced the chiefs and people of Raiatea to adopt, as the basis of public justice, a code of laws which Mr. Threlkeld and myself assisted in preparing. The laws were but few in number, and drawn up in the plainest and most perspicuous language, entirely devoid of all the technicalities and repetitions by which the statutes of enlightened and civilized countries are too frequently obscured, and rendered perplexing; for it appeared to us of the greatest importance that they should be so simply and clearly expressed, that they might be easily understood by the people for whom they were framed. We determined, also, as far as possible, to lay a permanent foundation for the civil liberties of the people, by instituting at once that greatest barrier to oppressiontrial by jury. The same code, a little modified, was, after much deliberation and consultation, adopted by the chiefs and people of Rarotonga; and thus we trust that the reign of despotism, tyranny and private revenge, under wbich the inhabitants of this secluded garden have so long groaned, has for ever terminated.

The laws enacted related to theft, trespass, stolen property, "land-eating," lost property, Sabbath-breaking, rebellion, marriage, adultery, the judges, jury, &c. &c. We did not think it advisable to recommend the enactment of any law relative to murder, because we were doubtful as to the punishment which should be awarded to this crime, and were both of opinion that no necessity existed for the immediate promulgation of a law on the subject, and that the people were not sufficiently advanced in knowledge to enter upon the discussion. The chiefs and people were themselves induced, some considerable time after, by a most tragical and distressing circumstance, to pass the law which we had omitted ; and, at an assembly in which almost every inhabitant of the island was present, it was unanimously determined, that deliberate murder should be punished with death. This was entirely their own act, so that its consequences will rest with themselves. When the event took place to which I refer, we were grateful that we had not advised this enactment, for otherwise we could not have saved the lives of the two culprits, whose sentence we succeeded in getting commuted from death to banishment. I am not, however, satisfied that we were strictly just in our interference on that peculiarly trying occasion; for the woman and her guilty associate had barbarously murdered the sick husband in order that they might be united in marriage.

There were two most delicate and perplexing subjects which required adjustment, prior to the final establishment of the laws. The first referred to a plurality of wives. This was a matter of much deliberation between my esteemed colleague and myself before we decided how to act. Prior to the introduction of Christianity, polygamy existed to a very considerable extent; and when a person having a plurality of wives offered himself as a candidate for baptism, the teachers had required that the individual should make a selection of one of them, and also provide for the support of those whom he put away. The measure succeeded beyond what might have been reasonably anticipated; and of the number who had complied with this condition, only about twenty or twentyfive persons occasioned any trouble, among whom, however, was the king, which increased our difficulty exceedingly. With these we conversed on the subject. Some said that they had returned to each other, because they had not been left at liberty in their choice; others alleged that they supposed the separation would be only temporary, and that, had they known it was to be permanent, they should not have made the selection they did. Acting upon this information, Mr. Pitman and myself thought the best, and, indeed, the only way to overcome the difficulty entirely, would be to convene the people, recommend that those who were dissatisfied should be allowed to select publicly either of their wives, and then be united to her in marriage in the presence of the whole assembly. The maintenance of the rejected wife or wives and children was also a very serious consideration; for it is not at Rarotonga as at 'Tahiti and the Society Islands, where provisions are abundant, a matter of slight importance; but a female depends almost entirely on her husband. Knowing that the king's course would form a precedent, we commenced by requesting him to name publicly the individual he intended to make his companion for life, and of his three wives he selected the youngest, who had borne him one child, in preference to his own sister by whom he had had three children, and his principal wife who was the mother of nine or ten. He was then married to her in the presence of his people. - Pp. 131-134.

* The forcible and unjust possessiou of each other's lands.

I have felt disappointed when reading the writings of missionaries, at not finding a more full account of the difficulties they have had to contend with, and the measures by which these were met. It appears to me that a work from the pen of a missionary should not contain just what might be written by one who has never left his native country, but a plain statement of the perplexities with which he has been compelled to grapple, and the means adopted to overcome them; that, if judicious and beneficial, others, placed in similar circumstances, may profit by his experience; and if otherwise, that they may avoid falling into similar errors, Should his measures in some cases have been less prudent than might have been desired, he has nothing to fear from the scrutiny of wise and good men, who will consider the situation in which he was placed, and the necessity under which he was laid of devising and executing measures in novel circumstances; where, undirected by any precedent, he was thrown entirely upon the resources of his own judgment,

Other difficulties were presented by the peculiar and intricate character of some of the ancient usages which we were anxious to see abolished. One of these was a very unnatural practice, called kukumi anga. As soon as a son reached manhood he would fight and wrestle with his father for the mastery, and if he obtained it, would take forcible possession of the Kainga or farm previously belonging to his parent, whom he drove in a state of destitution from his home. Another perplexing custom was the ao anga. When a wife was bereft, by the hand of death, of her husband, the relations of the latter, instead of paying the visit of mercy and kindness “ to the fatherless and widow in their affliction," would seize every article of value belonging to the deceased, turn the disconsolate mother with her offspring away, and possess themselves of the house, the food, and the land. Another difficulty was produced by what they call kai kainga, or land-eating, which is getting unjust possession of each other's lands; and these, once obtained, are held with the greatest possible tenacity: for land is exceedingly valuable in Rarotonga, and on no subject were their contentions more frequent and fierce. On investigating this last practice, we found it to be a species of oppression in which so many were involved, and also a point upon which the feelings of all were so exquisitely sensitive, that to moot it would be to endanger the peace of the island. "We therefore thought it most advisable to recommend the chiefs to allow it to remain for the present in abeyance.

After these preliminary matters had undergone mature deliberation, and the laws in reference to them were agreed upon, a general assembly was convened; when the whole code, having been distinctly read and carefully explained, was unanimously adopted by the chiefs and the people, as the basis on which public justice was to be administered on the island of Rarotonga.—Pp. 137, 138.

Whatever opinion may be expressed respecting the introduction of trial by jury" into the South Seas, the march of improvement in other respects seems to have gone upon a still more conservative plan, and might shame many of our modern innovators at home.

All persons (says our Author) going to uncivilized countries, especially missionaries, should seek that knowledge which may be easily applied, as they have to do every thing themselves, and in situations where they cannot obtain the means in general use elsewhere. It may, by some, be thought unwise to go back a hundred years, and employ the tedious processes then in use, rather than embrace the facilities which the experience of succeeding ages has afforded. Such observations are specious, but unsound. Let the circumstances of the missionary, and the state of the people to whom he goes, be taken into the account, and it must be at once obvious, that the simplicity of the means used two or three hundred years ago would better suit both his condition and theirs than the improvements of modern times.—P. 145.


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