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I. State the numerical value of the following Hebrew words:


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In the following words (the first twenty-two of which are the Hebrew names for the alphabet), the letters follow each other promiscuously, and not, as in the preceding examples, in the order of their value; some of them contain, moreover, several units, tens, or hundreds; but their numerical equivalent is, in the manner stated,

.Esth) והאחשדרפנים .ascertained by adding the individual letters


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– יוד - טיט - חית - זין - וו - הא - דלת - גימל - בית - אלף - רישׁ - קוף – צדי – פא - עין – סמך - נון - מים - למד - כף

תו – שׁין - איש - וילך - בארץ - רעב – השפטים - שפט - בימי – ויהי - ואשתו - הוא - מואב - בשרי – לגור – יהודה - לחם - מבית - וכליון - מחלון - נעמי - אלימלך - האישׁ – ושם - בניו – ושני

ותשאר - וימת - ויבאו - אפרתים

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a This Exercise is designed, partly quiring a thorough and familiar acto enable the learner to find the chap- quaintance with the Hebrew letters. ters and verses as printed in many of The great importance of this first step our editions of the Old Testament, and | made it appear advisable to multiply more especially, to assist him in ac- l' examples.

248 ; 212 ; 431 ; 222 ; 333 ; 192 ; 351 ; 448 ; 309; 645 ; 455 ; 281; 385; 338.

III. Write in Hebrew letters the multiples of 6 from 1 to 12, viz. 6, 12, 18, 24, etc.; likewise the same multiples of 7, 9, and 11.

EXERCISE II. Name the class (whether of the labials, or dentals, etc.), to which each of the following letters belongs :

כי יהיה בך אביון מאחד אחיך באחד שעריך בארצך אשר יהוה

אלהיך נתן לך לא תאמץ את לבבך ולא תקפץ את ידך מאחיך

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$ 2. THE DAGESH LENE. 1. The six letters , 2, 7, 3, 2, and 1), admit of a double pronunciation, either simply as b, g, d, k, p, and t, or as the same sounds softened by a breathing or aspiration, namely, as v (bh), gh, dh (like th in thee), ch (kh), f (ph), and th (as in theme).

A dot placed within these six letters, indicates the absence of the aspiration; therefore, is ph, while D is p; n is th, but it is t; etc. That dot is termed dagesh lene. For the sake of brevity, the letters 1, 2, 7, 5, , and n, are frequently called aspirates.

2. At present both , and d are pronounced as g, and both 7 and 7 as d, though, no doubt, the ancient Hebrews took care to mark the difference in each case. In English, the soft th (as in thee) represents exactly the aspirated 7, and is distinct from the harder th (as in theme), which is the correct sound for the aspirated 1, though this is now generally spoken just like D. A similar difference of pronunciation may be easily established between the aspirated d and J.

3. As a rule, the dagesh lene stands only at the beginning of syllables, under conditions which will be specified in a later section (see § 5. 7, 8).

EXERCISE III. Write the following proper nouns with Hebrew characters, expressing the consonants, but omitting the vowels; e.g. Mag'og'-210; Had'ad'-7777; Michmash-WD .

& The following English equivalents | sonants: & (as guttural) is expressed have been chosen for the Hebrew con- / by the sign' (spiritus lenis), 2 is v',

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$ 3. THE VOWELS AND THE WEAK LETTERS. All the twenty-two letters of the Hebrew alphabet are consonants. The vowels were originally not expressed in writing, except that the letters *, ', and 1, were sometimes employed, in long syllables, to indicate, respectively, the three chief vowels of the Hebrew language, a,i,and u, and the reader was expected to supply the defect in accordance with the requirements of the grammar and the sense. But it is evident that a vast field was thus left to uncertainty and error. The letters 772), for instance, may be pronounced nimrod, namred, nomrad, nemared, etc. Therefore, when Hebrew ceased to be a living tongue, and the difficulties of understanding a text consisting almost entirely of consonants, became more perplexing, it was deemed advisable, in order to facilitate, if not to preserve, the correct pronunciation, to provide the consonants with signs to express the vowels. Hence the following system of vocalisation, founded on the division in three classes according to the three principal vowels, was gradually adopted :

3 b, a g', 19, 7d, 7 d, 17 h, 1 v, 1 2, 1, in English letters, they are intended ch', ot', 'y, 3 ch, 3 kg 51, o in, 1 n, to sound, if long, as in the words, far Os', v* (spiritus asper), ph, 2 p, 8 ts, (a), there (e), police (i), tone (o), and p k', 7r, psh, v s, n th, A t.

rule (u); if short, as in the French a Wherever, throughout this Gram- bal, and the English self, win, won, mar, the Hebrew vowels are written look (ū).

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1. The position of most of the vowels is beneath the consonants to which they are attached, e.g. X7, 72, ', O,79; but cholem is placed above its consonant, while the dot which marks the shurek stands in the 1, e.g. 15, 95.

2. The consonants are pronounced before the vowels which belong to them; e.g. X na, mi, me, in lo, 95 lu.

However, if gutturals, at the end of words, are provided with pathach, they are sounded after this vowel; e.g. Ni Noach' (Noah), YIW Shu-ahh (see $ 16. 5).

3. If Ww, or the letter which precedes W, has cholem without 1, one dot only is written; e.g. Dia som, for DV; va bosh, for wd. Hence w with two dots (w) is read sho, if it has no vowel underneath, but 0-s, if it has one; e.g. 7 is shod, but Du, bo-sem.

4. The consonants X, 7, 1, and ', are frequently not sounded, but, as the grammatical term is, rest or quiesce in the preceding vowel. This is, however, only the case when those letters are themselves not provided with vowels, and more especially in the following instances:

(a). When &, at the end of syllables, succeeds a letter with any long

a The horizontal line represents the consonant to which the vowel belongs; : means, therefore, that the vowel

stands beneath the consonant; -, that the vowel stands above it; see the first of the “Observations."

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(C). When 1 follows a letter with cholem or shurek, e.g. misja k'o-loth, 3- shu-v'u. .

(d). When 'stands after chirek, tsere, or segol, e.g. Dit s'i-g'im, S'po he-t'eo', 7- ba-ne-ha.

Hence &, 7, 1, and ', are called weak or quiescent letters (literæ quiescibiles), and the vowels in which they are permitted to "rest,” are described as kindred or homogeneous to them, while those in which they are not allowed to rest, are termed heterogeneous. Thus, more particularly, chirek, tsere, and segol, are homogeneous to '(by d), but heterogeneous to 1 (by c), while cholem and shurek are homogeneous to 1, and heterogeneous to !

5. Now, if a weak letter follows a vowel with which it is not homogeneous, it does not rest in it, but retains its force as a consonant; therefore

(a). 1 after kamets and pathach, tsere, segol, and chirek, is pronounced av and åv, ēv, čv, and iv or iv ; e.g. Is tsāv, ip k'áv, 1?- shalēv, 17 shë-lěv, !! zīv or ziv; and \' is sounded like a simple 1,

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(6). after kamets and pathach, cholem and shurek, is pronounced ay,a oy, and uy; e.g. '7 or 'I ch'ay, 'là goy, "Do ka-s'uy.

In many of these cases, other languages form diphthongs, which are not admitted in Hebrew.

If the weak letters themselves are provided with vowels, they are always considered as consonants, e.g. mpg Vash-ti, 7, yad', 1713 k'o-veh, yi-ya-von, 7.3 tsa-yid.

6. But the quiescent letters X, 1, and ', are, in the middle of words, sometimes omitted where they had originally stood ; in such cases the orthography is called defective (scriptio defectiva), whilst when those letters are inserted, it is described as full or complete (scriptio

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(Job xxxii. 18); -' and '98 (Işa. iii. 8); Dip , Dipop, and Duj- ; nihim and h; 52-m and sa-m. The former orthography is more usual in the earlier, the other in

& The y being articulated as in year

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