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$ 30. NOUNS WITH SUFFIXES. Suffixes appended to substantives express the relations of the possessive pronoun, as my song, thy song, our songs, their songs.

1. If the noun is in the singular, the suffixes are (comp. § 19. 2):-Sing., 1 pers. c. ' (my) Plural, 1 pers. c. 48 (our) 2 » {" m. 7 (thy)

(m. D? (your) » | f. 7 (,)

f. 1? ( „) (m. 177 or 1 (his)

m. D7 or (their) 3 » { f. 7 or 7(her) " " f. .7 or 11 ( 9 ) 2. If the noun ends, and the suffix begins, with a consonant, an auxiliary vowel connecting the root with the suffix and hence called binding vowel, is adopted, to render the pronunciation more euphonious, and for this purpose tsere is generally employed ; e.g. graj song13070 our song, 770 thy song (f.). However, 7, ba, and 1>, are appended to the noun without a binding vowel, and yet the 2 of those suffixes never takes dagesh lene ($ 5.7. d), as 77 thy

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3. As another expedient for avoiding harshness of sound, several of the suffixes which properly commence with a consonant, have been so changed as to begin with a vowel, namely, 17 into 1, ? into A, 07 and 17 into 0, and \; and if the noun terminate in a consonant, the forms beginning with a vowel are chosen ; whereas, if it terminate in a vowel, the suffixes beginning with a consonant are em

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Of the remaining suffixes one form only exists, namely, '-, 7, :), 13, 0, 1), and it is used whether the nouns end with a consonant or a vowel, 1) and being, in the former case, preceded by the connecting tsere (No. 2).

4. Analogously to the construct state of the singular, nouns ending in 7 harden this letter into a before taking the suffixes; e.g. 1770

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5. If the noun is in the plural, and has the termination D'-, the D is thrown off, in order to effect a more complete amalgamation with the suffixes ; but the weak ending '- which remains, causes various modifications in the forms of the suffixes, namely:

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Singular, 1 pers.

Plural, 1 pers. c.
€ /m. 7o
” | f. 7:-

” 1 f. Por

(m.DBF , 3 ,

” I f. po The plural termination ni is never altered ; provided with suffixes it might, therefore, be expected to have the forms 'ni, 7ni, ani, ini, etc. But by a peculiar anomaly, 'is inserted after the n, and the endings are exactly the same as those of nouns with the plural in D'-, namely 'ni, 7ni, ani, romi, etc., so that the plural is doubly expressed, first by the termination ni, and then by the 'as in the masculine, as 'nitari, 7mizin, oy'nize, etc.—However, the termi

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stroke-dņida (Ps. lxiv. 8), 717 generation-oņi77 (Exod. xxxi. 16).

6. The light suffixes, that is, all with the exception of , , ??, ?? (§ 19.7), are, as a rule, appended to the absolute state of the noun; the heavy suffixes to the shorter construct state, whereby they acquire

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with the omission of D, No. 5), but ' your garments (from the construct state ' 9).

However, if the plural ends in ni, both the light and the heavy suffixes are appended to the construct state, without additional

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my doors, Dzining their doors.

7. The heavy suffixes have in all cases the tone, as Dşya

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The light suffixes have the tone if they are not preceded by a new syllable arising from the insertion of the binding vowel; but if this is the case, the new syllable receives the accent; e.g. i7r, ingen, anto, but 170; and if the light suffixes are joined to the plural of the noun, the tone is also on the penultima, except in the forms 'ging and

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the suffix are blended into one syllable, and in combinations like Dnia for op'nipa (No. 5).

The following examples illustrate these observations.

I. IF THE NOUN IS IN THE SINGULAR AND HAS NO FEMININE TERMINATION. 1. If it ends in a consonant (7 song).

Singular of Suffixes. Plural of Suffixes.
1 pers. c. To my song,
21 » m.
al » m. liepos Dəqip)
1 } thy song,

your song,
Tuf. 'ves"
1, m. isooni his song, otot)

their song.

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2. If it ends in a vowel (np brother, for on$).

1 pers. c. ons my brother, I'mix our brother, I „ m. y'ap the brother. dana)

your brother, 7, f. Tom m. W his brother,

their brother. I, f. TMN her brother, og Instead of 1717X may be used I'nx, the 1 being treated as a consonant, whereby the meeting of two vowels is also obviated (No. 3).

II. If the Noun IS IN THE DUAL, OR IF IT IS IN THE Plural AND HAS THE TERMINATION D'- (Dirip songs). 1 pers. c. Din my songs,

ne obvezen thy songs,

your songs, , f. 7.Venil

izazopi) ot , m. – gooming his songs, Doroni

their songs. I f. plaini her songs, propos III. If The Noun IS IN THE SINGULAR AND HAS THE FEMININE

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1 pers, c. nipis my song,

vnimi our song,

o „ m. into thy song,

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M2, f. TOTAS
et , m. inops his song,
I, f. Any her song,

their song.

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IV. IF THE NOUN. IS IN THE PLURAL AND HAS THE TERMI

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1

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al „ m. 7uminipi

Donize) thy songs,

your songs, 7, f. Iniz

i a'nizi s * et „m. Inizip his songs, boniques

. their songs. , f. I'mizipi her songs, pinigail A few additional remarks will complete the rules with respect to suffixes of nouns.

8. As the light suffixes make the tone advance only one syllable more towards the end of the word, they leave the last syllable of the noun always unaltered, even if it be variable; but they necessarily cause a pure kamets or tsere in the penultima to be changed into sh’va, since it would occupy the second place from the tone ($ 17. ii. 2); e.g. judgmentODUN, 7Open, Dopra; but 777 word—777, 2777,

. The heavy suffixes share every modification of vowel with the construct state to which they are appended (No. 6), and to which they are entirely analogous with regard to tone and accent; e.g. DÍOBEN, DIODEN, 727, 777; ban wise — "m?n, DION (comp. $$ 27, 28).

9. In the singular, the segolate-nouns have the suffixes joined to the original forms; in the plural, they follow the general rule; e.g. 777 (for 777) way—'971, 7277, 02777, but '577 ways—377, 7277,

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10. The words ending in 17lose this termination before suffixes, as they do in plural ($ 24. v); e.g. WYP, 7'WYN, Wyp; and they usually take as suffix of the third person singular 17- for 1, as :170p.

11. The words the last letter of which is properly doubled, undergo exactly the same changes as in the plural, both with reference to the vowels and the dagesh (§ 24. vi.); e.g. Dy or by people', 'OV, etc.; Pop arrow-977, 797, etc.; 73 side—1973; DM integrity-On, 19.

12. The suffixes are added to the dual on precisely the same principles as to the plural; e.g. 7 hand-dual D:7', '7'; with suffixes — ', 77, 77, 7'71, 77, 137, ??, ???, ???, ????

$ 31. PARADIGMS FOR THE INFLECTION OF NOUNS.

For easier reference we subjoin the complete inflection of nouns belonging to the various classes of which we have treated, and the lists include the plural, the dual, the construct state, and the forms with suffixes.

The classes and their subdivisions will be introduced in the following order :I. Words with unchangeable vowels :

1. Without a fem. termination, and with '- in plural (0)92);
2. Without a fem. termination, and with ni in plural (D
3. With the fem. termination 17, and si in plural (7182);

4. With the fem. termination 17, and D'- in plural (31'). II. Words with a changeable kamets or tsere in the ultima, and, if they have more than one syllable, an unchangeable vowel in the penultima:

1. Without feminine termination ;

a. With changeable kamets in the ultima (WDW),

6. With changeable tsere in the ultima (haa). 2. With the feminine termination ; a. If the syllable preceding the termination does not begin

with sh’va mobile (178Y),

b. If it begins with sh’va mobile (1779). III. Words with an unchangeable vowel in the ultima and a pure kamets or tsere in the penultima :

1. With pure kamets in the penultima (1978),

2. With pure tsere in the penultima ( a). IV. Words with pure kamets or tsere both in the ultima and the penultima:

1. With a double pure kamets (Spain),

2. With a pure kamets and a pure tsere (V). V. The segolate nouns : A. Without feminine termination, and without a weak consonant

as second or third letter;

* In this class, nouns with unusual nouns selected contain gutturals, and plural terminations have been em are intended to show how such subbodied (No. 2 and 4; see § 23. 5); stantives should be inflected in acthey will serve, by analogy, as exam cordance with the nature and pecuples for all other classes. Some of the ' liarities of those letters (16).

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