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jamin Petre, bishop of Prusa in Bithynia ;" and that there was no other bishop present, may be fairly inferred from the silence of the biographer, coupled with his particular mention of an assisting, bishop on a subsequent occasion, when the same Dr. Challoner is said, with the assistance of the “ bishop of Amoria, V. A. of the northern district,” to have consecrated Dr. Talbot (his coadjutor and successor) 'bishop of Birtha. Again we find, that Dr. Sharrock was recommended by the titular bishop Walmsley" to the holy see, for his own coadjutor in the episcopal labours. His wish was granted, and he performed the ceremony of Dr. Sharrock's consecration to the see of Telmessus, on the 12th August, 1780. The cereniony was performed at Wardour with solemnity unprecedented since the Revolution. There were twelve assistant priests, a master of ceremonies," &c. No bishops are said to have assisted. The same Dr. Walmsley is said to have consecrated Dr. W. Gibson, at Lullworth, December 1790; and what is worthy of remark, Dr. John Carroll, the first titular bishop of Baltimore in America, from whom the whole Romish hierarchy of the United States derive their orders, was consecrated by the same Dr. Walmsley at Lullworth, August 15th, 1790. We have indeed no reason to think that Dr. Walmsley himself was consecrated by more than one bishop. It seems as if the Roman pontiffs had no difficulty in giving permission for such ordinations in foreign missions. Joseph à St. Maria, 'bishop of Ilierapolis,' and vicar apostolic' in India, A.D. 1659, being obliged to leave the country by the Dutch, consecrated Alexander de Campo bishop, according to the powers given him by the papal bulls. Even so lately as 1800, the Roman pontiff empowered the bishop of Cadadre, ' vicar apostolic' in China, to select his own coadjutor and consecrate him bishop of Tabraca. It would be easy to point out many other instances in which the schismatical ordinations in England, Scotland, Ireland, America, &c. are spoken of in such a way as leads us to the inference, that consecrations by one bishop were but too common in the last century. We do not know indeed the precise extent to which this irregular practice was carried, because the accounts of such matters are very few and obscure; but there is evidently enough to throw a very serious doubt on their ordinations generally.
I admit certainly that of late years their episcopal consecrations have been attended by several bishops, apparently very much for the sake of pomp and ostentation ; but if there be any reason to doubt whether their bishops were validly ordained in the last century, that doubt could not be cured by their now combining in numbers to remedy the defect. Ten or twenty bishops, themselves invalidly ordained, could not confer a more valid ordination than one similarly circumstanced.
It is to be observed also, that even if we could admit that any dispensation or any necessity could remove all doubt from such ordinations, we could not concede it in the case of the dispensations contained in the bulls of the Irish titular bishops. For, to pass over the fact, that these bulls were altogether null, from a deficiency of jurisdiction on the part of the Roman pontiff in these churches, (that jurisdiction having long ago been canonically and validly withdrawn by the British churches, from which alone it had emanated ;) it can never be allowed, that the reason assigned in that clause of the bulls, is sufficient to dispense with the canons of vecumenical synods, still in full force in the universal church. “Ad ea quæ in tuæ commoditatis augmentum cedere possunt, favorabiliter intendentes," is no sufficient reason. It does not contemplate any necessity, danger, or difficulty, which could excuse such a dispensation. It would include any reason, however triling.
On the question of the invalidity of these orders I would not wish to speak positively: but the general discipline of the church with regard to reordinations, would amply justify us in not admitting popish priests ordained in these countries to minister in our churches, without receiving ordination from our bishops. – Vol. ii. pp. 468—473.
There are several points respecting which we should have à priori imagined that Mr. Palmer's opinions, as an Oxford theologian, would
have been different from those which we find that he really entertains. He zealously defends the connexion between Church and State, even although the former be for a season intruded upon and pressed by a malignant exercise of the powers vested in the latter. He considers the various communities of the foreign reformed, even the Zuinglians, as by no means cut off from the Catholic Church during a considerable period since the Reformation ; as to their apostasy now, we fear no true Catholic can doubt it. He regards the Papists of the United Kingdom, as well as all other dissenters, as absolutely and equally schismatic, and severed from the Church. And he views our Thirty-nine Articles in the light not of catholic definitions de fide, but of organic articles, respecting the faith and liberties of a particular church, much as were the celebrated articles of the Gallican church. We need not remark that these sentiments are maintained with sound judgment and learning. We must, however, repeat, that we cannot coincide with him in allowing the catholicity of the Papists since the Council of Trent; and we think that such opinions tend to retard our Protestant zeal for the conversion of the continent. The majority of the Romanists, notwithstanding all the apologies of theological subtlety, are, in truth, idolaters.
We sincerely trust that theological students will avail themselves of Mr. Palmer's invaluable labours. Nor, surely, should they feel reluctant to do so, because their sentiments, upon certain points, may vary from those entertained by our learned author. Many of those popular works recommended to their perusal by their orthodox teachers, contain grave errors, to which those teachers are, doubtless, opposed. But we can fearlessly assert that, whilst we cannot subscribe to Mr. Palmer's opinions in certain minor particulars, we have not discovered in his work a sentiment which is not pious or probable ; or a statement inconsistent with christian charity, faith, and truth.
Art. II.-Journals and Letters of the Rev. Henry Martyn, B.D.
Edited by the Reo. S. WILBERFORCE, M.A., Rector of Brightstone. 2 Vols. London: Seeley and Burnside. 1837. 8vo. Pp. 527 and 407.
These volumes will be received with deep interest by all ; but especially by that class of persons, whether within or without the pale of the Church of England, who participate in those peculiar views of the gospel which were cherished by Mr. Martyn and his immediate friends. As we need not tell our readers that those views are not on all points in accordance with the principles of the Christian REMEMBRANCER,we trust this warning will be sufficient without our formal disclaimer of many of
the sentiments contained in our quotations from these volumes; and will afford an apology for our passing over those parts with less attention, which the Rev. Editor and his friends may, perhaps, think most worthy of being selected. We must, at the same time, take blame to ourselves for not having adverted to this publication earlier, to which our attention has just been forcibly recalled by those “Remains of the Rev. R. H. Froude,” which are now under our notice. Opposite as were the results to which each of these excellent men were led by the respective systems they adopted, in many points there is a remarkable coincidence in their histories and circumstances. Both died young; and there can be not a shadow of doubt that the religious feelings of both were deeply tinged and affected by their bodily constitution ; the latent seeds of the disease under which each sank produced their effect on their nervous system long before their existence was suspected either by themselves or others. Both seem hence to have very early suffered under a tenderness of religious feelings and susceptibility, against which they in vain struggled ; and the painful effects of which their respective journals afford melancholy witness.
In Martyn, however, whose peculiarities of opinion, and the society into which he was thrown, led him to place such an undue share of importance on mere feelings and frames of mind, the most painful effects were exhibited ; indeed, we never could read his history with that delight which so many take in it, or discover why men should fondly linger over a picture so painful in itself. We always felt as if he were sacrificed to the misdirected zeal and opinions of himself and friends ; and that the latter, having first made the martyr, did, with singular inconsistency, afterwards worship at his shrine.
In his choice of the missionary office he surely mistook the appropriate field of his duty; for such a work he was wanting in some of the most important requisites, of which the painful struggles at his parting from his friends and country, and his continued yearnings after home, which ever and anon, from time to time, break forth in his journals and correspondence, are melancholy proofs. Neither does it seem that, although he created a considerable sensation, his missionary efforts produced any great or lasting results. His preaching and exhortations, to which, in his youthful zeal, he seems to have attributed an exaggerated importance, produced not that effect which he expected; but when we remember that he was made the instrument of causing the New Testament to be translated into the Persian and Hindostanee languages, than which none are more extensively known among the millions of Asia, we cannot calculate the effects and blessings of his labours, although this was a work which he certainly did not originally choose for himself. If, then, we would estimate the usefulness of Martyn, it is in this point of view we must regard him, although not the one which, we believe, his friends would select for our contemplation.
Attempts have lately been made, by those who have adopted the peculiar views of Martyn, to seize on the expressions of mental distress and apparent despondency, which have occurred in the recently published journals and private correspondence of certain of their theological opponents, as so many proofs of their system leaving them without adequate belief in a Saviour, or the consolations which flow from the good tidings connected with it; but, as they will hardly say that Martyn's faith was erroneous in this respect, so neither ought they to rest the truth or falsehood of opposing views on such uncertain criteria. Such feelings are so often the mere results of nervous temperament, or disease of body, that it is unfair to argue from them; at any rate, it is an argument which cuts both ways, and of which one side only cannot be allowed the advantage. We do not doubt, however, that the original tendency to melancholy and disease was greatly aggravated in the case of Martyn, by the choice of the life of a missionary in a distant land, and unfavourable climate; and his example should operate as a warning to those who are too apt to mistake the impulse of an ardent mind for the calls of duty, not to aim at the grandeur of making great and magnificent sacrifices too early; not to begin to build the lofty tower without first sitting down and counting the cost.
The following extracts give us some insight into the state of his feelings when contemplating his going out to India as a missionary ; as also of the pursuits and society which employed his time. We were not so much surprised at finding him studying the works of Jonathan Edwards, the theologian, who, in his love of the “horrible decretum” of Calvin, represents one source of the future blessedness of the elect as being derived from the sight of the reprobate in torments, as at his practice of the bodily exercise of fasting, and eating his breakfast at a distance from the fire, when the thermometer stood at the freezing point, for purposes of self-renunciation! This, in a high churchman, would surely be denounced as popish and carnal, and only encouraging self-righteousness. But thus it is that party-spirit distorts men's views, and, like the too partial god of antinomianism, sees no sin in the elect. The very things for which poor Froude is condemned, are here printed by Mr. Wilberforce to exalt his favourite hero !
Jan. 23.— Interrupted by preparation for my journey. I went on the Telegraph to London, with my thoughts taken up at first with happy views of God, but afterwards they wandered dissatisfied upon the things around me.
24.—Rose early, and with great difficulty attained a right spirit by prayer. Learnt some of Psalms xci. and cxix. by heart. Walked about the streets, calling at the bookseller's, &c. till two o'clock. Thought little of God during my walk through this great city; when I did, however, it was with much affection. Returned, and read St. James, and Edwards on Redemption. Distracted by the bustle of this place, and the dissipation of my thoughts through want of reading and meditation; found it hard to be collected in private, or to force inyself
into a clear and lively view of eternal things. 25.-- Called on Dr. Wollaston, and at the British Museum, and attended the
Gresham Lecture on Music by Dr. B_ Returned, and unable to remain longer in such a dissipated, unholy state, I sought God earnestly in prayer, and found that degree of realizing faith which is necessary for my peace. After dinner I called on and I stated the circumstances of my family to bim, and he seemed to think that I ought to wait longer for the directions of Providence. A veil was thus cast over my future proceedings, and I went away bowed down in spirit. In company I forgot that sweet poverty of spirit which it would become me more to feel. Poor mean thing that I am; but I am contented to remain contemptible among men, so that my heart be thereby made in any degree more fit for the residence of God. I walked back to Mr. Bates', cheerfully resigning the conduct of this business to God.
26.-Staid at home till near one; read some Greek Testament with Mr. Bates, and Jonathan Edwards on Redemption. I then walked to the India House to Mr. Grant, who desired I would come down to Clapham. So I went with Mr. Grant, and upon the road he gave me much information on the state of India. He said that the language spoken by the natives who lived in the English settlements, was the Hindostanee, which was a mixture of several languages, Arabic, Persic, Shanscrit, a sort of lingua franca, but that the Bengalee was the vernacular tongue of the bulk of the native inhabitants, and must be acquired by missionaries amongst the Hindoos; that it would be absolutely necessary to keep three servants, for three can do no more than the work of one English; that no European constitution can endure being exposed to mid-day heat; that Mr. Swartz, who was settled at Tanjore, did do it for a time, walking among the natives. Mr. G. had never seen Mr. Swartz, but corresponded with him. He was the son of a Saxon gentleman (the Saxon geotlemen never enter the ministry of the church) and had early devoted himself to the work of a missionary amongst the Indian3. Besides the knowledge of the Malabar tongue, in which he was profoundly skilled and eloquent, he was a good classic, and learnt the English, Portuguese, and Dutch. He was a man of dignified and polished manners, and cheerful. We arrived at Mr. Wilberforce's to dinner; in the evening we conversed about my business; they wished me to fill the church in Calcutta very much; but advised me to wait some time and to cherish the same views. To Mr. Wilberfore I went into a detail of my views, and the reasons that had operated on my mind. The conversation of Mr. Wilberforce and Mr. Grant during the whole of the day before the rest of the company, which con sisted of Mr. Johnson, of New South Wales, a French Abbé, Mrs. Unwin, Mrs. H. and other ladies, was edifying; agreeable to what I should think right for two godly senators, planning some means of bringing before Parliament propositions for bettering the moral state of the Colony of Botany Bay. I had some conversation with the French Abbé about the authority of the Church, but for want of understanding more French I could not well engage in it. At evening worship, Mr. W. expounded sacred Scripture with serious plainness, and prayed in the midst of his large household. In my room, after difficulty at first, I realized eternal things, and retired to rest in the desire of walking more closely with God.
Feb. 17.-A despicable indulgence in lying in bed this morning gave me such a view of the dangerous softness of my character, that I resolved on my knees to live a life of far more self-denial than I had ever yet done, and to begin with little things. Accordingly, I ate my breakfast standing at a distance from the fire, and stood reading at the window during the morning, though the thermometer stood at the freezing point. I was so cold that I did not get on much in my work of Sermon; but the effect on the flow of my thoughts was very surprising, the tone and vigour of my mind rose rapidly. No expected difficulty daunted me, but seemed to stimulate me to encounter it. I rejoiced that God had made this life a time of trial. To climb the steep ascent, to run, to fight, to wrestle, was the strong desire of my heart. I was sometimes in doubt whether this were not merely the vain and proud spirit of heathen sages; but passages enough of Scripture occurred to reinind me that the spirit of the gospel was self-denying. As I walked afterwards, this temper still remained. All