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though thus their sins, however gross in themselves, were not committed against any positive law, denouncing death on its violation, like that (the only one preceding the Mosaic) given to Adam for his trial, who, by thus affecting all his descendants with the consequences of his conduct, was the type of Him who should thereafter affect them for good;" and thus, not for their own, but for his sin, have they been treated as sinners, and subjected to mortality, (chap. viii. 20). And thus also we find the strong expression," he that believeth not God, hath made him a liar (1 John v. 10), hath treated him as such. Πώς oύν εισήλθεν ο θάνατος, και εκράτησε και δια της αμαρτίας του ενός. Τι δε εστιν εφ' ώ πάντες ήμαρτον και εκείνου πεσόντος και οι μη φαγόντες από του ξύλου yeyóvaoivĚ Ě Ě KE i vou závtec vntoi.—Chrysostom, Homily, in loc.
THE BOOK OF COMMON PRAYER IN LATIN.
MR. Editor,—In the very valuable “ Collection" of Documents, having reference to the state of the English Church at, and shortly after the Reformation, made by Anthony Sparrow, Bishop of Exeter, in the year 1671, will be found the following in Latin ; and as it shows the authority for the use on certain occasions, especially in the Universities, of peculiar rites and services, which are not to be found in the Book of Common Prayer, I have here translated it, and added a few explanations. It is thus entitled :
The Celebration of the Lord's Supper at Funerals, if the friends and
neighbours of the deceased wished to communicate, &c. In the second year of Queen Elizabeth. 1560. At London, by Reginald Wolfe, 1560.
Elizabeth, by the grace of God, Queen of England, France, and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, &c. To all to whom these presents [literally, the present letter] shall have come, greeting. Whereas, being mindful of our duty towards Almighty God (by whose providence princes reign), we freely gave our royal assent, in the first year of our reign, to certain most excellent laws, enacted by the consent of the three estates of our realm : among which one law was passed, that the public prayers should be said (haberentur) in one and the same certain and prescript form of prayer, in the vulgar and vernacular tongue, every where in the Church of England, in order that our subjects might the more easily understand what they prayed for: and might avoid at length that absurd, and now long inveterate error in the Church [of praying in an unknown tongue]: for it is impossible that prayers, supplications, and thanksgivings, being not understood, should at any time excite and kindle a flame in the mind by the spirit and the truth. God, who is a Spirit, willeth not to be adored only with the sound of the mouth ; whereunto also may be added, that in this blind ignorance, superstitious prayers, or things unmeet, not sufficiently worthy to be poured forth
voL. XX. 0. VI.
unto God, the searcher of human hearts, were oftentimes offered up with profane mouth. We will it to be known unto you, that, since we understand that the colleges of each university of Cambridge and Oxford, also that the new college near Winchester and Eton, being devoted to good letters, humbly pray that it may be lawful for them to use the same form of prayers in Latin, to the intent that the ancient Latin books of the holy Scriptures may be made more familiar unto them, to the greater fruit of theology :-we, wishing to consult the good of all the members of our commonwealth, as far as in us lies, both as well to consult in respect of the need of them that understand not Latin, as also the wishes of them that are skilled in both tongues, do ordain by these presents (literally, the present letter], that it is lawful and permitted by our authority and royal privilege, as well to the dean and chapter (sodalitium) of Christ Church in our university of Oxford, as to the presidents, wardens, rectors, masters and societies of all
and singular the colleges of Cambridge, Oxford, Winchester, [and] Eton, to use publicly in their churches and chapels this manner of prayer in Latin, which we have caused to be set forth by our printer in this present volume, agreeing with our book in English of Common Prayers, which is now received and used through our whole realm. Also, we direct that there be added thereunto some things peculiar for the funerals and exsequies of Christians, that ordained rite of Common Prayers aforesaid (whereof we have above made mention), set forth in the first year of our reign, notwithstanding to the contrary.
Provided always, that in colleges of such kind whereunto parishes of the lay-people shall have been annexed, and also in the others, to the churches of which the lay-servants and ministers, or any others whatsoever who are unskilled in the Latin tongue, must of necessity resort, there be assigned for them, in the aforesaid churches or chapels, some convenient hours and places, when and where, at least on feast-days, morning and evening prayers may be read and recited [recitentur), and the administrations of the sacraments may be able to be celebrated at their proper times in English, to the edification of the lay-people. Also we exhort all the other ministers of our Church of England, of whatso. ever degree they be, to use privately the same Latin formulary of prayer, on those days, on which either they are not wont, or not bound by their parishioners customably resorting to church, to recite publicly the prayers in the vernacular tongue, according to the form of the aforesaid statute. In proof and testimony of the premises, we have caused this our letter to be made patent.
Given at our palace at Westminster, the sixth day of April, in
the second year of our reign, 1560.
At the Commendations of Benefactors.-At the end of each term let there be a commendation of the founder, and of other illustrious men, by whose bounty the college is enriched. Let this be the form thereof :
First, let the Lord's Prayer be recited with a loud voice. Father, which art in heaven," &c.
Then let three Psalms be recited, “ Exaltabo te Deus," (Ps cxliv.); “ Lauda anima mea Dom.” (Ps. cxlv.); “ Laudate Dominum quoniam bonus,” (Ps. cxlvi.)
After these let chap. xliv. of Ecclesiasticus be read.
These being ended, let a sermon follow ; in which let the preacher set forth the most ample munificence of the founder: let him show how great be the advantage of letters; how highly they are to be esteemed who stir up others to study by their bounty; how great glory it be to a realm to have learned men to judge truly in matters of controversy ; how great be the excellency of the Scriptures, and how much they surpass all human authority; how great be the advantage of that doctrine for the common people, and to how many and vast points it may be carried; how illustrious and kingly a duty it be for the prince] to whom God hath committed the care of all orders and ranks of his people [clergy as well as laity], to be painful in striving to have a great multitude of the ministers of the word, and to cause the same to be men of honest report and well learned : and also [let the preacher set forth] other like matters, which godly and learned men can worthily make known, and adorn with singular excellency of speech and knowledge.
This sermon being ended, let there be sung (decantetur] “ Benedictus Dominus Israel,” (Luke i. 68.]
At the end let these be used :-
Let us pray. Lord God, the resurrection and the life of them that believe, who art worthy to be praised always, as well on behalf of the quick as of the dead; we give thanks unto thee for our founder N. and our other benefactors, by whose benefits we are here nourished for the practice of godliness and the setting forth of learning: beseeching thee that we, rightly using these gifts to thy glory, together with them (thy departed servants]may be brought to the immortal glory of the resurrection ; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen. The Celebration of the Lord's Supper, at Funerals, if the friends and neighbours of the deceased wish to communicate.
The Collect. Merciful God, the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who is the resurrection and the life, &c.
[This Collect is the same as in the Burial Service, except towards the end, which is as follows:]
and that in the general resurrection, at the last day, we being raised up together with this our brother, and having again received our bodies, may reign with thee in life eternal : through our Lord Jesus Christ. Amen.
The Epistle. 1 Thess. iv. 13—18. I would not have you to be ignorant, brethren, concerning them which are asleep
comfort one another with these words.
The Gospel. John vi. 37-40. Jesus said to his disciples, and to the multitudes of the Jews, All that the Father giveth me, shall come to me
everlasting life: and I will raise him up at the last day.
Or this Gospel. John v. 24—29. Jesus said to his disciples, and to the multitudes of the Jews, Verily, verily I say unto you, he that heareth my word, and believeth on him
resurrection of damnation.
The End. Of the Latin version of the Book of Common Prayer, thus set forth by authority, little is generally known; it has been, in short, in great measure superseded by three or four other versions in that language, which are as inferior to it in the point of faithfulness, and accuracy of theological phraseology, as in the point of authority. From the foregoing proclamation of Queen Elizabeth, we should conclude that, except in the instance of funerals and exsequies, it was a faithful counterpart of the Prayer Book: I find, however, from “ The Alliance of Divine Offices," published by Hamon L'Estrange in 1659, that there are other points of difference; the principal of which I will endeavour briefly to enumerate, with the reasons of such difference assigned by him.
Agreeably to the practice of the very early ages, the sacramental elements were reserved for the sick from the open communion in the Church, by the first book of Edward VI.; and the hosts were to be continued as before, i. é. “unleavened and round,” only “without all manner of print, and something more larger and thicker than they were before, so that they might be divided in divers pieces ; and every one should be divided into two pieces at the least, or more, by the discretion of the minister.” In the second book of the same king, the reservation of the elements was rejected, and the rule of our present book adopted. It is singular, however, that, although the Book of Common Prayer, after its restoration by Elizabeth, still forbade the reservation of the elements, the Latin version under consideration revived the custom, according to the rubric of the first book of Edward VI. Whereupon L'Estrange remarks, that the abolition of the custom was in consequence of the
superstition and idolatry practised by the Romanists to the reserved elements; but, in a ritual intended for the universities and places of learning, all such fears of abuse might safely be laid aside, and therefore the priest was directed to reserve, at the open communion in the Church, “ tantum quantum sufficit ægroto.” For the same reason, (viz. the use of the book by learned societies only, all or most of which were bound to celibacy by the statutes of their foundations,) the Matrimonial office, as also those of Baptism, and Churching of Women, were omitted from this version. As an illustration of what is above said as to the elements, I find also the following singular rule among the “Injunctions by Queen Elizabeth, 1559:"
“ Item, Where also it was in the time of King Edward the Sixth used to have the sacramental bread of common fine bread; it is ordered, for the more reverence to be given to these holy mysteries, being the sacraments of the body and blood of our Saviour Jesus Christ, that the same sacramental bread be made and formed plain, without any figure thereupon, of the same fineness and fashion, (round, though somewhat bigger in compass and thickness,) as the usual bread and water, heretofore named singing cakes, which served for the use of the private mass.”
In the same way was the water of the font reserved, for which purpose there was a cover thereto, secured by a lock; and over such water, which was to be changed once in the month at least, according to the first book of Edward VI., or twice in the month at least according to the Scotch Service-book of Archbishop Laud, was to be said the Prayer of Consecration, with the sentences preceding, somewhat longer, and slightly differing from the present form. There is one other minute point of difference between the two books, adverted to by L'Estrange, (see Addenda, p. 337], viz. the Collect for St. Andrew's day, of which I here give the translation : " Almighty God, who didst give to thy holy apostle St. Andrew, to account it to his great glory to suffer the bitter and ignominious death of the cross; Grant unto us, that what we endure for thy sake, we may also esteem profitable and conducible to eternal life; through Jesus Christ. Amen."
Allow me at the same time to give from the same author (although not connected with the above subject) the reasons assigned by him for certain anomalies belonging to the fasts and festivals of our Church. The Circumcision, being originally only the octavo of the Nativity, has no vigil or fast preceding; and the Epiphany, being no saint's-day, is in the same predicament; nay, it seems originally itself to have been a fast, and therefore could not have a fasted vigil.” St. Mark's day, and that of St. Philip and St. James, falling within the fifty days of Easter, were on that account privileged from being preceded by a fast, all that time being in the ancient Church a time of holy joy. It appears, however, that previous to the Reformation St. Mark's day was fasted; for in the “ Articles of Visitation,” by Cranmer, in the second year of Edward VI., one of the points to be inquired into was this :
“Ilem, Whether they have declared to their parishioners, that St. Mark's day, and the evens of the abrogate holy-days, should not be fasted."
The festivals of St. Michael and of St. Luke have also no fasted vigils; the former, because the angels did not enter into their joys through sufferings; the latter, because another day, once of high account in our Church (that of St. Etheldreda) falls upon the eve thereof.
Μύστης. . P.S. L'Estrange mentions an Introit, as prefixed to the Collect for the above Communion Service at Funerals; but I find none in Sparrow's “ Collection :" he informs us also that the above additions to the Book of Common Prayer were subsequently, ten years after their first publication, positively imposed by the Statutes of the Queen.